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Terrestrial Animal Products and By-products: Import Policy Framework
2 Definitions

Note: When there is more than one definition for the same word that exists in both the Health of Animals Act and the Health of Animals Regulations, both definitions are included referencing the source of the definition (the Act or Regulations) in parentheses after the word.

animal
includes an embryo and a fertilized egg or ovum
animal by-product (Health of Animals Act)
includes blood or any of its components, bones, bristles, feathers, flesh, hair, hides, hoofs, horns, offal, skins and wool, and any thing containing any of those things
animal by-product (Health of Animals Regulations)
means an animal by-product that originated from a bird or from any mammal except a member of the orders Rodentia, Cetacea, Pinnipedia and Sirenia
animal food (Health of Animals Act)
means any thing that is capable of being a nutrient for animals and includes any of the constituent elements of an animal ration
animal food (Health of Animals Regulations)
means food containing an animal product or animal by-product for chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, ratites, game birds, ruminants, swine or horses
animal glands and organs
includes ox gall or bile, rennet and similar substances derived from domestic animals
animal pathogen
includes any terrestrial or aquatic animal pathogen or part of one (e.g. toxin) including those derived through biotechnology
animal product (Health of Animals Act)
includes cream, eggs, milk, non-fertilized ova and semen
animal product (Health of Animals Regulations)
means an animal product that originated from a bird or from any mammal except a member of the orders Rodentia, Cetacea, Pinnipedia and Sirenia
approved disinfection establishment
means any factory, plant or other place approved by the Minister for the cleaning, disinfection or treatment of any animal by-product or any other thing;
bees
are the insects known as Apis mellifera
beehive
is any container fit to shelter a colony of bees
bee product
includes bee pollen, bee propolis, royal jelly, beeswax and honey
beeswax
is a true wax, secreted by glands on the abdomen of worker honey bees.
blood meal
means dried blood of an animal;
bone meal
means ground animal bones, hoofs or horns which may include pieces of hide, flesh or sinew;
bovine
means cattle or bison domestically raised or kept, but for the purposes of the import reference document does not include a bison that has ever been in contact with or part of a wild herd;
bristles
stiff hairs commonly found in pigs, often used to make brooms and brushes
CFIA import permit
a document issued by the Minister under section 160 of the Health of Animals Regulations for the purpose of importing animals or things.
compound chews
products for pets that are comprised of a pet chew plus an edible or inedible meat or offal component
conveyance
means any aircraft, carriage, motor vehicle, trailer, railway car, vessel, cargo container or other contrivance used to move persons, animals or things;
country of origin

means:

  1. with respect to an animal, the country from which the animal was imported into Canada, where the animal has lived for no less than 60 days in that country in association with other animals of its own species, and in any other case, means the country in which the animal was born,
  2. with respect to an animal embryo, animal product or animal by-product, the country in which the animal embryo, animal product or animal by-product was taken from an animal, or
  3. with respect to an animal product or animal by-product – other than non-fertilized ova, semen and meat as defined in subsection 2(1) of the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 – that has undergone processing that would prevent the introduction of any reportable disease, any disease referred to in Schedule VII and any serious epizootic disease to which the species from which the product or by-product was derived is susceptible and that can be transmitted by the product or by-product, the country in which the product or by-product underwent that processing
designated country or zone
a country or zone determined by the CFIA to be free of reportable and immediately notifiable diseases that either affect, or are transmitted by, the species of origin of the animal, animal product, or by-product to be imported into Canada. The CFIA utilizes risk assessment methodology in order to determine if a hazard is present in a country, and to evaluate the risk of transmission of that hazard resulting from the importation of animals, animal products, or by-products. Refer to the list of Reportable Diseases Immediately Notifiable and Annually Notifiable Diseases.
disease (Health of Animals Act)

includes

  1. a reportable disease and any other disease that may affect an animal or that may be transmitted by an animal to a person, and
  2. the causative agent of any such disease
disease (Health of Animals Regulations)
means, for the purposes of Parts III and IV, any reportable disease or other serious epizootic disease to which an animal or germplasm is susceptible and which can be transmitted by the animal or germplasm
dispose
includes slaughter or otherwise destroy, bury or render;
dry salted (green) hides or skins
are hides or skins cured by rubbing them on the flesh surface with dry salt and leaving to dry.
egg product
means any of the following, namely, whole egg, egg shells, egg yolk, egg albumen or any mix of these, in a liquid, dried, frozen or fresh form
feathers
are the light, horny epidermal outgrowths that form the distinctive external covering of all modern birds
fertilizer (Health of Animals Regulations)
has the same meaning as in section 2 of the Fertilizers Act:

"fertilizer means any substance or mixture of substances, containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or other plant food, manufactured, sold or represented for use as a plant nutrient;" (Fertilizers Act, Section 2)

fowl plague
means highly pathogenic avian influenza
gluestock
means the hair, bones, hoofs, horns, fleshings, hide cuttings or parings of an animal or any other part of an animal that may be used in the manufacture of glue;
hair
is the slender threadlike outgrowth of the epidermis of an animal, especially one of the usually pigmented filaments that form the characteristic coat of a mammal. Includes angora (hair of Angora rabbits), cashmere (Kashmir) (hair of Cashmere goats), fiber (hair of llamas and alpacas), horsehair (hair of the manes or tails of equine or bovine animals) and mohair (hair of Angora goats)
hard dried hides or skins
are hides or skins that have been air-dried
honey
is sweet, viscous liquid produced by bees from the nectar of a variety of plants as well as from secretions of sap-feeding insects.
honeycomb
is a mass of natural beeswax cells which are hexagonal in shape, built by bees, with liquid honey sealed in the cells. Its purpose is to contain brood (young) and stores of honey.
inedible
means, in respect of a meat product, a meat product that is not fit, or not intended for, use as human food
inspection
means an inspection carried out by an inspector, except where a customs officer carries out an inspection pursuant to section 16 of the Act (Health of Animals Act)
inspection port
means a place listed in Schedule II where facilities exist to inspect animals
inspector
means a person designated as an inspector pursuant to section 32 (Health of Animals Act)
integumentary tissues
a network of features that forms the covering of an organism
international waste
includes aircraft garbage, animal manure and ship's refuse produced on a vessel or aircraft en route to Canada, and non-compliant animal-origin materials arriving at the port of entry which are forfeited to the crown
in-transit
means that a shipment of a commodity moves from the country of origin through an intermediate country for delivery to the country of destination. The shipment remains under official control and is not released for use or consumption in the intermediate country.
lime pulled wool or hair
is wool or hair removed from hides or skins after the skins have been treated by liming or other treatments to loosen the hair
liming
is the removal of the hair from hides and skins by applying a strong alkaline solution
livestock
means animals of the bovine, caprine, equine, ovine and porcine species

Note: The Feeds Program also has a separate definition for "livestock".

manure (Health of Animals Regulations)
includes guano, feces with or without urine and anything containing feces from any bird, ruminant or porcine; (includes manure that is produced by animals on board a ship or aircraft while en route to or after arrival in Canada)

Note: The Fertilizers Program also has a separate definition for "manure".

meat (Meat Inspection Regulations)
means the edible part of a carcass that is the muscle associated with the skeleton, tongue, diaphragm, heart, gizzard or mammalian oesophagus, with or without accompanying and overlying fat, together with those parts of the bones, skin, sinews, nerves, blood vessels and other tissues that normally accompany the muscle and are not ordinarily removed in dressing a carcass, but does not include the muscle associated with the lips, snout, scalp or ears, mechanically separated meat or meat to which an ingredient other than meat has been added;
meat by-product (Meat Inspection Regulations)
means edible blood, an edible organ or edible tissue that was derived from the carcass of a food animal, but does not include meat or mechanically separated meat;
meat meal or tankage
means the rendered and dried carcass or part of the carcass of an animal;
meat product (Meat Inspection Act)

means

  • (a) a carcass,
  • (b) the blood of an animal or a product or by-product of a carcass, or
  • (c) a product containing anything described in paragraph (b);
milk
means the lacteal secretion obtained from the mammary gland of any ruminant, in concentrated, dried, frozen, reconstituted or fresh form;
milk product
means any of the following, namely, partly-skimmed milk, skim milk, cream, butter, buttermilk, butter oil, whey, whey butter or whey cream, in concentrated, dried, frozen or reconstituted or fresh form, but does not include milk proteins, milk sugars and milk enzymes;
Official Meat Inspection Certificate (OMIC)
a certificate issued and endorsed by a veterinarian of a national competent authority, certifying to the importing country's requirements pertaining to public health as well as animal health. OMICs for products from the United States to Canada can be signed by a veterinarian and/ or by -an authorised inspector but any attestations related to animal health must be signed by an official veterinarian.
official veterinarian

means a veterinarian who is

  1. employed by the authority responsible for implementing and supervising or auditing the carrying out of veterinary services in a country, the issuance of certificates respecting the health and origin of animals in that country and the performance of inspections of regulated animals for the purpose of protecting animal and public health in that country; or
  2. authorized by that authority to issue those certificates and perform those inspections, if the systems for providing veterinary services, issuing authorizations and performing inspections in that country are equivalent to the corresponding systems in Canada in terms of their effectiveness in protecting animal and public health.
pet
a domesticated animal, not including livestock or poultry, usually kept in a residence as a companion and generally referring to dogs and cats; can also be referred to as a companion animal
pet chews
products obtained from untanned hides and skins of ungulates or other animal tissues for pet animals to chew; they have no nutritional value and may contain flavorings, colorants, and preservatives
pet food
means food intended for pet animals which are not considered livestock under the Health of Animals Act and Regulations. In Section 2 of the Health of Animals Regulations, "livestock" is defined as animals of the bovine, caprine, equine, ovine and porcine species. Pet food is a complete and balanced food commercially prepared and distributed for consumption by dogs, cats or other animals kept as pets
pet supplement
a highly processed nutritional product whose purpose is to provide additional protein, vitamins, minerals, or other products, such as chondroitin sulphate or glucosamine, to pet animals; supplements may be in pill, capsule, powder, or liquid form, and either be added to food or given directly (orally) to the animal
pet treat
a pet food, with limited nutritional value, either baked, extruded, or injection- moulded; it is usually made with flour, starch, fibres from fruit or cereal product, mixed with greaves, meat, or meat meal; the treat may be semi-moist or dried and is used as a supplement to a regular diet, reward, and/or training aid
pickled hides or skins
are hides or skins that have been prepared and preserved for tanning using an acid bath treatment or brining
pollen
is male germplasm of plants; it contains proteins, fats, minerals, and vitamins; it is collected by bees from a variety of plants at different times of year; it is the only protein source collected by bees for feeding their brood
poultry
means domestic fowl and pigeons and includes any bird that is in captivity

Note: The Feeds Program also has a separate definition for "poultry".

process
means, with respect to an animal product or animal by-product – other than non-fertilized ova, semen and meat as defined in subsection 2(1) of the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 – the application of a procedure that would prevent the introduction of any reportable disease, any disease referred to in Schedule VII and any serious epizootic disease to which the species from which the product or by-product was derived is susceptible and that can be transmitted by the product or by-product
processed pet food
pet food that has been heat-treated; repackaging or packaging from bulk does not constitute processing; raw pet food is not considered to be processed; processed pet foods containing animal products and by-products are subject to the applicable provisions in the Health of Animals Act and Regulations and may be dry, semi-moist, or moist, and have been extruded, baked, canned or retorted, and are shelf-stable, with no refrigeration required after processing
prohibited material
means anything that is, or that contains any, protein that originated from a mammal, other than
  1. a porcine or equine;
  2. milk or product of milk;
  3. gelatin derived exclusively from hides or skins;
  4. blood or products of blood; or
  5. rendered fats, derived from ruminants, that contain no more than 0.15% insoluble impurities or their products.
propolis
is a sticky, resinous material gathered by bees from trees and other vegetation. Bees use it to reduce the beehive entrance size and encase foreign material. Propolis contains waxes, resins, balsams, oils, and pollen.

It is used in alternative medicine (in tinctures, ointments, creams, etc.) because of its antimicrobial properties.

raw pet food
a commercial, ready for retail sale diet which has not undergone heat treatment and requires refrigeration; the product may be chilled, frozen or quick/flash frozen; also known as Biologically Appropriate Raw Diet (BARF) diet; a typical BARF diet is made up of 60-80 percent of raw meaty bones (RMB); that is, bones with about 50 percent meat (e.g. chicken neck, back and wings) and 20-40 percent of fruits and vegetables, other offal, meat, eggs, or dairy foods.
rawhide
a material obtained by separating an animal hide into two or more layers. The inner layer is then converted to a hardened and dried product without the process of tanning. It has no nutritional value and may contain flavourings and colorants.
raw wool, hair or bristles
means wool, hair or bristles taken from an animal but does not include wool tops, wool waste, wool noils, wool laps, small trade samples of wool, lime pulled wool and hair, scoured wool and hair and carbonized wool and hair;
rendered product
an animal by-product that has been prepared or treated for use in, or converted into, fertilizer, animal food, fat or oil, other than fat or oil used for human consumption
rendering
means the series of activities that take place within a rendering plant which prepare and treat animal by-product for use in, or conversion into, rendered product
rendering plant

means a place

  1. where animal by-products are prepared or treated for use in, or converted into, fertilizers, animal food, fats or oils, other than fats or oils used for human consumption,
  2. where a substance resulting from a process mentioned in paragraph (a) is stored, packed or marked, or
  3. from which a substance resulting from a process mentioned in paragraph (a) is shipped;
royal jelly
is secreted by the glands in the head of the worker bees. This substance is fed to queens throughout their larval and adult lives, and to young workers and drone larvae. It is high in protein and is synthesized with the aid of proteins from the pollen.

The jelly may be collected by a skilled beekeeper via a labour-intensive process, and frozen for later use. It may be sold in its raw form, as a powder (dust or capsulated), or mixed with other shelf-stable products like honey. It may be processed into a number of forms including capsules, tablets, and cosmetics. It may be sold as a tonic and restorative.

ruminant
means an animal of the suborder Ruminatiae and includes an animal of the family Camelidae;

Note: The following definition is found in the policy Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Import Policy for Bovine Animals and Their Products and By-Products:

"For the purpose of this policy, bovine animals consist of cattle and bison and their exotic relatives. Taxonomically they are classified as members of the Subfamily Bovinae from the genus' Bos and Bison, which includes cattle (Bos taurus [Aurochs, both feral and reared domesticated cattle] and Bos taurus indicus [Brahma cattle, Indian humped cattle, zebu, zebu cattle]) and all bison (Bison bison)"

specified risk material (Health of Animals Regulations)
In this Part (Part I.1, 6.1, HAR), specified risk material means the skull, brain, trigeminal ganglia, eyes, tonsils, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of cattle aged 30 months or older, and the distal ileum of cattle of all ages, but does not include material from a country of origin, or a part of a country of origin, that is designated under section 7 as posing a negligible risk for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.
tanned hide or skin
is the outer covering of ruminants, ratites, equines and porcines that has undergone a preservation process, usually a chemical treatment, to convert it to leather
taxidermy
is the preservation of an animal's body by stuffing and mounting for the purpose of display or study. Often, the head or entire body is processed by the taxidermist, although sometimes other body parts, such as teeth, tusks, or antlers, are prepared. Polyurethane or plastic mannequins are used to support the skins and horns of the hunted animals. The skins are fully prepared and preserved before placement on the mannequin.
trophies
are the heads, antlers, or other body parts of hunted animals that will be preserved for display by taxidermy
trans-shipment
means a movement of commodities from the country of origin to a country of destination where the container enclosing the goods passes through an intermediate country; it is customs cleared in the intermediate country, the container is opened, the original seal is broken, the contents are removed and a portion of the original cargo is then shipped from the intermediate country to the country of destination.
untanned (raw) hide or skin
means the outer covering of ruminants, ratites, equines and porcines that is raw and has not been chemically processed into a permanent and durable form of leather (includes dry salted, wet salted, hard dried, pickled, and limed hides and skins)
veterinary biologic (Health of Animals Act)
means a thing that is manufactured, sold or represented for use in restoring, correcting or modifying organic functions in animals or for use in the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation or prevention of a disease, disorder or abnormal physical state – or its symptoms – in animals and that is
  1. a helminth, protozoa or micro-organism,
  2. a substance or mixture of substances derived from animals, helminths, protozoa, micro-organisms or plants, or
  3. a substance of synthetic origin
veterinary biologic (Health of Animals Regulations)
includes any veterinary biologic derived through biotechnology
veterinary inspector
means a veterinarian designated as an inspector pursuant to section 32 (Health of Animals Act)
wet blue (in the blue) hides or skins
are hides or skins that have been chrome-tanned
wet salted (wet green) hides or skins
are hides and skins cured by treating with liquid salt solution.
wool

is the hair of sheep or lambs

Some commonly used wool terms:

  • carbonizing: Removal of vegetable matter (e.g. burrs, seeds, straw) from wool by immersion in mineral acid or acid salts. (AIRS)
  • carding: Process that removes short fibers from wool and places the longer fibers parallel to each other.
  • fleece: Wool from a single sheep in the grease state.
  • grease (raw) wool: Wool immediately after it is shorn from the sheep before any processing or cleaning has taken place to remove the wool grease.
  • pulled (slip) wool: Wool removed from a hide after fermentation or a chemical treatment such as liming
  • scouring: The separation of dirt, grease, and foreign matter from grease wool by washing with soap, detergents, or alkaline solutions.
  • wool laps: Waste generated during the industrial carding of wool composed of wool fibers of different lengths and orientations
  • wool noils: Short fiber left over from combing wool
  • wool tops: Wool that has been scoured and carded and is ready for spinning
  • wool waste: Degreased wool generated during combing, carding, or other processes preparatory to spinning
zoosanitary export certificate
a certificate issued and endorsed by a veterinarian of a national competent animal health authority, certifying to the importing country's requirements
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