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Terrestrial Animal Products and By-products: Import Policy Framework

Note

The content of this policy will not be implemented immediately upon the date that it is published online. The various subsections will be implemented gradually with further notice provided at the time of implementation.

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1 Acronyms

AI:
Avian Influenza
AIED:
Animal Import/Export Division
AIRS:
Automated Import Reference System
APABP:
Animal Products and Animal By-products
BSE:
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
CBS:
Canadian Biosafety Standards, 2nd Edition
CBSA:
Canada Border Services Agency
CCI:
Canada Customs Invoice
CFIA:
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
CITES:
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
COA:
National Service Centre's Centre of Administration
FIED:
Food Import-Export Division
FMD:
Foot and Mouth Disease
HAA:
Health of Animals Act
HAR:
Health of Animals Regulations
MHMOP:
Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures
MIA:
Meat Inspection Act
MIR:
Meat Inspection Regulations
NISC:
National Import Service Centre
OBCS:
Office of Biohazard Containment and Safety
OIE:
World Organization for Animal Health
OMIC:
Official Meat Inspection Certificate
PPB:
Policy and Programs Branch
SRM:
Specified Risk Material
TSE:
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy
VND:
Velogenic Newcastle Disease

2 Definitions

Note: When there is more than one definition for the same word that exists in both the Health of Animals Act and the Health of Animals Regulations, both definitions are included referencing the source of the definition (the Act or Regulations) in parentheses after the word.

animal
includes an embryo and a fertilized egg or ovum
animal by-product (Health of Animals Act)
includes blood or any of its components, bones, bristles, feathers, flesh, hair, hides, hoofs, horns, offal, skins and wool, and any thing containing any of those things
animal by-product (Health of Animals Regulations)
means an animal by-product that originated from a bird or from any mammal except a member of the orders Rodentia, Cetacea, Pinnipedia and Sirenia
animal food (Health of Animals Act)
means any thing that is capable of being a nutrient for animals and includes any of the constituent elements of an animal ration
animal food (Health of Animals Regulations)
means food containing an animal product or animal by-product for chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, ratites, game birds, ruminants, swine or horses
animal glands and organs
includes ox gall or bile, rennet and similar substances derived from domestic animals
animal pathogen
includes any terrestrial or aquatic animal pathogen or part of one (e.g. toxin) including those derived through biotechnology
animal product (Health of Animals Act)
includes cream, eggs, milk, non-fertilized ova and semen
animal product (Health of Animals Regulations)
means an animal product that originated from a bird or from any mammal except a member of the orders Rodentia, Cetacea, Pinnipedia and Sirenia
approved disinfection establishment
means any factory, plant or other place approved by the Minister for the cleaning, disinfection or treatment of any animal by-product or any other thing;
bees
are the insects known as Apis mellifera
beehive
is any container fit to shelter a colony of bees
bee product
includes bee pollen, bee propolis, royal jelly, beeswax and honey
beeswax
is a true wax, secreted by glands on the abdomen of worker honey bees.
blood meal
means dried blood of an animal;
bone meal
means ground animal bones, hoofs or horns which may include pieces of hide, flesh or sinew;
bovine
means cattle or bison domestically raised or kept, but for the purposes of the import reference document does not include a bison that has ever been in contact with or part of a wild herd;
bristles
stiff hairs commonly found in pigs, often used to make brooms and brushes
CFIA import permit
a document issued by the Minister under section 160 of the Health of Animals Regulations for the purpose of importing animals or things.
compound chews
products for pets that are comprised of a pet chew plus an edible or inedible meat or offal component
conveyance
means any aircraft, carriage, motor vehicle, trailer, railway car, vessel, cargo container or other contrivance used to move persons, animals or things;
country of origin

means:

  1. with respect to an animal, the country from which the animal was imported into Canada, where the animal has lived for no less than 60 days in that country in association with other animals of its own species, and in any other case, means the country in which the animal was born,
  2. with respect to an animal embryo, animal product or animal by-product, the country in which the animal embryo, animal product or animal by-product was taken from an animal, or
  3. with respect to an animal product or animal by-product – other than non-fertilized ova, semen and meat as defined in subsection 2(1) of the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 – that has undergone processing that would prevent the introduction of any reportable disease, any disease referred to in Schedule VII and any serious epizootic disease to which the species from which the product or by-product was derived is susceptible and that can be transmitted by the product or by-product, the country in which the product or by-product underwent that processing
designated country or zone
a country or zone determined by the CFIA to be free of reportable and immediately notifiable diseases that either affect, or are transmitted by, the species of origin of the animal, animal product, or by-product to be imported into Canada. The CFIA utilizes risk assessment methodology in order to determine if a hazard is present in a country, and to evaluate the risk of transmission of that hazard resulting from the importation of animals, animal products, or by-products. Refer to the list of Reportable Diseases Immediately Notifiable and Annually Notifiable Diseases.
disease (Health of Animals Act)

includes

  1. a reportable disease and any other disease that may affect an animal or that may be transmitted by an animal to a person, and
  2. the causative agent of any such disease
disease (Health of Animals Regulations)
means, for the purposes of Parts III and IV, any reportable disease or other serious epizootic disease to which an animal or germplasm is susceptible and which can be transmitted by the animal or germplasm
dispose
includes slaughter or otherwise destroy, bury or render;
dry salted (green) hides or skins
are hides or skins cured by rubbing them on the flesh surface with dry salt and leaving to dry.
egg product
means any of the following, namely, whole egg, egg shells, egg yolk, egg albumen or any mix of these, in a liquid, dried, frozen or fresh form
feathers
are the light, horny epidermal outgrowths that form the distinctive external covering of all modern birds
fertilizer (Health of Animals Regulations)
has the same meaning as in section 2 of the Fertilizers Act:

"fertilizer means any substance or mixture of substances, containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or other plant food, manufactured, sold or represented for use as a plant nutrient;" (Fertilizers Act, Section 2)

fowl plague
means highly pathogenic avian influenza
gluestock
means the hair, bones, hoofs, horns, fleshings, hide cuttings or parings of an animal or any other part of an animal that may be used in the manufacture of glue;
hair
is the slender threadlike outgrowth of the epidermis of an animal, especially one of the usually pigmented filaments that form the characteristic coat of a mammal. Includes angora (hair of Angora rabbits), cashmere (Kashmir) (hair of Cashmere goats), fiber (hair of llamas and alpacas), horsehair (hair of the manes or tails of equine or bovine animals) and mohair (hair of Angora goats)
hard dried hides or skins
are hides or skins that have been air-dried
honey
is sweet, viscous liquid produced by bees from the nectar of a variety of plants as well as from secretions of sap-feeding insects.
honeycomb
is a mass of natural beeswax cells which are hexagonal in shape, built by bees, with liquid honey sealed in the cells. Its purpose is to contain brood (young) and stores of honey.
inedible
means, in respect of a meat product, a meat product that is not fit, or not intended for, use as human food
inspection
means an inspection carried out by an inspector, except where a customs officer carries out an inspection pursuant to section 16 of the Act (Health of Animals Act)
inspection port
means a place listed in Schedule II where facilities exist to inspect animals
inspector
means a person designated as an inspector pursuant to section 32 (Health of Animals Act)
integumentary tissues
a network of features that forms the covering of an organism
international waste
includes aircraft garbage, animal manure and ship's refuse produced on a vessel or aircraft en route to Canada, and non-compliant animal-origin materials arriving at the port of entry which are forfeited to the crown
in-transit
means that a shipment of a commodity moves from the country of origin through an intermediate country for delivery to the country of destination. The shipment remains under official control and is not released for use or consumption in the intermediate country.
lime pulled wool or hair
is wool or hair removed from hides or skins after the skins have been treated by liming or other treatments to loosen the hair
liming
is the removal of the hair from hides and skins by applying a strong alkaline solution
livestock
means animals of the bovine, caprine, equine, ovine and porcine species

Note: The Feeds Program also has a separate definition for "livestock".

manure (Health of Animals Regulations)
includes guano, feces with or without urine and anything containing feces from any bird, ruminant or porcine; (includes manure that is produced by animals on board a ship or aircraft while en route to or after arrival in Canada)

Note: The Fertilizers Program also has a separate definition for "manure".

meat (Meat Inspection Regulations)
means the edible part of a carcass that is the muscle associated with the skeleton, tongue, diaphragm, heart, gizzard or mammalian oesophagus, with or without accompanying and overlying fat, together with those parts of the bones, skin, sinews, nerves, blood vessels and other tissues that normally accompany the muscle and are not ordinarily removed in dressing a carcass, but does not include the muscle associated with the lips, snout, scalp or ears, mechanically separated meat or meat to which an ingredient other than meat has been added;
meat by-product (Meat Inspection Regulations)
means edible blood, an edible organ or edible tissue that was derived from the carcass of a food animal, but does not include meat or mechanically separated meat;
meat meal or tankage
means the rendered and dried carcass or part of the carcass of an animal;
meat product (Meat Inspection Act)

means

  • (a) a carcass,
  • (b) the blood of an animal or a product or by-product of a carcass, or
  • (c) a product containing anything described in paragraph (b);
milk
means the lacteal secretion obtained from the mammary gland of any ruminant, in concentrated, dried, frozen, reconstituted or fresh form;
milk product
means any of the following, namely, partly-skimmed milk, skim milk, cream, butter, buttermilk, butter oil, whey, whey butter or whey cream, in concentrated, dried, frozen or reconstituted or fresh form, but does not include milk proteins, milk sugars and milk enzymes;
Official Meat Inspection Certificate (OMIC)
a certificate issued and endorsed by a veterinarian of a national competent authority, certifying to the importing country's requirements pertaining to public health as well as animal health. OMICs for products from the United States to Canada can be signed by a veterinarian and/ or by -an authorised inspector but any attestations related to animal health must be signed by an official veterinarian.
official veterinarian

means a veterinarian who is

  1. employed by the authority responsible for implementing and supervising or auditing the carrying out of veterinary services in a country, the issuance of certificates respecting the health and origin of animals in that country and the performance of inspections of regulated animals for the purpose of protecting animal and public health in that country; or
  2. authorized by that authority to issue those certificates and perform those inspections, if the systems for providing veterinary services, issuing authorizations and performing inspections in that country are equivalent to the corresponding systems in Canada in terms of their effectiveness in protecting animal and public health.
pet
a domesticated animal, not including livestock or poultry, usually kept in a residence as a companion and generally referring to dogs and cats; can also be referred to as a companion animal
pet chews
products obtained from untanned hides and skins of ungulates or other animal tissues for pet animals to chew; they have no nutritional value and may contain flavorings, colorants, and preservatives
pet food
means food intended for pet animals which are not considered livestock under the Health of Animals Act and Regulations. In Section 2 of the Health of Animals Regulations, "livestock" is defined as animals of the bovine, caprine, equine, ovine and porcine species. Pet food is a complete and balanced food commercially prepared and distributed for consumption by dogs, cats or other animals kept as pets
pet supplement
a highly processed nutritional product whose purpose is to provide additional protein, vitamins, minerals, or other products, such as chondroitin sulphate or glucosamine, to pet animals; supplements may be in pill, capsule, powder, or liquid form, and either be added to food or given directly (orally) to the animal
pet treat
a pet food, with limited nutritional value, either baked, extruded, or injection- moulded; it is usually made with flour, starch, fibres from fruit or cereal product, mixed with greaves, meat, or meat meal; the treat may be semi-moist or dried and is used as a supplement to a regular diet, reward, and/or training aid
pickled hides or skins
are hides or skins that have been prepared and preserved for tanning using an acid bath treatment or brining
pollen
is male germplasm of plants; it contains proteins, fats, minerals, and vitamins; it is collected by bees from a variety of plants at different times of year; it is the only protein source collected by bees for feeding their brood
poultry
means domestic fowl and pigeons and includes any bird that is in captivity

Note: The Feeds Program also has a separate definition for "poultry".

process
means, with respect to an animal product or animal by-product – other than non-fertilized ova, semen and meat as defined in subsection 2(1) of the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 – the application of a procedure that would prevent the introduction of any reportable disease, any disease referred to in Schedule VII and any serious epizootic disease to which the species from which the product or by-product was derived is susceptible and that can be transmitted by the product or by-product
processed pet food
pet food that has been heat-treated; repackaging or packaging from bulk does not constitute processing; raw pet food is not considered to be processed; processed pet foods containing animal products and by-products are subject to the applicable provisions in the Health of Animals Act and Regulations and may be dry, semi-moist, or moist, and have been extruded, baked, canned or retorted, and are shelf-stable, with no refrigeration required after processing
prohibited material
means anything that is, or that contains any, protein that originated from a mammal, other than
  1. a porcine or equine;
  2. milk or product of milk;
  3. gelatin derived exclusively from hides or skins;
  4. blood or products of blood; or
  5. rendered fats, derived from ruminants, that contain no more than 0.15% insoluble impurities or their products.
propolis
is a sticky, resinous material gathered by bees from trees and other vegetation. Bees use it to reduce the beehive entrance size and encase foreign material. Propolis contains waxes, resins, balsams, oils, and pollen.

It is used in alternative medicine (in tinctures, ointments, creams, etc.) because of its antimicrobial properties.

raw pet food
a commercial, ready for retail sale diet which has not undergone heat treatment and requires refrigeration; the product may be chilled, frozen or quick/flash frozen; also known as Biologically Appropriate Raw Diet (BARF) diet; a typical BARF diet is made up of 60-80 percent of raw meaty bones (RMB); that is, bones with about 50 percent meat (e.g. chicken neck, back and wings) and 20-40 percent of fruits and vegetables, other offal, meat, eggs, or dairy foods.
rawhide
a material obtained by separating an animal hide into two or more layers. The inner layer is then converted to a hardened and dried product without the process of tanning. It has no nutritional value and may contain flavourings and colorants.
raw wool, hair or bristles
means wool, hair or bristles taken from an animal but does not include wool tops, wool waste, wool noils, wool laps, small trade samples of wool, lime pulled wool and hair, scoured wool and hair and carbonized wool and hair;
rendered product
an animal by-product that has been prepared or treated for use in, or converted into, fertilizer, animal food, fat or oil, other than fat or oil used for human consumption
rendering
means the series of activities that take place within a rendering plant which prepare and treat animal by-product for use in, or conversion into, rendered product
rendering plant

means a place

  1. where animal by-products are prepared or treated for use in, or converted into, fertilizers, animal food, fats or oils, other than fats or oils used for human consumption,
  2. where a substance resulting from a process mentioned in paragraph (a) is stored, packed or marked, or
  3. from which a substance resulting from a process mentioned in paragraph (a) is shipped;
royal jelly
is secreted by the glands in the head of the worker bees. This substance is fed to queens throughout their larval and adult lives, and to young workers and drone larvae. It is high in protein and is synthesized with the aid of proteins from the pollen.

The jelly may be collected by a skilled beekeeper via a labour-intensive process, and frozen for later use. It may be sold in its raw form, as a powder (dust or capsulated), or mixed with other shelf-stable products like honey. It may be processed into a number of forms including capsules, tablets, and cosmetics. It may be sold as a tonic and restorative.

ruminant
means an animal of the suborder Ruminatiae and includes an animal of the family Camelidae;

Note: The following definition is found in the policy Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Import Policy for Bovine Animals and Their Products and By-Products:

"For the purpose of this policy, bovine animals consist of cattle and bison and their exotic relatives. Taxonomically they are classified as members of the Subfamily Bovinae from the genus' Bos and Bison, which includes cattle (Bos taurus [Aurochs, both feral and reared domesticated cattle] and Bos taurus indicus [Brahma cattle, Indian humped cattle, zebu, zebu cattle]) and all bison (Bison bison)"

specified risk material (Health of Animals Regulations)
In this Part (Part I.1, 6.1, HAR), specified risk material means the skull, brain, trigeminal ganglia, eyes, tonsils, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of cattle aged 30 months or older, and the distal ileum of cattle of all ages, but does not include material from a country of origin, or a part of a country of origin, that is designated under section 7 as posing a negligible risk for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.
tanned hide or skin
is the outer covering of ruminants, ratites, equines and porcines that has undergone a preservation process, usually a chemical treatment, to convert it to leather
taxidermy
is the preservation of an animal's body by stuffing and mounting for the purpose of display or study. Often, the head or entire body is processed by the taxidermist, although sometimes other body parts, such as teeth, tusks, or antlers, are prepared. Polyurethane or plastic mannequins are used to support the skins and horns of the hunted animals. The skins are fully prepared and preserved before placement on the mannequin.
trophies
are the heads, antlers, or other body parts of hunted animals that will be preserved for display by taxidermy
trans-shipment
means a movement of commodities from the country of origin to a country of destination where the container enclosing the goods passes through an intermediate country; it is customs cleared in the intermediate country, the container is opened, the original seal is broken, the contents are removed and a portion of the original cargo is then shipped from the intermediate country to the country of destination.
untanned (raw) hide or skin
means the outer covering of ruminants, ratites, equines and porcines that is raw and has not been chemically processed into a permanent and durable form of leather (includes dry salted, wet salted, hard dried, pickled, and limed hides and skins)
veterinary biologic (Health of Animals Act)
means a thing that is manufactured, sold or represented for use in restoring, correcting or modifying organic functions in animals or for use in the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation or prevention of a disease, disorder or abnormal physical state – or its symptoms – in animals and that is
  1. a helminth, protozoa or micro-organism,
  2. a substance or mixture of substances derived from animals, helminths, protozoa, micro-organisms or plants, or
  3. a substance of synthetic origin
veterinary biologic (Health of Animals Regulations)
includes any veterinary biologic derived through biotechnology
veterinary inspector
means a veterinarian designated as an inspector pursuant to section 32 (Health of Animals Act)
wet blue (in the blue) hides or skins
are hides or skins that have been chrome-tanned
wet salted (wet green) hides or skins
are hides and skins cured by treating with liquid salt solution.
wool

is the hair of sheep or lambs

Some commonly used wool terms:

  • carbonizing: Removal of vegetable matter (e.g. burrs, seeds, straw) from wool by immersion in mineral acid or acid salts. (AIRS)
  • carding: Process that removes short fibers from wool and places the longer fibers parallel to each other.
  • fleece: Wool from a single sheep in the grease state.
  • grease (raw) wool: Wool immediately after it is shorn from the sheep before any processing or cleaning has taken place to remove the wool grease.
  • pulled (slip) wool: Wool removed from a hide after fermentation or a chemical treatment such as liming
  • scouring: The separation of dirt, grease, and foreign matter from grease wool by washing with soap, detergents, or alkaline solutions.
  • wool laps: Waste generated during the industrial carding of wool composed of wool fibers of different lengths and orientations
  • wool noils: Short fiber left over from combing wool
  • wool tops: Wool that has been scoured and carded and is ready for spinning
  • wool waste: Degreased wool generated during combing, carding, or other processes preparatory to spinning
zoosanitary export certificate
a certificate issued and endorsed by a veterinarian of a national competent animal health authority, certifying to the importing country's requirements

3 General legislation

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act (CFIA Act), section 11, empowers the CFIA to administer and enforce the Health of Animals Act. Subsection 14(2) empowers the CFIA to negotiate and enter into arrangements for the implementation of technical requirements for the international movement of products or other things regulated under an Act or provision that the CFIA enforces or administers.

The Health of Animals Act, sections 14-18 provide the CFIA the legislative authority to control the introduction or import of diseases into Canada.

Under the Health of Animals Regulations, the following sections are applicable to the import of animal products or by-products:

4 General policy statement

Imported animal products and by-products can potentially transmit diseases of concern if exposed to domestic animals, and can harm Canada's livestock populations, reduce or halt agricultural production, and adversely impact Canada's economy. Animal diseases can also adversely impact animal welfare, harm wild animal populations, and in the case of zoonotic diseases threaten the safety of Canada's people.

It is the mandate of the CFIA to protect Canada's livestock populations, and to mitigate the risk of introduction and spread of animal diseases of concern in Canada. Under the legislative provisions of the Health of Animals Act and the Health of Animals Regulations, the CFIA Animal Health Program regulates the import of animal products and by-products. Other acts and regulations under the mandates of the CFIA may also be applicable to some animal products and by-products.

Factors taken into consideration when assessing the disease risks associated with a particular import may include:

Import conditions are developed based upon the above factors, for negotiation of export certification with exporting countries, or for inclusion on an import permit. In some cases, the risks of importation may be unknown or exceed an acceptable level of protection, and the importation is prohibited.

In situations where an importer or exporting country is requesting the import of a new commodity, a full Risk Assessment may be required. Information can be found in the CFIA policy: Request to import a new commodity or import from a new country of origin.

5 Scope of commodities covered by this policy

The CFIA Animal Import/Export Division regulates the importation of animal products and by-products under the authority of the relevant legislation. Broad categories of such commodities may include, but are not limited to the following:

Please note that some commodities may fall under more than one commodity-specific section in this document depending on the various factors involved. For example, spray-dried blood used for testing or analysis purposes may fall under the laboratory and research samples section, whereas it may fall under the rendered products section if it were used for food for animals or fertilizer.

The scope of the Animal Products and By-products Import Program does not cover:

These mandates may fall within the scope of other CFIA programs or other government departments or agencies.

6 Diseases of concern to Canada's animal resource base

Import controls applied by the CFIA to animal products and by-products are in place to prevent the introduction into Canada of diseases of concern to Canada's animal resource base. The CFIA may apply import controls which address diseases under any of the following categories:

The CFIA has evaluated some countries with respect to their animal health status, in order to recognize them as being free. A list of these countries and their animal health status can be found on the CFIA website.

In the case of BSE, a country is classified by the OIE according to the categories "negligible risk", "controlled risk", and "undetermined risk", and this status is factored into decisions regarding import controls. For other ruminant diseases of concern, countries are classified by Canada as "free" or "not free", and these categories are also factored into decisions regarding import controls. Information related to Canada's recognition of other countries with respect to BSE can be found in the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Import Policy for Bovine Animals and their Products and By-Products.

7 General roles and responsibilities

The following list outlines some of the main roles and responsibilities related to the import of animal products and animal by-products, but it is not exhaustive.

Policy and Programs Branch

Science Branch

National Operations Branch

Operational Guidance and Expertise (OGE)

National Service Centre's Centre of Administration (CoA)

National Animal Health Technical Specialists Team

National Import Service Centre (NISC)

Regional Operations – District Offices

Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)

Importer

World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)

8 General import requirements

Note: Please refer to the commodity-specific sections below for additional information.

All documentation required to allow import must be issued prior to the arrival at the border inspection port to be eligible to enter Canada, and must be presented to CBSA and/or the CFIA for inspection.

Automated Import Reference System (AIRS): Refer to AIRS to obtain the current Animal Health import conditions.

Note: Templates of import conditions, as they become available, may also be posted on the Import Policies – Animal Products and By-Products page of the CFIA website.

One or more of the following requirements may apply to the imported commodity

1) Import permit

An import permit is a legal document issued under section 160 of the Health of Animals Regulations whereby the importer is required to comply with all conditions stipulated within it in order to import the commodity into Canada. An import permit is issued by the CFIA to the importer, specifying the importer's obligations and outlining the import requirements. Import permits cannot be issued after the commodity has arrived in Canada.

2) Zoosanitary certificate

Zoosanitary export certificates are official documents, endorsed by an official veterinarian of an exporting country, attesting to animal health statements related to the shipment for export. The purpose of the zoosanitary certificate is to ensure that the commodity for import into Canada meets Canada's animal health requirements. A zoosanitary certificate may be negotiated between the CFIA and the competent authority of the exporting country, with conditions that can only be changed upon negotiation between the importing and exporting countries. Where certificates are not negotiated, they may include attestations as outlined on an import permit, or as received by an importer from an exporting country. It is important to note that in this case, these are issued by the exporting country at the commercial risk of the importer/exporter.

3) Importer's declaration:

An importer's declaration provides information about the shipment which can be verified by the importer. If it is required, it must accompany the shipment to the border inspection port.

4) Requirements for in-transit and transshipments

Both in-transit shipments and transshipments may present a risk of animal disease introduction into Canada, and therefore appropriate controls must be implemented.

In-transit

In-transit means that a shipment of a commodity moves from the country of origin through an intermediate country for delivery to the country of destination. The shipment remains under official control and is not released for use or consumption in the intermediate country.

In-transit with Canada as final destination

The animal health status of the shipment must not be compromised in any way prior to arrival in Canada. The CFIA may require further details in order to evaluate the disease risk associated with the import. These details may include, but are not limited to the following:

It is the importer's responsibility to clearly outline any countries of transit to the CFIA to help them assess the animal health risk. An import permit may be required. There may be additional import conditions compared to those for importing the shipment directly from the country of origin.

In-transit through Canada en route to another destination

Although the shipment remains under official control and will never be released for use or consumption in Canada, it must still meet all of the CFIA import requirements, which could either consist of specific in-transit conditions or the permanent importation requirements, before proceeding in-transit to prevent the introduction of a pest or disease organism. An import permit may be required.

Transshipment

Trans-shipment means a movement of commodities from the country of origin to a country of destination where the container enclosing the goods passes through an intermediate country; it is customs cleared in the intermediate country, the container is opened, the original seal is broken, the contents are removed and a portion of the original cargo is then shipped from the intermediate country to the country of destination.

Transshipment with Canada as final destination

The animal health status of the shipment must not be compromised in any way prior to arrival in Canada. The CFIA may require further details in order to evaluate the disease risk associated with the import. These details may include, but are not limited to the following:

It is the importer's responsibility to clearly outline any countries of transshipment to the CFIA to help them assess the animal health risk. An import permit may be required. There may be additional import conditions compared to those for importing the shipment directly from the country of origin.

Shipments destined for Canada that have transshipped through a third country after leaving the country of export may require two zoosanitary certificates. Certification may be required from the country of origin attesting that the product meets Canadian requirements, as well as from the intermediate country attesting that the product has not been altered or cross-contaminated.

Transshipment through Canada en route to another destination

Since the shipment may be opened and a portion may remain in Canada, the CFIA's import requirements for permanent entry of the shipment would need to be met even though some of the shipment may subsequently be exported from Canada to another destination.

Note: An SRM permit may be required for the import of bovine-origin commodities containing SRM from controlled or undetermined BSE risk countries. The importer is responsible for compliance with all requirements of the CFIA SRM program.

9 Products of animal origin containing multiple ingredients (in effect as of November 1, 2019)

Imported commodities may contain multiple animal-origin ingredients mixed together, for example, fertilizers, livestock feeds and feed ingredients, medicinal products, or mixtures used for the production of pet foods. These commodities may present a risk of introduction of animal diseases of concern to Canada even though the individual ingredients may be somewhat diluted when blended with other materials. AIRS may not list specific import conditions for the blended commodity, but instead may list conditions for the individual ingredients if imported on their own. For example, if a medicinal product contains a bovine ingredient, a porcine ingredient, and a cervid ingredient, you are unlikely to find this exact commodity in AIRS, but you may be able to locate the AIRS conditions for each of the three ingredients separately.

The following principles are intended to guide CFIA staff in determining the import conditions for a commodity containing multiple ingredients, one or more of which is animal-origin:

  1. If any single animal-origin ingredient in the commodity is prohibited from entering Canada, the entire commodity is prohibited from entering Canada
  2. If an import permit is required for one or more ingredients, the entire commodity would require an import permit
  3. If a zoosanitary certificate is required for one or more ingredients, the entire commodity would require a zoosanitary certificate
  4. If a commodity contains multiple ingredients derived from the same species, the import conditions listed in AIRS from the commodity with the more stringent conditions should be applied to the commodity (for example, if the product contains two avian ingredients, the first of which requires a Canada Customs Invoice, and the second of which requires an import permit and zoosanitary certificate, the entire commodity would require an import permit and zoosanitary certificate)
  5. If the commodity contains a mixture of ingredients from more than one species, the import conditions listed in AIRS from all animal-origin ingredients should be applied to the commodity
  6. If an import permit is required for more than one individual ingredient, a single import permit may be issued listing the import conditions for all animal-origin ingredients in the following format:

    "Pertaining to the (name of 1st animal-origin ingredient), the following import conditions apply:

    (list import conditions for 1st animal-origin ingredient)

    Pertaining to the (name of 2nd animal-origin ingredient), the following import conditions apply:

    (list import conditions for 2nd animal-origin ingredient)

    Pertaining to the (name of 3rd animal-origin ingredient), the following import conditions apply:

    (list import conditions for 3rd animal-origin ingredient)…"

  7. If any incompatibilities are noted between the conditions of separate ingredients, established channels should be followed for obtaining program advice regarding how to proceed
  8. If Canada Border Services Agency provides a ruling regarding the appropriate HS code for the commodity as a whole, this HS code may assist in locating the applicable import conditions in AIRS
  9. If a commodity contains one animal-origin ingredient mixed with one or more non-animal-origin ingredients (for example, 40% poultry meal and 60% plant-origin ingredients) the conditions that would apply to the single animal-origin ingredient on its own would apply to the commodity as a whole

The importer is also responsible for ensuring compliance with other CFIA programs or the requirements of other government departments or agencies. For example, if a product contains plant-based ingredients in addition to animal-origin ingredients, the importer is also responsible for verifying whether there are any import requirements applicable to the plant-based ingredients. It is possible that separate import permits or other documentation may be required under the other CFIA programs or other government departments or agencies.

It should also be noted that requests to evaluate new commodities may take place according to the policy Request to import a new commodity or import from a new country of origin.

10 Commodity-specific information

Note: The commodity-specific information below is not exclusive and may apply in addition to the general information provided above. Where established import conditions exist for a specific commodity, they may be found in AIRS. If conditions are not found in AIRS, the commodity may need to be evaluated according to the policy: Request to import a new commodity or import from a new country of origin. Templates of import conditions, as they become available, will be posted on the Import Policies – Animal Products and By-Products page of the CFIA website.

10.1 Manure

10.1.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Regulations

Part IV – Importation of Animal By-products, Animal Pathogens and other Things

Part XIV – Food for Ruminants, Livestock and Poultry, Rendering Plants, Fertilizers and Fertilizer Supplements

Note: Imported fertilizers must also comply with the Fertilizers Act and the Fertilizers Regulations.

10.1.2 Policy statement

Imports of animal manure and fertilizer containing animal manure are capable of transmitting animal diseases and hazards that may threaten Canada's livestock and poultry resources.

This import policy relates to Terrestrial Animal Health import requirements and does not remove any obligation of the Canadian importer to comply with the import requirements of other Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) programs and/or departments, (such as the Fertilizer and Horticulture Sections of the Plant Protection Division), or other Government of Canada Department requirements.

10.1.3 Scope of commodities covered by this section

Note: Manure imported for laboratory and research end-uses would be subject to the requirements under the Laboratory and Research Samples section of this policy.

10.1.4 Not within the scope of this section

10.1.5 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

Policy and Programs Branch - Animal Import-Export Division (AIED)
Policy and Programs Branch – Plant Protection Division

10.1.6 Additional import requirements

One or more of the following requirements may apply:

  1. Treatment to destroy pathogens: see Annex 1 for acceptable treatments of manure
  2. Record-keeping requirements to facilitate a recall if the product contains prohibited material
  3. Commodities containing rendered products blended with manure may also require an import permit under the Health of Animals Regulations, Section 166(1) – Importation of Products of Rendering Plants (see Rendered products section of this document)

10.2 Integumentary tissues and animal-origin display items

10.2.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Regulations

Part IV: Importation of Animal By-products, Animal Pathogens and other Things

Part X: General Provisions

10.2.2 Policy statement

This policy deals with the importation of integumentary tissues of mammals and avian species. The importation of integumentary tissues from reptiles and amphibians is not regulated by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

This policy relates to Animal Import/Export Division import requirements only and does not remove any obligations from the Canadian importer to comply with the import requirements of other CFIA programs and/or other federal, provincial, or municipal government departments. Integumentary tissues imported as pet chews and treats are covered under the Pet chews or Pet food sections of this policy.

The importation of many commodities in this policy requires approval from the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The Canadian Wildlife Service of Environment Canada implements and administers CITES for the federal government of Canada. Importers are therefore strongly encouraged to contact CITES prior to importation to ensure that trade in each commodity is permitted.

Hides and skins are commonly traded as wet salted (also termed "green salted hides"), dry salted, pickled, air dried, or in the blue (or wet blue). Several of these preparation procedures may decrease the pathogen load on hides and skins, but do not necessarily eliminate all microorganisms. Therefore, a system of post-arrival disinfection has been created for the handling of these items when they are not clean or when they originate from non-designated countries.

Trophies containing skulls and horns originating from animals over 30 months of age of the Bos taurus or Bos indicus species are considered Specified Risk Material if the originating country is of controlled or undetermined risk for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), as defined by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For this reason, trophies imported from these countries and from Bos taurus or Bos indicus animals require an SRM permit and an Animal Health import permit.

10.2.3 Scope of commodities covered by this section

10.2.4 Integumentary and animal-origin display items that may be imported without CFIA requirements

10.2.5 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

Operations Branch
Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)
Environment Canada

10.2.6 Additional import requirements

One or more of the following requirements may apply:

  1. Inspection at the border inspection port

    Some commodities may require a visual inspection at the border inspection port. During this inspection, if any specimen is found dirty or contaminated with soil, manure, plant material including straw or hay, blood, ectoparasites etc., the item will not be released. The item would either need to be removed from Canada, destroyed, or taken to an approved disinfection establishment under official control.

  2. Post-entry disinfection

    Some items must be directed to pre-approved premises for disinfection after arrival at the border inspection port. Documentation to verify that the premises has been approved must be provided by the importer to the CFIA at the time of importation. The premises approval must have been carried out not more than 24 months prior to the importation. If no premises has been approved, the items may be retained for a maximum of 30 days awaiting premises approval. If no premises approval has been obtained in 30 days, the items are to be refused entry and either destroyed or returned to the country of origin at the importer's expense.

  3. Proof of origin

    Some items from the U.S. (United States of America) may be released with documentation stating that the origin of the item is the U.S. provided that the documentation is considered acceptable by CBSA. Examples may include:

    • Untanned hides and skins
    • Animal and bird carcasses and trophies that are not prepared and are not mounted and that will be used for taxidermy (see point 4 "SRM permit" below on bovine skulls/ trophies)
    • Hoofs and horns that have not been processed
    • Museum specimens that have not been processed
    • Wool, feathers, and down that have not been processed
    • Furs that have not been dressed
  4. SRM permit

    Items that are considered Specified Risk Material (SRM), such as bovine skulls from animals greater than 30 months of age are required to comply with any applicable requirements of the CFIA SRM program, including any applicable permits (transport permit, storage permit etc.). Details regarding the SRM program may be found at the following link: Enhanced Animal Health Protection from BSE - Specified Risk Material (SRM).

  5. Processing

    Items that have undergone treatment or preservation in the country of origin such that pathogens are destroyed and the item will not decompose at ambient temperature may present a low level of risk of introducing diseases of concern into Canada. Treatments may include boiling, salting, drying, a change in pH, baking, immersion in peroxide etc. Examples of items that have undergone such treatments may include:

    • Fully tanned hides and skins
    • Professionally prepared taxidermy specimens in display form
    • Washed wool, feathers or down (please see Annex 2 for a list of acceptable treatments for feathers)

    These items may still, however, be subject to visual inspection at the border inspection port and must be scrupulously clean in order to be released into Canada. AIRS and the Centre of Administration (CoA) must be consulted to confirm import requirements for the specific item.

10.3 Contaminated things

10.3.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Act

Health of Animals Regulations

Part X: General Provisions

10.3.2 Policy statement

Imported things including used equipment and settler's personal effects, if not adequately cleaned, are capable of transmitting animal diseases which could threaten the health of Canada's animal populations. The CFIA requires that these items are properly cleaned and void of any visible organic matter prior to their release at the border inspection port.

10.3.3 Scope of commodities covered by this section

Note: Other commodity-specific sections of this policy and other CFIA programs may also apply to some of the below mentioned commodities.

This is not an exhaustive list.

10.3.4 Not within the scope of this section

10.3.5 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

Policy and Programs Branch (Plant Protection)
CBSA
CFIA Operations
Importer/Traveller

10.3.6 Additional import requirements

One or more of the following requirements may apply:

10.4 Milk products

10.4.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Regulations

Part III - Importation of Animal Products

10.4.2 Policy statement

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a pathogen of particular concern in milk products due to its ability to be shed in the milk of an infected animal and to survive pasteurization. An FMD outbreak could also have a devastating impact on Canada's livestock populations and international trade. Risk-based regulatory controls placed on the import of milk products are therefore focused on preventing the introduction of FMD into Canada. However, it should be noted that other diseases may also be taken into consideration in the development of import conditions based on various factors.

10.4.3 Scope of commodities covered by this section

in concentrated, dried, frozen, reconstituted or fresh form, but does not include single type (homogeneous) milk proteins, milk sugars and milk enzymes when for human consumption.

10.4.4 Not within the scope of this section

10.4.5 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

CFIA Food Import Export Division (FIED)
CFIA Animal Import/Export Division
CFIA Feeds Division

10.4.6 Additional import requirements

One or more of the following requirements may apply

Foods for human consumption containing milk ingredients may require one or more of the following, depending on the animal disease risk:

10.4.7 Other applicable legislation for milk products

Milk and milk products may also be required to comply with other legislation which may include, but is not limited to, the following

It is the importer's responsibility to comply with all applicable legislation.

10.5 Rendered products

10.5.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Regulations

Part IV: Importation of Animal By-products, Animal Pathogens and other Things

Part XIV: Food for Ruminants, Livestock and Poultry, Rendering Plants, Fertilizers and Fertilizer Supplements

Note: Imported fertilizers must also comply with the Fertilizers Act and the Fertilizers Regulations. It is advisable to confirm the requirements of the CFIA Fertilizers Program.

Note: Imported feeds must also comply with the Feeds Act and Feeds Regulations. It is also advisable to confirm the requirements of the CFIA Feeds Program.

10.5.2 Policy statement

Rendered products include the commodities listed below in Section 11.5.3. Some examples of end-uses may include manufacturing of fertilizer, animal feed and pet food. Rendered animal by-products could potentially spread animal pathogens, particularly if they are incorporated into food for animals. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) as well as other Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) are diseases of particular concern in rendered products due to the potential for these pathogens to survive the rendering processes. Risk-based regulatory controls placed on the import of rendered products are particularly focused on preventing the introduction of BSE (and other TSEs) into Canada, however other diseases of concern are also taken into consideration.

Canada accepts the OIE classification for country BSE risk categorization. Therefore, CFIA does not routinely carry out independent assessment regarding a country's BSE categorization. The CFIA's country BSE status listings can be found in the policy Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Import Policy for Bovine Animals and Their Products and By-Products.

10.5.3 Scope of commodities covered by this section

10.5.4 Not within the scope of this section

10.5.5 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

CFIA Policy and Programs Branch – Animal Import Export Division
CFIA Animal Feed Division
CFIA Operations Branch:
Competent veterinary authority of the exporting country
Importer

10.5.6 Additional import requirements

Templates of import conditions, as they become available, may be posted on the Import Policies – Animal Products and By-Products page of the CFIA website.

One or more of the following requirements may apply:

  1. Rendering system approval:

    Prior to allowing the import of rendered products into Canada from a particular country, CFIA Policy and Programs Branch along with technical support from Science Branch, must evaluate the rendering system of the foreign exporting country, including the system for regulatory oversight that is in place. The purpose of this approval is to ensure that the risk of transmission of animal diseases of concern to Canada is mitigated prior to allowing a product of a rendering plant to enter Canada.

  2. CFIA Facility Questionnaire for Export of Rendered Products to Canada:

    This document must be provided at least once per year for any rendering plant exporting a rendered product to Canada in order to obtain an import permit. It is completed by the competent authority of the exporting country following an inspection of the exporting premises. It places a particular emphasis on the handling and segregation of ruminant materials, avoidance of cross-contamination, and appropriate record-keeping.

  3. Certificate of analysis:

    A certificate of analysis is a laboratory report issued by an accredited third party laboratory stating the results of testing on a per shipment basis. This is commonly required for protein free tallow to verify that the shipment complies with the required level of insoluble impurities (less than or equal to 0.15%).

  4. Segregation protocol

    Some exporting facilities may handle multiple materials from various sources and not all of these materials may be eligible for import into Canada. If it is determined from the CFIA Facility Questionnaire for Export of Rendered Products to Canada that there are ineligible materials on site, a segregation protocol may be required detailing how export of ineligible materials to Canada will be prevented as well as how cross-contamination of eligible with ineligible materials will be prevented. This protocol must be endorsed by the competent authority of the exporting country.

10.6 Edible meat products

10.6.1 Legislative authority

Most meat products, unless they are exempt, are regulated under the authority of the Meat Inspection Act and Meat Inspection Regulations which pertain to food safety as well as the Health of Animals Act and the Health of Animals Regulations.

Health of Animals Regulations

Part IV: Importation of Animal By-products, Animal Pathogens and other Things

10.6.2 Policy statement

The oversight of imports of meat and meat products for human consumption is jointly managed by the Food Import Export Division, who are responsible for public health requirements, and the Animal Import Export Division, who are responsible for animal health requirements.

The Annex A, found within Chapter 10 of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures (MHMOP), contains all of the conditions which an exporting country has to meet in order to be eligible to export meat products for human consumption to Canada. There is a country-specific section of Annex A for all trading partners.

The import conditions found within a particular country's section of Annex A are negotiated with Canada's trading partners and are included in Official Meat Inspection Certificates (OMICs) which accompany the imported shipments. An exception to this occurs in the case of New Zealand and Australia where there is no need for a paper copy of the certificate as there is electronic certification in place with these two trading partners.

Commercial importation of meat and meat products for human consumption is only allowed from approved facilities in approved countries (exemptions are described below in Section 10.6.6 (1) Approved Establishments).

The approval of countries wishing to export meat and meat products to Canada is collaboratively managed by the CFIA's Animal Import-Export Division, Food Import-Export Division and Science Branch.

The eligibility of a country is based on an animal health evaluation as well as a meat systems evaluation, in order to determine if an exporting country can meet the CFIA's public and animal health requirements.

Information on the CFIA's Foreign Food Safety Recognition Process can be found online: Foreign Food Safety Systems Recognition Framework - About the Canadian Food Inspection Agency - Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

Animal Health import requirements for animal by-products for end-uses other than human consumption are the responsibility of the AIED.

Importation from countries that have not undergone an animal health evaluation must be assessed by the CFIA according to the policy Request to import a new commodity or import from a new country of origin.

10.6.3 Scope of commodities covered by this section

10.6.4 Not within the scope of this section

Note: Raw inedible animal products are covered below in the Raw Inedible Products section of this document.

10.6.5 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

Policy and Programs Branch
Competent veterinary authority of the exporting country

10.6.6 Additional import requirements

One or more of the following requirements may apply

  1. Approved establishments

    Meat products for human consumption imported from abattoirs or processing plants must come from premises on the list of CFIA approved establishments unless they are non-commercial shipments under 20 kg or a meat product, the total amount of which does not weigh more than 100 kg, destined and used for analysis, evaluation, testing, research or an international food exhibition. If a premises is not on the list of CFIA approved establishments, a request from the foreign competent authority is required in this respect and communication may be sent to MPDImport@canada.ca.

  2. Disease status recognition

    The import requirements will depend on animal health status of the exporting country, for example, a country, region or zone recognized as being free of diseases of concern to Canada which the imported species is susceptible to, as indicated in the Animal Health Status By Country page on the CFIA website.

  3. Annex A: Approved Countries (Countries from which commercial importation of meat products is permitted)

    For the importation of commercial shipments of meat, Annex A of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures may be used to get information about various countries' approved meat inspection systems and the type of meat product eligible for export to Canada. If an edible meat product is not listed in Annex A, it is not permitted for import into Canada.

    Annex A also lists additional certification statements/attestations required on the OMIC and established Animal Health import conditions are outlined in this section.

  4. Official Meat Inspection Certificates (OMICs)

    If the commodity falls under the Meat Inspection Act and Regulations, and if certification is required, it will be certified using an Official Meat Inspection Certificate.

  5. Inspection at an approved Canadian establishment post import (Note: if applicable, this would be a requirement under the Food Program)

10.6.7 Imports of small volumes of meat

  1. Meat accompanying travellers for personal use

    Section 3(1) of the Meat Inspection Regulations lists exemptions (Meat Inspection Regulations, Section 3, "Meat Products Exempted from the Application of the Act") from Sections 7 to 9 (Export, Interprovincial Movement, and Import respectively) of the MIA, and item 3(1)(a) states "a shipment of meat products weighing 20 kg or less that is intended to be used for non-commercial purposes" (personal use). Non-commercial importations are for the personal use and consumption of the importer and are not intended for re-sale or distribution. Personal importations of meat that are exempt from the Meat Inspection Regulations are still subject to animal health conditions.

    Up to 20 kg per traveller of meat and poultry products, including fresh meat, may be imported from the United States for personal use. The contents must be clearly labelled and proof that the product originated in the United States may be required.

    From all other countries, a maximum of 20 kg of cooked, commercially prepared, commercially sterile, and shelf-stable (i.e. safe at room temperature) meat in hermetically sealed packaging may be imported per person. The packages must have identifying marks, indicating the product and the country of origin. Hermetically sealed packaging includes glass jars and cans, semi-rigid disposable serving dishes for ready-to-eat meals, and retort pouches. Fresh, dried, and cured meats are not permitted. If the meat is of bovine, ovine, or caprine origin (beef, lamb/mutton, or goat) it may only be imported from countries of negligible risk for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease).

    An OMIC is not required for personal importations of meat. The exporting premises are not required to be on CFIA's approved list of establishments.

  2. Samples

    Importations of meat or meat products not exceeding 100 kg that are destined for analysis, evaluation, testing, research, or an international food exhibition are exempted from the requirements of the MIR. However, Animal Health requirements such as an import permit and zoosanitary certificate may still apply. Public health requirements also apply under the Food and Drugs Regulations, even for samples exempt from the MIR.

    Carcasses of game animals

    Section 49 of the HAR outlines requirements applicable to the import of carcasses of game animals from the United States. For imports of carcasses of game animals from other countries a risk assessment would be required according to the policy Request to import a new commodity or import from a new country of origin.

10.6.8 Ships' stores

In order to allow meat and meat products to be carried on a ship such that the introduction of animal disease into Canada is prevented, the meat or meat by-product must be kept on the ship as ships' stores according to section 48 of the HAR.

10.7 Raw inedible products

10.7.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Regulations

Part IV: Importation of Animal By-products, Animal Pathogens and other Things

10.7.2 Policy statement

Since raw inedible animal products and by-products have not undergone a pathogen-destroying processing method, they present an increased risk of disease introduction into Canada. The Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) should be consulted to determine whether established import conditions exist, and if they do not then the CFIA may need to develop new conditions according to the policy Request to import a new commodity or import from a new country of origin. Raw inedible products may only be imported from countries and establishments approved for export to Canada. Please refer to Annex A of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures for a list of approved countries.

10.7.3 Scope of commodities covered by this section

10.7.4 Not within the scope of this section

10.7.5 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

10.7.6 Additional import requirements

One or more of the following requirements may apply

  1. Zoosanitary certificates

    A zoosanitary certificate is used to certify the required animal health statements. Raw inedible products from some of the countries designated by the CFIA as free of diseases of concern have established import conditions and negotiated zoosanitary certificates. Templates of import conditions, as they become available, may be posted on the Import Policies – Animal Products and By-Products page of the CFIA website.

  2. Import permit

    An importer may apply for an import permit for raw inedible commodities from countries not recognized free of diseases of concern for the species of origin. A risk evaluation may be required.

  3. Denaturation

    All inedible meat products must be denatured before import. Denaturing consists of application of an approved agent that alters the appearance of an inedible product so that it is easily identifiable as unfit for human consumption. Exceptions may rarely be made for products that are not likely to be mistaken for edible meat such as gastrointestinal tracts.

  4. Labelling requirements

    Each container or pallet should have the following information on the label

    1. The identity of the inedible meat product in terms that is descriptive of the product (for example, denatured beef lungs, de-characterized pork livers)
    2. The words "Product of" followed by the name of the exporting country
    3. Wording to state the end use such as "for animal food", "for medicinal purposes/pharmaceutical use", or "not for human consumption," as appropriate
    4. The net quantity (weight)
    5. The name and address of the registered establishment where the inedible meat product was produced or labelled, or the person for whom the meat product was produced or labelled, preceded by the words "Prepared For"
    6. Storage instructions; "Keep Frozen, Keep Refrigerated" as applicable
    7. The words "Plant Number" followed by the Establishment number of the foreign establishment in which the meat product was prepared

10.8 Pet food

10.8.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Regulations

Part IV: Importation of Animal By-products, Animal Pathogens and other Things

Part XIV: Food for Ruminants, Livestock and Poultry, Rendering Plants, Fertilizers and Fertilizer Supplements

10.8.2 Scope of commodities covered by this section

Note: Any food for an animal species that is not regulated by the Feeds Act and Regulations may be regulated by the Health of Animals Act and Regulations if it contains animal-origin ingredients. (for example, food for laboratory or zoo animals)

10.8.3 Not within the scope of this section

Note: Animal products and by-products used as ingredients for pet food manufacturing are not covered under this section and would be covered under other sections such as Rendered Products, Highly Processed Products or Raw Inedible Products.

10.8.4 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

AIED APABP Import
Operations Branch
Importer
Competent authority of the exporting country

10.8.5 Pet food imported as samples for laboratory testing, diet trials, or for exhibition purposes

For pet food imported as samples for laboratory testing, for diet trials, or for exhibition purposes, the conditions may vary from those for commercial sale. Please consult AIRS for specific conditions and ensure to choose the correct end use.

10.8.6 Additional import requirements

One or more of the following requirements may apply

  1. Inspection and Annex 1 - Importation of Commercially Prepared Pet Food Facility Questionnaire for Risk Assessment

    For the export of commercial shipments of pet food, the exporting premises may require an inspection and a premises questionnaire completed and endorsed by an official of the competent authority of the exporting country on an annual basis. It will be reviewed by the CFIA and used to assess the risk of introduction of animal diseases of concern into Canada, and whether an import permit can be issued for pet food produced at the premises.

  2. Requirements for personal imports of pet food

    Travelers from the U.S. may bring into Canada a personal import of pet food (limit of 20 kg per animal per entry), if the import meets all of the following requirements

    • The pet food or product must be processed, of United States origin and commercially packaged
    • The pet food or product must be in the possession of the traveler at the time of entry from the U.S.
    • The animal that will eat the imported product must accompany the traveler at the time of entry
    • The imported product will be fed only to the animal that accompanied the traveler into Canada
    • It may either be wet or dry, in its original unopened bag or can
    • The label must clearly indicate the list of ingredients

10.9 Pet chews

10.9.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Regulations

Part IV: Importation of Animal By-products, Animal Pathogens and other Things

10.9.2 Policy statement

Pet chews differ from pet treats or compound chews in that they have no nutritional value and are not intended to be consumed as a source of nourishment by the pet (see Definitions). Pet chews are often composed of materials obtained from livestock species and may not have been thoroughly processed at the time of manufacture such that all diseases of concern have been destroyed in the country of origin. Since pet chews are handled by domestic pets, it is unpredictable whether they could in turn be exposed to domestic livestock, thereby presenting a risk of introduction of animal diseases of concern into Canada. It is therefore necessary that the CFIA establishes controls on imported pet chews under the authority of the HAR in order to mitigate such risk.

10.9.3 Scope of commodities covered by this section

Animal-origin washed, heat-treated and dried single- or multi-ingredient pet chews made of

10.9.4 Not within the scope of this section

10.9.5 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

AIED APABP Import
Operations Branch
Importer
Competent authority of the exporting country

10.9.6 Additional import requirements

One or more of the following requirements may apply

  1. Heat treatment

    Pet chews, packed in final packaging or bulk, may be required to be subjected to a heat treatment sufficient to destroy microbial and/or pathogenic organisms, including salmonella.

  2. Avoidance of cross-contamination

    After heat treatment, every precaution must be taken to ensure that such pet chews are not exposed to contamination.

  3. Bacterial culture testing

    Testing by an independent accredited laboratory in the country of origin may be required.

    Each shipment must be accompanied by a Laboratory Certificate of Analysis, showing test results linked to the product(s) being imported into Canada. The bacterial testing protocol can be found in Annex 4.

  4. Zoosanitary certificate that may require one or more of the following statements

    1. That the product is dried (if basted, must be less than 12% moisture) and contains no other animal products or by-products
    2. That the country is free of the diseases of concern related to the species of animal used in the production of the chew
    3. That the product was subjected to a heat treatment to reach a minimum temperature of 85°C for a minimum of 5 hours
    4. The parameters of the heat treatment if different from the above
    5. The origin of the product
  5. Other

10.10 Laboratory and research samples

10.10.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Regulations

Part IV: Importation of Animal By-products, Animal Pathogens and other Things

Part X: General Provisions

10.10.2 Policy statement

Animal products and by-products may be imported into Canadian laboratories for research and testing, or may be imported for commercial distribution to laboratories in Canada. Import requirements depend upon the regulatory requirements outlined in the Health of Animals Act and Regulations by commodity.

In the case of commercial imports for distribution and sale to laboratories in Canada, a zoosanitary export certificate negotiated between Canada and the exporting country is required.

Information on rendered meals made from animal blood (bloodmeal) can be found under the Chapter on Rendered products.

Note: If Animal Health declines to issue an import permit due to a non-negligible level of risk, the importer may pursue obtaining a permit through the OBCS if compliant with their requirements

10.10.3 Scope of commodities covered by this section

10.10.4 Not within the scope of this section

10.10.5 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

The Office of Biohazard Containment and Safety (OBCS), Science Branch
Animal Import Export Division, Policy and Programs Branch
Operations Branch
Veterinary Biologics (PPB)

10.10.6 Import requirements for animal products and by-products imported for commercial laboratory use

For commodities that are intended to be imported for commercial use and where negotiated conditions are not available in AIRS, importers are required to request an evaluation according to the policy Request to import a new commodity or import from a new country of origin. For example, a laboratory may routinely import bacterial culture medium containing fetal bovine serum from a commercial supplier in large quantities. In this case a zoosanitary certificate should be negotiated through PPB. This is in contrast to materials imported once or only a few times in small quantities which are generally the subject of the research, testing, or analysis and may not require a formally negotiated zoosanitary certificate.

10.10.7 Import requirements for laboratory and research samples

One or more of the following requirements may apply

  1. Laboratory approvals

    An approval of the importing laboratory may need to be conducted by the OBCS for compliance with established laboratory biocontainment and biosafety requirements of the Canadian Biosafety Standards (CBS), 2nd Edition - PDF (2250 kb). A valid compliance or certification letter issued by OBCS would need to be provided in order for an Animal Health import permit to be issued.

  2. Destruction/disposal requirements

    Requirements to properly destroy and/or dispose of any remaining material after the testing or research may be stipulated in the import permit. This may involve incineration, autoclaving, or other pathogen-killing procedures followed by disposal at an approved landfill site.

  3. Record-keeping requirements

    Record-keeping requirements may be included in import permits to facilitate ease and efficiency of tracing activities should they become necessary for disease-control purposes. Record-retention periods may also be included.

  4. Adequate treatment of samples

    In some cases treatments (such as heat) may be applied to samples to destroy pathogens and thereby mitigate disease risk. As per sections 41(1)(b) and (c), if a product is from a country that is not considered free of diseases of concern and it has not been adequately treated, the disease risk would not be sufficiently mitigated. In this case the shipment would not be allowed to enter Canada.

    In order for the CFIA to consider the use of a treatment process that has not yet been evaluated, a request must be made to CFIA Policy and Programs Branch, through the CoA, to evaluate this process. In some cases, a formal Risk Assessment request will be required, as per the CFIA policy Request to import a new commodity or import from a new country of origin.

  5. Restrictions to in vitro use only

    Restricting animal-origin samples to in vitro use only may be a condition stipulated in an import permit. The risk of disease transmission is considerably lower if the material is not exposed to, or introduced directly into live animals.

  6. Other:

    Additional conditions may be applied specific to the import.

10.11 Bee products

10.11.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Regulations

Part VI: Importation of Packing Material, Beehives and Beeswax

10.11.2 Policy statement

Many viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases affect populations of honeybees. The most prevalent diseases and pests around the world which could further spread in Canada as a result of the importation of honeybee products are as follows

  1. Varroa mites (Varroa jacobsoni and Varroa destructor)
  2. Tracheal mites (Acarapis woodi)
  3. Small hive beetle (Aethina tumida)
  4. American foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae)

Although some of these diseases and pests may already be present in various parts of Canada, in order to limit their impact and spread, mitigating measures may be placed on imports of bee products depending on their place of origin, the time of year of import, the destination within Canada and the end use.

10.11.3 Scope of commodities covered by this section

(Note: "Pollen" is distinct from "bee pollen". Bee pollen has been collected by bees whereas pollen is obtained directly from plants by humans without having been in contact with bees. Bee pollen may have import requirements under the Animal Health program whereas pollen does not. However, pollen may have import requirements under the Plant Protection Program.)

10.11.4 Not within the scope of this section

(Note: "Pollen" is distinct from "bee pollen". Bee pollen has been collected by bees whereas pollen is obtained directly from plants by humans without having been in contact with bees. Bee pollen may have import requirements under the Animal Health program whereas pollen does not. However, pollen may have import requirements under the Plant Protection Program.)

10.11.5 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

CFIA Food Import Export Division (FIED)
CFIA Animal Import/Export Division
CFIA Animal Feed Division

10.11.6 Additional import requirements

Note: It is prohibited to import used beehives and bee equipment under Health of Animals Regulations paragraph 57 (a).

One or more of the following requirements may apply

  1. Absence of live honeybees or bee brood in the shipment

    Since live honeybees or bee brood can be a potential source of transmission of diseases of concern to Canada, it is essential that they are eliminated from any shipments of imported bee products prior to arrival in Canada.

  2. Irradiation

    Bee products may require irradiation at an acceptable establishment at 10 kGray to destroy pathogens, particularly if the product could potentially be exposed to bees while in Canada. A certificate would need to be presented to a CFIA inspector demonstrating that the irradiation was completed. Approved irradiation facilities, as they become available, will be posted on the Import Policies – Animal Products and By-Products page of the CFIA website.

  3. Country designation as free from bee diseases of concern

    If a shipment of a bee product is imported from a country that is designated as free of Small Hive Beetle, an export certificate may be required attesting to this freedom.

  4. Restrictions on the time of year of the importation

    If unprocessed beeswax is from a country of origin affected by Small Hive Beetle, the import permit may restrict the time of year during which the importation may take place as follows

    • It may only be imported between October 1st and March 31st into Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and the Northwest Territories
    • It may only be imported between December 1st and March 31st into British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime provinces
    • It may not be imported into Canada during the summer and fall
  5. Freezing the product

    A wax shipment may be required to be frozen, and the refrigerated transportation conveyance may be required to display a temperature reading of -20 degrees Celsius (-9 degrees Fahrenheit) upon reaching the port of entry into Canada.

  6. Approval of facility

    It may be required that the importation takes place into a facility previously approved by the CFIA for the rendering and processing of beeswax.

  7. Non-insulated building

    If the product is received into a non-insulated building in Canada during the times of year specified above, the conditions would be unfavourable for the survival of small hive beetle in the product.

  8. Professional extermination services

    Upon completion of the importing season (as outlined above) the receiving facility may be required to receive professional extermination services in order to destroy any remaining pests, and to provide a certificate of extermination to the CFIA.

  9. Incineration of wax debris

    It may be required that any wax debris in the transportation vehicles or storage buildings which is swept from the floors is to be incinerated as soon as possible, and is never to be swept outside.

10.12 Egg products

10.12.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Regulations

Part III: Importation of Animal Products

10.12.2 Policy statement

Egg products could potentially spread animal pathogens such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Velogenic Newcastle Disease (VND). Outbreaks of these diseases can have detrimental impacts on Canada's poultry populations and international trade. Risk-based regulatory controls placed on the import of egg products are therefore focused on preventing the introduction of these diseases into Canada. However, it should be noted that other diseases may also be taken into consideration in the development of import conditions based on various factors.

10.12.3 Scope of commodities covered by this section

Note: Animal Health import requirements for egg products apply to eggs from any avian species.

10.12.4 Not within the scope of this section

10.12.5 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

CFIA Food Import Export Division (FIED)
CFIA Animal Import/Export Division

10.12.6 Additional import requirements

One or more of the following requirements may apply

  1. Zoosanitary Certificate attesting to the processing method (see Annex 5 for processing methods)
  2. Zoosanitary Certificate of Origin for countries that are free of HPAI and ND

10.13 Highly processed products

10.13.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Regulations

Part IV: Importations of Animal By-products, Animal Pathogens and other Things

10.13.2 Policy statement

Risk-based regulatory controls placed on the import of highly processed products are focused on preventing the introduction of animal diseases of concern into Canada. These commodities are as follows

10.13.3 Scope of commodities covered by this section

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

Note: Nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA are covered in the Laboratory and Research Samples section of this policy.

10.13.4 Not within the scope of this section

10.13.5 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

CFIA Food Import Export Division (FIED)
CFIA Animal Import/Export Division
CFIA Animal Feed Division

10.13.6 Additional import requirements

One or more of the following requirements may apply

  1. Labelling requirements

    The product may need to be clearly identified on the label as a "highly processed product" or as an "ingredient in finished product", and clearly identified for use in industrial or laboratory purposes.

    The label may require the cautionary statement "Do not feed to cattle, sheep, deer, or other ruminants."

  2. Importer's declaration

    A written declaration from the importer (dated, signed and linked to the shipment being imported) may be required indicating one or more of the following

    • The species of origin and end use of the product
    • That the product is not derived from bones of bovine origin
    • That the product does not contain any trace of protein or fat
    • That the end use of the product is not for human consumption
  3. Zoosanitary certificate

    A zoosanitary certificate may be required stating one or more of the following

    • Species
    • Part or substance taken from the animal or animals
    • Country of origin
    • That the country of origin is free of diseases of concern to Canada
    • That the products was not prepared using the following bovine tissues or any protein products from which they were derived: the skull – including the brain, trigeminal ganglia and eyes, the spinal cord and the vertebral column (excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, and the wings of the sacrum) – and the palatine tonsils from all bovine animals aged 30 months or older; and that the product was not prepared using the distal ileum from bovine animals of all ages
    • In the case of hides and skins from bovine animals aged 30 months or older and stunned using a penetrating device, that the face plates were removed, or trimmed of hide a minimum of 2.5 cm around the stun hole and a minimum of 2.5 cm around all parts of the face plate which were visibly contaminated with brain tissue or washed, scraped, vacuumed, or otherwise processed to remove visible brain materials
    • That the bones used to prepare the product were derived from bovine animals that were not subjected to a stunning process prior to slaughter, with a device injecting compressed air or gas into the cranial cavity, or to a pithing process, and were subjected to and passed ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection
  4. Treatments/processing methods

    One or more of the treatment/processing requirements listed in Annex 6 may need to be applied to the product.

  5. Shipping invoice

    • A shipping invoice that states
      • The names of the consignor and consignee
      • That the product contains prohibited material

10.14 Medicinal and natural health products

10.14.1 Legislative authority

Health of Animals Regulations

Part IV: Importation of Animal By-products, Animal Pathogens and other Things

Note: It is recommended to contact Health Canada to confirm whether they have any regulatory requirements on imported medicinal and natural health products. Please note that these items may not be sold or used for medicinal, natural health or pharmaceutical purposes in Canada unless they meet Health Canada's requirements for efficacy and safety. Contact information for Health Canada is outlined below

Natural Health Products Directorate

Health Canada

Health Products and Food Branch

Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate

Submission Administration Unit

250 Lanark Avenue, A.L. 2002B

Ottawa, Ontario

K1A 0K9 (Canada Post delivery; including Xpresspost)

K1Z 1G4 (Courier service; excluding Xpresspost)

E-mail: NNHPD_DPSNSO@hc-sc.gc.ca.

The website for the Office of Natural Health Products may also serve as a source of information.

In the case of medicinal products which may be derived from potentially endangered species, it is recommended that the importer contact Environment and Climate Change Canada as outlined below

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)

c/o The Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Public Inquiries Centre

7th floor, Fontaine Building

200 Sacré-Coeur Boulevard

Gatineau QC K1A 0H3

telephone: 1-800-668-6767 (toll-free number) or 819-938-3860 (National Capital Region)

E-mail: ec.enviroinfo.ec@canada.ca

10.14.2 Scope of commodities covered by this section

Note: This is not an exhaustive list. If the commodities listed below are used for end-uses other than for medicinal or natural health, they may fall under other sections of this policy, or other CFIA programs.

10.14.3 Not within the scope of this section

Note: Exemptions may apply to the following commodities destined for human use

10.14.4 Roles and responsibilities

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.

CFIA Animal Import/Export Division
CFIA Food Import Export Division (FIED)

Note: It is recommended that the importer consult with Health Canada for any requirements they may have.

10.14.5 Additional import requirements

One or more of the following requirements may apply

  1. Proof of origin

    In the case of products originating from the USA, some products may be allowed entry into Canada with proof of origin that is considered acceptable to CBSA.

  2. Processing of raw animal glands and animals organs at an approved establishment in Canada

    Under section 42.1 (1) of the HAR, a person may import raw animal glands and animal organs into Canada from a country or a part of a country not referred to in section 41 if the glands and organs are transported under seal of an inspector directly from the place of entry to an establishment approved by the Minister for the purposes of processing.

  3. Zoosanitary certificate

    An original zoosanitary certificate signed by an official veterinarian of the government of the country of origin may be required certifying that the product originated from a country or zone designated by Canada as free from diseases of concern (for example, BSE and foot and mouth disease in the case of bovine products).

11 Other government departments and agencies

The importer is responsible for confirming and complying with the requirements of all government departments and agencies that may be applicable. These may include, but are not limited to, the following

12 Other CFIA programs

It is the importer's responsibility to confirm and comply with all applicable CFIA programs. These may include, but are not limited to the following

13 Other legislation

The importer is responsible for confirming and complying with the requirements of all legislation that may be applicable. This may include, but is not limited to, the following

14 Other links

15 Annexes

15.1 Annex 1: Acceptable treatments of manure

  1. Porcine, ruminant: subjected to a minimum of 77 degrees Centigrade for 7 days
  2. Poultry: subjected to a minimum of 65 degrees Centigrade for 5 days

15.2 Annex 2: Acceptable treatments for feathers

Feathers or down for export to Canada may be processed to ensure the destruction of Avian Influenza virus and Newcastle Disease virus using one of the following

  1. Washed and steam-dried at 100°C for 30 minutes
  2. Fumigation with formalin (10% formaldehyde) for 8 hours
  3. Irradiation with a dose of 20 kilogray, or
  4. Any equivalent treatment which has been demonstrated to inactivate Avian Influenza virus and Newcastle Disease virus and that has been evaluated and approved by the competent animal health authority of (insert country of origin) for this purpose

15.3 Annex 3: Acceptable treatments of milk products

The product has been subjected to the following treatments

Every precaution was taken to prevent contamination of the product after completion of the processing with anything of a lesser status.

15.4 Annex 4: Bacterial culture testing requirements for pet chews

The testing methodology to be followed for pet chews requires a random sampling of at least five samples from each processed batch taken prior to or after storage at the processing plant, complying with the following standards

Salmonella:

absence in 25g: n = 5, c = 0, m = 0, M = 0,

Enterobacteriaceae:

n = 5, c = 2, m = 10, M = 300 in 1 gram;

Where:

n = number of samples to be tested;

m = threshold value for the number of bacteria; the result is considered satisfactory if the number of bacteria in all samples does not exceed m;

M = maximum value for the number of bacteria; the result is considered unsatisfactory if the number of bacteria in one or more samples is M or more; and

c = number of samples the bacterial count of which may be between m and M, the sample still being considered acceptable if the bacterial count of the other samples is m or less.

15.5 Annex 5: Acceptable treatments of egg products

Treatments outlined in Schedule I of the Processed Egg Regulations are also acceptable.

15.6 Annex 6: Acceptable treatments of highly processed products

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