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Types of food fraud

Food fraud can take many forms. Food may be intentionally misrepresented through:

Substituting a product with something of a different character or quality.
For example, using horse meat instead of beef, or using pollock as cod.

Adulterating or diluting a product by mixing in other ingredients or elements and not declaring them on the label.
For example, adding sugar syrup to honey, adding sunflower oil to olive oil, adding fillers to ground spices, or adding apple juice to pomegranate juice.

Mislabelling a product as something it's not.
For example, labelling farmed salmon as wild salmon, or labelling apples as organic when they aren't certified as such. It could also include intentionally providing a false net quantity declaration (such as when the amount of food in the package isn't accurately declared on the label).

Making false claims or misleading statements to make the product appear to do something that hasn't been proven.
For example, claiming a product is "preservative-free" when it contains preservatives, or is "sodium-free" when the thresholds aren't met.

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