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Developing Your Biosecurity Plan: The National Voluntary Farm-Level Biosecurity Standard for the Fruit and Tree Nut Industries
7.0 Glossary

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Biological control

Biological control is a component of an integrated pest management strategy to reduce pest populations through the use of natural enemies such as predators (for example: predatory mites), parasitoids (for example: wasps), and pathogens (for example: bacteria).


A series of management practices designed to reduce the introduction of pests onto a farm (bioexclusion) and to minimize their spread within the farm and beyond (biocontainment).Footnote 7

Biosecurity plan

A written procedure of designed practices to prevent, minimize, control, and contain pest movement onto, spread within and off a farm. The plan is farm specific.


To physically remove visible dirt and debris that may harbour pests. Cleaning does not necessarily result in the physical destruction/killing/removal of pests. It is important to recognize that the degree of cleanliness required and the methods employed will be dependent on the pest itself, its route of transmission and the surfaces being cleaned. In some instances, the removal of visible dirt/debris should be followed by the use of disinfectant or sanitizer to properly control the pest of concern.

Emergency Response Plan

A plan which describes actions to be taken in the case of a major event (likely pest related) that may threaten to harm an operation.

(Application of a disinfectant)

The process that is used to inactivate, decrease or eliminate a pest from a surface or an object. The use of a disinfectant may require additional personal precautions to minimize safety concerns associated with application of the product.

Infested area

Presence in an area of a living pest of the plant or plant product concerned. Infestation includes infection.Footnote 8

Integrated Pest ManagementFootnote 9

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) involves the use of several control tactics based on knowledge of the crop, pests and associated natural enemies to avoid crop loss and minimize harmful effects on the environment.

Life cycle

The series of changes occurring in an animal or plant between one development stage and the identical stage in the next generation.

Monitoring program

A scheduled activity to look for the presence or signs of pests. This may include observation of plants, fruits and nuts, trapping, sampling and testing of plant material. The frequency of this activity is dependent on the time of year, the lifecycle of the pests of concern and level of risk.

PestsFootnote 10

Anything that is injurious or potentially injurious, whether directly or indirectly, to plants or to products or by-products of plants, and includes any plant prescribed as a pest, insects, diseases, viruses and weeds.


A code of correct conduct or a standardized set of procedures or practices when implemented in sequence are designed to achieve a specific objective.

Response plan

A set of protocols to prepare and respond to a pest problem which allows for a rapid response to the introduction.

(application of a sanitizer)

A process that reduces the number of pathogens without completely eliminating all microbial forms on the surface.

Treatment thresholdFootnote 11

A point at which pest populations, economic considerations or environmental conditions indicate that pest control action must be taken.


Medium/route of transmission

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