Weed Seed: Linaria repens (Striped toadflax)

Family

Plantaginaceae

Common Name

Striped toadflax

Regulation

Primary Noxious, Class 2 in the Canadian Weed Seeds Order, 2016 under the Seeds Act.

Distribution

Canadian: Occurs in NB, NL, NS (Brouillet et al. 2016Footnote 1)

Worldwide: Native to Europe and introduced in North America (Hanf 1983Footnote 2). In the United States, it is present in the northeast (USDA-NRCS 2016Footnote 3).

Duration of life cycle

Annual

Seed or fruit type

Seed

Identification features

Size

  • Seed length: 1.3 - 2.0 mm
  • Seed width: 1.0 - 1.3 mm

Shape

  • Blocky, oval-shaped seed with rounded edges

Surface Texture

  • Seed covered in ridges that form a wavy-wrinkled pattern

Colour

  • Seed dull brownish-black, immature seeds are greyish

Other Features

  • The seed edges are granular.

Habitat and Crop Association

Cultivated fields, old fields, pastures, thickets, roadsides, railway lines and disturbed areas (Hanf 1983Footnote 2, Darbyshire 2003Footnote 4).

Similar species

Broomleaf toadflax (Linaria genistifolia)

  • Broomleaf toadflax seeds are a similar size, dark colour and rough surface as striped toadflax.
  • Broomleaf toadflax seeds are shiny black, have one tapered end and sharp winged edges compared to striped toadflax.

Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica)

  • Dalmatian toadflax seeds are a similar size, blackish colour and rough surface as striped toadflax.
  • Dalmatian toadflax seeds are shiny black, straight-edged blocky and have sharp winged edges compared to striped toadflax.

Photos

Striped toadflax (Linaria repens) seeds
Striped toadflax (Linaria repens) seeds
Striped toadflax (Linaria repens) seed

Similar species

Similar species: Broomleaf toadflax (Linaria genistifolia) seeds
Similar species: Broomleaf toadflax (Linaria genistifolia) seeds
Similar species: Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica) seeds
Similar species: Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica) seed
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