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Consultation summary on maximum nutrient values in swine feeds

Respondent comments
and CFIA responses

November 23 – December 23, 2016

On this page

Introduction

Building on considerable consultation, research, design and planning work completed over the past few years to continuously improve how the CFIA does business. The Agency is moving forward on five strategic priorities to help safeguard food, animals and plants in order to enhance the health and well-being of Canada's people, environment and economy.

To maximize the Agency's capacity to respond to risk now and into the future, all work being done by the CFIA will align with the these five priorities:

  1. Modern regulatory toolkit - the CFIA's modern regulatory toolkit, which focuses on outcome-based regulations with new compliance promotion tools, supports the Agency's role in protecting Canada's food, plants and animals, while facilitating product innovation
  2. Integrated risk management - the CFIA's decisions and actions are based on risk and science. The Agency's new risk management tools, analytics and surveillance contributes to informed resource allocations and enforcement priorities while also bolstering the CFIA's ability to adapt quickly and respond to emerging risks in a changing global environment
  3. Consistent and efficient inspections – a single inspection approach focused on regulatory outcomes and effectiveness of industry controls, supported by guidance and mobile tools, will contribute to greater efficiency and agility for the Agency when responding to emerging risks
  4. Digital-first tools and services - electronic access as the preferred method of requesting and receiving services from the CFIA, through applications such as My CFIA and Ask CFIA, will support industry compliance with regulatory requirements while helping to manage and prevent food safety risks
  5. Global leader – the CFIA's collaboration with partners around the world will support the development of international rules and standards, fairness in trade practices, enhanced use of technology, increased regulatory cooperation and improve market access for industry

The modernization of the Feeds Regulations (Regulations) is taking these priorities into account in order to benefit the collective Canadian feed industry, which includes livestock producers, commercial feed manufacturers, retailers, importers, exporters, ingredient manufacturers, and food processors. In addition to aligning with other international feed regulatory regimes, modernization also maintains the objective of ensuring the regulations are as outcome-based, efficient and as flexible as possible while also continuing to ensure feeds are safe and contribute to the production and maintenance of healthy livestock, safe foods of animal origin, and that they do not pose a significant risk to the environment.

The oversight of nutrient values in feeds is just one aspect of the Regulations that is being reviewed as part of the comprehensive modernization project. Table 4 of Schedule I was created and incorporated into the Feeds Regulations in the 1980s as a mechanism to exempt certain groups of feeds from registration. Currently, if a complete feed provides nutrients which fall within the ranges listed in Table 4, or a supplement has directions for use which would result in a complete feed that provides nutrients which fall within the Table 4 ranges, the feed can be exempted from registration. Feeds that provide nutrients which fall outside the ranges listed in Table 4, and that do not meet any additional exemption criteria, require assessment and registration by the CFIA prior to manufacture and sale.

The values in Table 4 no longer have the same nutritional relevancy that they did when the table was first introduced. Stakeholders have also indicated that they feel Table 4 prevents innovation for new feed products. However, many of the maximum nutrient limits which are currently set in Table 4 have health and safety implications that must be considered.

The CFIA undertook a consultation from November 23, 2016 to December 23, 2016 on a proposal to identify maximum nutrient values in swine feeds. It was also proposed that Table 4 be removed from the Regulations and no longer serve as a trigger for registration of feeds based on specified ranges of nutrient content. Finally, the proposal indicated that these maximum nutrient values would be included in a document to be incorporated by reference in the regulations to allow the flexibility to amend the list(s) in a timely manner, as necessary.

This report consolidates and summarizes the comments received on the maximum nutrient values in swine feeds proposal and the CFIA's response to those comments.

The CFIA would like to thank everyone who participated in the consultation for contributing their time to the consultation process and sharing their views.

About the consultation

The primary mode of consultation involved the preparation and posting of the Proposal – Maximum Nutrient Values in Swine Feeds – on the CFIA website, and outreach directly to industry stakeholders, government partners and CFIA staff. 27 sets of written comments were received in response to the maximum nutrient values in swine feeds proposal.

What we heard

Respondent profile

Table 1: Respondent profile
Category of respondent Distribution
Feed industry – individual 13
Feed industry – association 4
Livestock producer – individual 3
Livestock producer – association 0
Other 3
Government (Canadian federal/provincial) 4
Total 27

The feed industry association comments represent Canadian and American commercial feed manufacturers, as well as some larger feed ingredient supplier organizations. The Canadian feed manufacturers association represents 90 percent of commercial feed manufactured in Canada, while the US association represents about 75% of commercial feed manufactured in the US. The "Other" listed in the table above included a consulting firm, a food manufacturer and a national food industry association.

Key respondent messages

There was considerable interest among respondents regarding the alternative oversight approach presented in this proposal. While stakeholders provided many suggestions for improvement regarding the proposed maximum nutrient values for swine feeds, the CFIA did not receive any comments indicating an outright disagreement with the proposed regulatory approach.

Respondents indicated they agreed with the concept of discontinuing the use of Table 4 as a means of exempting feeds from registration. However, they also raised some concerns regarding the proposal, including:

A more detailed discussion of these concerns and the CFIA's responses follows below.

Comments received from livestock producers echoed the concerns expressed from other stakeholders and focussed mostly on the impacts that some of the proposed values may have on their production practices and livestock. They also stressed the importance of maintaining flexibility with certain nutrient values that may exceed the nutritional needs of swine to support optimal growth and reproduction.

Feedback on the proposed maximum nutrient values in swine feeds

Scope of the proposal

The scope of the Table 4 review was described in the proposal as determining those nutrient values that may impact the health and safety of the respective livestock, humans, and environment; determining those nutrient values that support a nutritional purpose as opposed to a therapeutic purpose; and determining those nutrient values that may produce residues in the resulting food that could be harmful to those consuming the products. 5 respondents commented on the stated scope of this proposal. 4 respondents suggested the maximum values proposed for certain nutrients were based more on animal performance concerns and not on animal health concerns, thus outside the scope of this proposal. 1 respondent was unsure how human occupational safety concerns related to the use of highly concentrated micro/macro premixes would be handled.

CFIA response

During its assessment for the purposes of proposing the maximum nutrient levels, the CFIA reviewed scientific studies identifying the maximum tolerable level (MTL) from an animal health perspective and then focussing on whether these levels of nutrients could represent a food safety, therapeutic use, or environmental worker concern. Nutrients fed at levels that may have a negative impact on livestock are usually first observed when a reduction in animal performance, such as feed efficiency, occurs. As a result, it was reasonable to consider adverse animal performance effects in the scope of the review as an indicator of animal health.

For those feeds that may contain concentrated levels of nutrients (such as micro premixes or macro premixes), mixing directions would continue to be required on feed labels to indicate the maximum nutrient values would not be exceeded when formulating a complete feed. Proper labelling will permit the safe preparation and use of the swine rations and potentially reduce the risk of adverse occupational exposure and maximum nutrient values being exceeded.

Suggestions for improvement

With respect to individual nutrients and their maximum values, in many cases respondents indicated that the proposed values were too low, based on current industry practices and the experiences of individual nutritionists in the formulation of diets for swine species.

CFIA response

The CFIA appreciates the time stakeholders invested in providing detailed descriptions and rationales of their production practices, growing stages and concerns with the proposed maximum nutrient values. The CFIA acknowledges these perspectives and in many instances, agrees to increase certain nutrient maximum levels in response to this feedback as further described below.

Growing stages

The proposal identified the following as growing stages for swine:

Swine growing stages
Class Proposed growing stages
Starter 3-5 Kg
6-10 Kg
11-20 Kg
Grower 21-50 Kg
Finisher 51-80 Kg
> 80 Kg
Dry Sows Breeding
Lactating Sows Lactating

While 2 respondents felt the proposed classes were adequate and agreed with the suggested approach, 6 respondents indicated a concern with the proposed age classification for swine set out in the proposal. These respondents went on to suggest alternative growing stages to reflect current industry practices, including:

CFIA response

The CFIA agrees that the classes set out in the proposal may not be reflective of swine industry current practices and will proceed to amend the swine class growing stages as follows to align with NRC 2012:

Swine
Class Revised growing stages
Starter <7 kg
7-11 kg
11-25 kg
Grower 25-50 kg
50-75 kg
Finisher 75-100 kg
100-135 kg
Dry Sows Dry
Lactating Sows Lactating
Sexually Active Boars Boars

While Boars were not specifically identified as a class in the proposal, they are indicated in the NRC 2012. As no specific nutrient toxicity concerns for boars have been identified, the CFIA intends to include an additional swine class and subsequent maximum nutrient values for Sexually Active Boars. Furthermore, given the similarities boars have to lactating sows regarding size, nutrient requirements, and food production uses, it is proposed that the maximum nutrient values for boars will be aligned with those for lactating sows.

If production practices continue to change over time, amendments to the age ranges can be made in a more timely fashion as the CFIA will seek to incorporate these ranges in a document to be referenced in the Regulations.

Macro-minerals

Summary of feedback - Calcium and Phosphorus levels
Nutrient Number of respondents with comments Number in agreement with proposed values Number not in agreement - Summary of feedback
Calcium (Ca) 10 3 4 – Indicated the proposed value was too low and suggested following the NRC recommendation of a Ca:P ratio of 1.25:1 thus increasing the maximum Ca value to 1.25%
2 – Suggested there are no animal health concerns and lower levels may lead to skeletal abnormalities
1 – Suggested maintaining the maximum value currently outlined in Table 4
Phosphorus (P) 6 5 1 – Indicated there was no animal health or toxicity concerns with this nutrient thus no maximum value should be established

CFIA response

Calcium Phosphorus ratio (Ca:P)

The NRC (2005) reports optimal Ca:P of 1:1 to 1.25:1. With dietary Ca:P ratios of 1.3:1 to 2:1, swine exhibit no adverse response in growth performance or bone traits to various levels of dietary phosphorus up to 0.9%. Phosphorus in excess of the NRC suggested maximum tolerable level (MTL) of 1% results in a quadratic decrease in feed use efficiency in growing swine (NRC, 2005). Based on this information the maximum calcium value will be adjusted (see below) to allow for feed formulation throughout the Ca:P ratio up to 2:1.

Calcium

After careful review and consideration of the suggested values from all respondents, the CFIA intends to amend the maximum calcium values in swine feeds to 2% for all classes.

These levels will allow for the formulation of swine feeds throughout the optimal Ca:P ratio range while respecting the phosphorus MTL of 1%. These changes proposed for the maximum calcium values will enable increased flexibility for variable feeding practices and genetic diversity as well as provide protection against certain nutritionally-based metabolic disorders.

Phosphorus

Overall, respondents agreed with the proposed maximum for P which aligns with the NRC (2005) animal health MTL of 1%. Furthermore, increasing dietary P negatively impacts the environment.

Summary of feedback - Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium and Sulfur levels
Nutrient Number of respondents with comments Number in agreement with proposed values Number not in agreement - Summary of feedback
Magnesium (Mg) 11 0 6 – Suggested the proposed value was unnecessarily low and proposed maintaining the maximum value currently outlined in Table 4 of 0.3%
5 – Suggested there are no animal health or toxicity concerns with this nutrient and can be used to assist in reducing aggressive behavior in swine
Sodium (Na) 5 4 1 – Indicated the maximum value was already too high and suggested maintaining the maximum value currently outlined in Table 4 of 0.8%
Potassium (K) 8 1 3 – Indicated the maximum value currently outlined in Table 4 of 2% was sufficient for all classes and should be maintained
3 - Suggested the proposed maximum value should be increased to 3% as there are no toxicity concerns
1 – Suggested rounding the proposed values to either 2% or 3% for all classes
Sulfur (S) 11 0 5 - Proposed the maximum value is too low and suggested using the NRC maximum value of 0.4% instead
3 – Indicated restricting sulfur to 0.2% in starters would limit the use of lysine sulphate
3 – Proposed no maximum value be established for this nutrient as the levels found in some feed ingredients are difficult to control and suggested a lack of scientific support to propose any maximum level

CFIA response

Magnesium

The incorporation of Mg into livestock diets was traditionally used to prevent metabolic disorders associated with Mg deficiency. NRC (2005) recommends an MTL of 0.24% in swine feeds. However, comments received for the proposed reduction of Mg from 0.3% to 0.2% indicate that the reduction is unnecessary and that the existing 0.3% should be maintained. The use of levels above 0.2% can result in osmotic diarrhea which respondents indicated is easily managed. Levels up to 0.3% result in improving carcass quality as muscles are relaxed; pork colour has been shown to be improved by short and long-duration Mg supplementation. Improved pork water holding capacity and decreased drip losses has also been shown with short duration Mg supplementation before slaughter. Other than manageable increases in loose stool, levels up to 0.3% do not result in adverse effects. With this feedback and additional literature references indicated above, the CFIA will maintain the 0.3% maximum. (D'Souza et al., 1998; D'Souza et al., 1999; Apple et al., 2000; Hamilton et al., 2002; Swigert et al., 2004; Apple, 2007; O'Driscoll et al., 2013; Tarsitano et al., 2013).

Sodium

Given the respondent feedback received, the CFIA will proceed with the maximum values for sodium of 1.1% identified in the proposal.

Potassium

Based on reviewed literature indicating low toxic concern for potassium in feeds in the range of 2-3%, and respondents' feedback, the CFIA will modify its proposal to 3% for all classes of swine.

Sulfur

While young swine are more susceptible to osmotic diarrhea and scouring when introduced to elevated sulfur in water or feed, these effects are generally temporary as animals adapt to increased S such that performance is not affected. Overall, literature indicates that feeds containing as high as 0.4% S are tolerated; at this time there is a lack of data to suggest a higher inclusion would be tolerated. As such, the CFIA will set the maximum sulfur value for swine to 0.4% for all production stages in alignment with recommendations from NRC (2005) and feedback received by respondents.

Trace minerals

Summary of feedback - Cobalt, Copper, Iodine and Iron levels
Nutrient Number of respondents with comments Number in agreement with proposed values Number not in agreement - Summary of feedback
Cobalt (Co) 5 5 0
Copper (Cu) 9 4 3 – Indicated the level proposed was too high and suggested maintaining the maximum value currently outlined in Table 4 of 125 mg/kg due to environmental concerns
2 – Questioned the benefit of increasing the maximum value and suggested that the proposed level could be used for starter feeds solely
Iodine (I) 7 5 2 – Higher Iodine levels may be used to improve detection of estrus in sows thus the proposed maximum value was too low and should be increased to at least the current maximum value of 10 mg/kg
Iron (Fe) 6 6 0

CFIA response

Cobalt

Given there were no objections to the cobalt levels proposed, the CFIA will proceed with the maximum values for cobalt identified in the proposal.

Copper

Consultation with Health Canada's Veterinary Drugs Directorate (VDD) on antibiotic and metal co-resistance selection suggests that raising copper levels in feed at this time may not be warranted. Studies have identified potential mechanisms for how this resistance can be acquired and transferred. Raising maximums would likely increase the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The VDD has recommended that the current maximum of 125 mg/kg for swine be maintained or further reduced. A feed containing a maximum of 125 mg/kg is already 12-25 times higher than basal nutrient requirements depending on the swine production phase. In response to this recommendation and those of respondents who indicated that increases to the copper maximum were unnecessary, the CFIA is modifying its proposed maximum to 125 mg/kg copper for all swine feed.

Iodine

The NRC (2012) iodine dietary requirement (0.14 mg/kg feed) for all classes of swine is equivalent to 0.04 mg/day for swine 5-7 kg and to 0.84 mg/day for lactating sows. The CFIA will proceed with a maximum of 4 mg/kg. This amount provides a 30 fold buffer for formulating feeds containing goiteragenic substances and anti-nutrients, for example, glucosinolates (Lüdke and Schöne, 1988; Schöne et al., 1988; Schöne et al., 1990; Schone et al., 2006; Berk et al., 2008).

Thyroid hypertrophy has been demonstrated at concentrations greater than 4 mg/kg feed (Newton and Clawson 1974; Schöne 1999; Schone et al., 2006; Berk et al., 2008; Franke et al., 2008). Feeding 10 mg/kg of iodine to grower/finisher swine resulted in a 2 to 3 fold increase in muscle iodine content depending on the source of iodine, while increases in muscle iodine content when fed 4 mg/kg were not significantly different. Organ tissues, especially liver and kidney, accumulated iodine to a greater degree than muscle (Schöne, 1999; Schone et al., 2006; Franke et al., 2008; Li et al., 2012).

No references could be found to support the use of high dietary iodine levels for the detection of estrus in sows which was suggested by two respondents as a rationale for maintaining a maximum level of 10 mg/kg. Djurdjevic et al., 1992 found no benefit to supplementing greater than 1 mg/kg of iodine to gilts in various stages of the reproduction cycle.

Iron

Given there were no objections to the iron levels proposed the CFIA will proceed with the maximum values for iron identified in the proposal.

Summary of feedback - Manganese, Selenium and Zinc levels
Nutrient Number of respondents with comments Number in agreement with proposed values Number not in agreement - Summary of feedback
Manganese (Mn) 7 6 1 – Indicated this level was too low and should be increased to allow 500 mg/kg in piglets, 1000 mg/kg in grower‐finisher pigs and 2000 mg/kg adult pigs. This respondent went on to further suggest that establishing a maximum value for this nutrient was outside the scope of the project as the level was based on reduced average daily gain and not animal health.
Selenium (Se) 14 2 12 – Concerns expressed regarding the controls needed to adhere to the "total" requirement. Suggestions included increasing the maximum level to 0.5 mg/kg, 0.6 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg and keeping the requirement on an "added" basis as opposed to a "total" basis.
Zinc (Zn) 14 1 11 – Suggested increasing the maximum value to help prevent diarrhea and promote growth, for example 2000-3000 mg/kg
2 – Proposed maximum value was too high given the potential increase in antibiotic resistance with the use of elevated zinc levels and suggested the current maximum value of 500 mg/kg should be maintained

CFIA response

Manganese

While average daily gain in piglets was observed in Matrone et al., 1959 this was attributed to the anemia rather than a direct effect of manganese. However, anemia was prolonged and exasperated by manganese's interference with hemoglobin formation. Given the susceptibility of piglets to anemia, the CFIA will retain a maximum level of manganese in starter diets of 125 mg/kg. However, based on respondent comments the CFIA will amend the maximum level to 1000 mg/kg for other classes to align with the NRC (2005) maximum tolerance.

Selenium

Setting maximums for selenium on a total diet rather than on an added selenium basis aligns with how the standards are set for all nutrients. Recent work by Environment and Climate Change Canada under the Chemical Management Plan highlights the need for risk management measures to reduce selenium releases caused or influenced by humans into water. This would include releases from agriculture, including releases from feed. A standard based on total selenium rather than added selenium limits inputs in feeds, thereby reducing agricultural releases. It also addresses the need to limit selenium transfer to foods of animal origin. The CFIA provided Health Canada's Food Directorate with data on the transfer of selenium to foods of animal origin through feed. Health Canada has indicated that 1 mg/kg total selenium in the diet should not result in selenium levels in foods of animal origin of concern. The data provided by CFIA covered studies using both organic and inorganic sources of selenium in diets and accounted for intrinsic and added selenium identified in diets. Feedback from stakeholders indicated that a total selenium maximum of 1 mg/kg was achievable. The originally proposed total selenium maximum of 0.5 mg/kg in the diets for swine will be amended to 1 mg/kg at 88% DM aligning with stakeholder feedback and Health Canada's assessment.

Zinc

Consultation with Health Canada's Veterinary Drugs Directorate (VDD) on antibiotic and metal co-resistance suggests that raising zinc levels in feed at this time may not be warranted. Studies have identified potential mechanisms for how this resistance can be acquired and transferred. Raising maximums would likely increase the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The VDD supports a reduction of the current zinc maximum of 500 mg/kg to 150 mg/kg for swine following recommendations from CFIA and the public domain. This reduction would be beneficial to help reduce the emergence and spread of AMR based upon current knowledge of metal supplementation and antibiotic co-resistance mechanisms. A feed containing a maximum of 150 mg/kg of zinc is 2 to 4 times the basal nutrient requirements for swine. The VDD recognizes that the use of zinc for the treatment or prevention of diarrhea in nursery piglets is a veterinary therapeutic purpose. Zinc used for this purpose would require approval from the VDD. The CFIA is modifying its proposed maximum to 150 mg/kg zinc for all swine feed.

Vitamins

Summary of feedback - Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin C levels
Nutrient Number of respondents with comments Number in agreement with proposed values Number not in agreement - Summary of feedback
Vitamin A (Vit A) 14 0 14 - Proposed maximum value was too low as there was no evidence of toxicity or animal health concerns and suggested amending the proposed value, depending on class, from 12,000 IU/Kg to 20,000 IU/Kg
Vitamin D (Vit D) 9 8 1 – Suggested the maximum value was too low as there was no evidence of adverse effects at higher levels and proposed the value be increased to 3,500 IU/Kg
Vitamin E (Vit E) 6 3 2 – Suggested that no maximum value should be established as it is cost prohibitive to feed elevated levels of this vitamin and thus would not occur
1 – Suggested using the NRC value of 2,000 IU/Kg to ensure maximum flexibility to the industry
Vitamin C (Vit C) 4 4 0

CFIA response

Vitamin A

Many respondents indicated that the proposed 6500 IU/kg maximum for grower and finisher swine feeds is too low, with some indicating that there have been no issues in the field. Animal health is not the concern posed by vitamin A in feeds for grower and finisher swine. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2008; 2013) identifies that liver is the only food of animal origin for which consumption poses a risk to the adult consumer. A comprehensive review of the correlation between vitamin A intake and liver stores in swine was reviewed by EFSA (2008). Based on the correlation reported and data for vitamin A content in pork liver in the Canadian Nutrient File (21,650 IU/100 g (standard error 3334.623, n=13)) an estimate from the upper 95th confidence interval is indicative of a feed vitamin A content of approximately 7200 IU/kg in the diets of swine. An amended vitamin A maximum for grower and finisher swine feeds of 10,000 IU/kg is proposed based on respondent feedback and additional analysis. That said, the CFIA will request a review of liver vitamin A levels by Health Canada's Food Directorate.

For breeding and lactating sows, issues related to reproductive performance, genetics breeder's recommendations, and feed management were identified by many respondents indicating a single value for all sows in the 12,000 to 15,000 IU/kg would be more representative of industry practice. Based on this feedback and their relationship to market hogs, an amended vitamin A maximum for dry and lactating sows of 15,000 IU/kg is proposed.

The 16,000 IU/kg proposed maximum vitamin A content in starter swine ration (piglets) seems to fit within the scope of the current feed industry practice as no specific comments were received against this proposed value with provides flexibility needed for the ranges of feed intake during the starter phase(s) of production. This maximum also aligns with that proposed by EFSA (2008; 2013)

Vitamin D

The majority of respondents agreed with the increase in the vitamin D maximum to 2200 IU/kg feed which aligns with the NRC (1987) long term feeding maximum for greater than 60 days. One respondent pointed to more recent work (Wilborn et al., 2004) where finishing swine were fed 40,000 and 80,000 IU vitamin D3/kg-feed (as fed) for 44 and 51 days before slaughter with adverse impact on average daily gain only indicated in the 80,000 IU treatment group. While this research is more recent, it does not address feeding intervals of greater than 60 days. The findings are in range with NRC 1987 which indicated that feeding levels as high as 33,000 IU/kg in feed for less than 60 days can be tolerated without adverse animal health effects. The 2200 IU/kg-feed proposed, which aligns with the NRC (1987) long term feeding maximum for >60 days, is 2.5 to 14.7 fold greater than NRC (2012) vitamin D requirements for different classes of swine, and is 10% higher than the maximum level set by the European Commission.

Vitamin E

The CFIA agrees with the respondents that an increase in the proposed maximum value does not present an animal health or food safety risk and may benefit the health of the animal. As a result, the CFIA intends to increase the proposed maximum vitamin E value for all classes of swine to 2,000 IU/kg aligning with the upper rather than lower range provided by NRC (1987)

Vitamin C

Given there were no objections with removing vitamin C from the list of maximum nutrient values the CFIA will proceed with their removal from the proposal.

Additional respondent feedback

Regulations respecting customer formula feeds

In addition to the suggested amendments provided by stakeholders and summarized above, the CFIA received additional inquiries with respect to the future state of the customer formula exemption criteria. 4 respondents indicated a desire for CFIA to maintain the flexibility the customer formula criteria currently provides to the industry, including having access to a secure tool to achieve elevated levels of nutrients in the feeds, when requested by the purchaser.

CFIA response

The customer formula exemption currently allows manufacturers to formulate feeds, as per their customer's request, outside the Table 4 nutrient ranges without requiring premarket registration by the CFIA. As the nutrient ranges in Table 4 will be removed from the Regulations and replaced with a list of maximum nutrient values established in respect of animal health, human health and the protection of the environment, it is not anticipated that feeds will be permitted to be manufactured above the maximum values identified under any circumstances. For those stakeholders who do have a desire to manufacture feeds with one or more nutrients above the established maximum value(s), an application to amend the maximum value would be required to be submitted to the CFIA along with supporting data to substantiate the safety of this feed. See Consolidated Proposal, "Customer and Consultant Formula Feeds" under heading, "Permissions – Mixed Feeds".

Next steps

The CFIA is preparing a formal regulatory proposal for publication in the Canada Gazette Part I which will incorporate the comments received on all the consultation proposals, public meetings, stakeholder workshops and submissions, and other outreach activities that have been used over the course of the project. A draft of the Maximum Nutrient Values in Swine Feeds will be available for public review and comment at the time of the Canada Gazette publication.

Appendix I – Maximum nutrient values for swine feeds

Swine classes
Class Proposed Revised
Starter 3-5 kg
6-10 kg
11-20 kg
<7 kg
7-11 kg
11-25 kg
Grower 21-50 kg 25-50 kg
50-75 kg
Finisher 51-80 kg
>80 kg
75-100 kg
100-135 kg
Dry Sows Breeding Dry
Lactating Sows Lactating Lactating
Sexually Active Boars None proposed Boars

Macro-minerals

Calcium (Ca)
Class Proposed level
(%, at 88% Dry Matter (DM))
Revised level
(%, at 88% Dry Matter (DM))
All 1 2
Phosphorus (P)
Class Proposed level
(%, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(%, at 88% DM)
All 1 1
Magnesium (Mg)
Class Proposed level
(%, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(%, at 88% DM)
All 0.2 0.3
Sodium (Na)
Class Proposed level
(%, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(%, at 88% DM)
All 1.1 1.1
Potassium (K)
Class Proposed level
(%, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(%, at 88% DM)
Starter (3-5kg) 3 3
Starter (6-10kg) 2.8 3
Starter (11-20kg) 2.6 3
Grower (21-50kg) 2.3 3
Grower (51-80kg) 1.9 3
Finisher (>80kg) 1.7 3
Dry Sows 2 3
Lactating Sows 2 3
Sexually Active Boars No maximum level proposed 3
Potassium (K)
Class Proposed level
(%, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(%, at 88% DM)
Starter (3-5kg) 0.2 0.4
Starter (6-10kg) 0.4 0.4
Starter (11-20kg) 0.4 0.4
Grower 0.4 0.4
Finisher 0.4 0.4
Dry Sows 0.4 0.4
Lactating Sows 0.4 0.4
Sexually Active Boars No maximum level proposed 0.4

Trace minerals

Cobalt (Co)
Class Proposed level
(mg/kg, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(mg/kg, at 88% DM)
All 1 1
Copper (Cu)
Class Proposed level
(mg/kg, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(mg/kg, at 88% DM)
All 250 125
Iodine (I)
Class Proposed level
(mg/kg, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(mg/kg, at 88% DM)
All 4 4
Iron (Fe)
Class Proposed level
(mg/kg, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(mg/kg, at 88% DM)
All 750 750
Manganese (Mn)
Class Proposed level
(mg/kg, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(mg/kg, at 88% DM)
Starter 125 125
Grower 125 1,000
Finisher 125 1,000
Dry Sows 125 1,000
Lactating Sows 125 1,000
Sexually Active Boars No maximum level proposed 1,000
Selenium (Se)
Class Proposed level
(total mg/kg, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(total mg/kg, at 88% DM)
All 0.5 (total) 1 (total)
Zinc (Zn)
Class Proposed level
(mg/kg, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(mg/kg, at 88% DM)
Starter 1,000 150
Grower 1,000 150
Finisher 1,000 150
Dry Sows 1,000 150
Lactating Sows 1,000 150
Sexually Active Boars No maximum level proposed 150

Vitamins

Vitamin A
Class Proposed level
(IU/Kg, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(IU/Kg, at 88% DM)
Starter 16,000 16,000
Grower 6,500 10,000
Finisher 6,500 10,000
Dry Sows 12,000 15,000
Lactating Sows 7,000 15,000
Sexually Active Boars No maximum level proposed 15,000
Vitamin D
Class Proposed level
(IU/Kg, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(IU/Kg, at 88% DM)
All 2,200 2,200
Vitamin E
Class Proposed level
(IU/Kg, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(IU/Kg, at 88% DM)
All 1,000 2,000
Vitamin C
Class Proposed level
(IU/Kg, at 88% DM)
Revised level
(IU/Kg, at 88% DM)
All Remove Remove
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