Weed Seed: Convolvulus arvensis (Field bindweed)

Family

Convolvulaceae

Common Name

Field bindweed

Regulation

Primary Noxious, Class 2 in the Canadian Weed Seeds Order, 2016 under the Seeds Act.

Distribution

Canadian: Occurs in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS and PE (Brouillet et al. 2016Footnote 1).

Worldwide: Native to northern Africa, Europe and Asia, where its distribution extends north to Siberia and south to Pakistan and Nepal (USDA-ARS 2016Footnote 2). Introduced to North and South America, Australia and New Zealand (CABI 2016Footnote 3). In the United States, it is most common in the Midwest and western regions (Kartesz 2011Footnote 4).

Duration of life cycle

Perennial

Seed or fruit type

Seed

Identification features

Size

  • Seed length: 3.0 - 5.0 mm
  • Seed width: 2.3 - 3.7 mm

Shape

  • Seed ovate, trigonous with the hilum at the narrow end

Surface Texture

  • Seed coarsely roughened with dense tubercles

Colour

  • Seed greyish-brown, brown, orange to black with lighter tubercles

Other Features

  • Hilum is orange and oval-shaped

Habitat and Crop Association

Cultivated fields, old fields, pastures, gardens, fencelines, roadsides and other disturbed areas (Darbyshire 2003Footnote 5). A weed of 32 different crops in 44 countries, including wheat, barley, corn, legumes, sugarbeet, vegetables, cotton, tobacco, potato, pineapples, flax, alfalfa, vineyards, and tree crops (Weaver and Riley 1982Footnote 6, Royer and Dickinson 1999Footnote 7, CABI 2016Footnote 3).

General Information

Field bindweed was introduced from Europe in the 18th century. It can be dispersed as a contaminant of crop seeds (Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries 2002Footnote 8).

Field bindweed grows best in fertile, well drained soils, in regions with moderate to good rainfall (CABI 2016Footnote 3). Seed production ranges from 25 to 300 seeds per plant, depending on conditions. Seeds remain viable in the soil for over 20 years (Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries 2002Footnote 8).

Similar species

Hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium)

  • Hedge bindweed has a similar ovate shape, brownish colour, orange hilum and surface tubercles.
  • Hedge bindweed (length: 4.0 - 5.5 mm; width: 4.0 - 4.5 mm) is generally larger than field bindweed, has a large hump on the convex side, smaller tubercles and a D-shaped hilum rather than oval.

Photos

Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) seeds
Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) seed
Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) seed
Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) seed
Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) seed
Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) seed, cross-section

Similar species

Similar species: Hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium) seeds
Similar species: Hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium) seed
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