Weed Seeds Order Review - Proposal for Change
6.0 Proposed Species Placement and Rationales

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The WSO (2005) currently lists 20 species in Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious), 18 species in Class 2 (Primary Noxious), 17 species in Class 3 (Secondary Noxious), 5 species in Class 4 (Secondary Noxious) and 10 species in Class 5 (Noxious).

This consultation document contains species profiles for 104 species.  The intent is not necessarily to include all of these species or to dramatically change the size of the WSO, but to provide stakeholders with the opportunity to comment on all species considered and identify which species they feel are most important to include in the WSO.

Species are suggested for listing because they fit or continue to fit the definition of Prohibited, Primary, Secondary or Noxious as outlined above.

Listed species are selected because movement and spread occurs via the seed pathway. Certain species may also reproduce by other means i.e. vegetative, but are listed on the WSO, as some percentage of reproduction is by seed.

Stakeholders should consider that delisting a species may have repercussions as overall purity standards of seed may decline, and trading partners may look to Canada as a dumping ground for seed with lower purity standards. Placement of species within the WSO can affect the grade applied to particular lots of seed. A listing of impurities (weed seeds and other crops) found in seed over the 2001-2008 time period is included in this document. 

Other considerations include demonstration of herbicide resistance and particular concern for certain production practices such as organic, or reduced tillage systems. Affects on human and animal health are noted. Areas requiring further research are also noted. Much of the species specific information was obtained from Pest Risk Assessment documents written by CFIA botanists.

Descriptions of current and proposed WSO species follows. Respondents are also strongly encouraged to review species specific information within the Canadian Seed Institute Workshop reports as well as conducting their own species specific research.

Latin Name: Aegilops cylindrica Host
English Common Name: Jointed goatgrass
French Common Name: Égilope cylindrique
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Aegilops cylindrica is an annual grass (Poaceae) and is native to Western Asia and Eastern Europe. In Canada, A. cylindrica has two populations in Ontario which are undergoing eradication. A. cylindrica has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 2005, when it was added to the WSO as a Prohibited Noxious weed. A. cylindrica is a serious weed in the western U.S., where it was introduced as a contaminant in winter wheat seed from Russia. A. cylindrica is regulated as a noxious weed in AZ, CA, CO, ID, NM, OR and WA and is present in at least four states adjacent to the Canadian border (WA, ID, MT and NY). In the U.S., this species infests more than 5 million acres of winter wheat and 2.5 million acres of fallow land, and costs producers an estimated $150 million a year. This species is difficult to control in winter wheat, as the two species have similar growth habits and a similarity in their genetics make it possible for the two plants to hybridize. Herbicide control of A. cylindrica in winter wheat is ineffective, with the exception of herbicide-tolerant winter wheat varieties. A. cylindrica could potentially establish up to Canada Plant Hardiness Zone 2b, which includes the majority of Canada's agricultural land. The presence of A. cylindrica in Canadian seed or grain could have negative trade impacts with Mexico, certain U.S. states, Australia, China and possibly other countries.

As A. cylindrica is under eradication in Ontario, it still meets the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed. Therefore it is proposed that A.cylindrica remain listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Alopecurus myosuroides
English Common Name: Slender foxtail
French Common Name: Vulpin des champs
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Alopecurus myosuroides is an erect, winter annual, tufted grass which propagates only by seed. The main pathway for entry into Canada, based on monitoring of seed lots, is as a contaminant in grass seed lots. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. myosuroides was detected in 3 imported seed samples. In Canada, A. myosuroides has been reported as introduced in contaminated seed at research stations in BC and MB, but it has never become established. This species is regulated in the state of WAA. myosuroides is likely to survive to NAPPFAST hardiness zone 6, which would include coastal and extreme southern BC, extreme south western Ontario and the coasts of NS and Newfoundland. The seeds are easily identified and are readily separable from seeds of other Alopecurus species. The level of risk for introduction of A. myosuroides associated with imports of grass seed, hay and straw into Canada is relatively high since they originate primarily from areas where the species is present. A. myosuroides is likely to become weedy or invasive in parts of southern Canada, particularly in winter cereals in southwestern ON A. myosuroides is considered a serious weed of winter cereals in Europe and the states of OR and WA. Herbicide-resistant populations of A. myosuroides are reported in Europe. Based on the outcome of the Weed Risk Assessment conducted by the CFIA, it is proposed to list A. myosuroides as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Bothriochloa ischaemum
English Common Name: Yellow bluestem
French Common Name: Chiendent à balai, barbe-de-Dieu, pied-de-poule
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Bothriochloa ischaemum is an erect, perennial C4 bunchgrass. B. ischaemum is native to central, southern and eastern Europe, large areas of temperate Asia and to a lesser extent, tropical Asia. It was intentionally introduced into the Unites States in the early 1900s as a soil stabilizer, and as a forage and hay crop. B. ischaemum is not regulated at the federal or state level in the U.S.  This species is not reported to occur in Canada and no evidence that it is cultivated in Canada was found. The most likely pathway of entry for B. ischaemum into Canada is by intentional introduction. B. ischaemum currently dominates most central Texas grasslands and is considered a problem by many land managers. Efforts are now being made in the U.S. to curb its planting in favour of native grasses and to control this troublesome species in native vegetation.

The results of the Weed Risk Assessment were that B. ischaemum has the potential to establish and become weedy or invasive across much of Canada NAPPFAST zones 2 and higher). Therefore, based on these results, it is proposed that B. ischaemum be included as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Centaurea iberica
English Common Name: Iberian star thistle
French Common Name: Centaurea iberica
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Centaurea iberica is a biennial herbaceous plant, but may behave as an annual or short-lived perennial in some environments. There are no records of C. iberica being found in imported seed lots in Canada for the past 10 years, but two samples of imported clover seed from the USA were contaminated with "starthistle" seeds. The main pathway for introduction of C. iberica into Canada is considered to be as a contaminant in seed lots. C. iberica is likely hardy to NAPPFAST Hardiness Zone 6, which would include coastal and southernmost BC, extreme south western Ontario and small areas on the coasts of the Maritime provinces, including Newfoundland. This species displaces valuable forage species in pastures and rangelands and its sharp spines deter grazing animals which restricts access for livestock and reduces the value of hay. The presence of C. iberica in Canada could affect trade of forage seed with the states of AZ, CA, NV and OR, where it is regulated. Based on the results of the Weed Risk Assessment conducted by the CFIA, it is proposed that C. iberica be listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Centaurea solstitialis
English Common Name: Yellow starthistle
French Common Name: Centaurée du solstice
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Centaurea solstitialis is a winter annual herbaceous plant, rarely a biennial or short-lived perennial. Yellow starthistle is poisonous to livestock (horses).  C. solstitialis has been reported to occur in Canada, but there is no evidence of persistent populations and no evidence was found that it is cultivated in Canada. Therefore, this species is considered absent. Based on the current range of established populations in the USA, it appears that this species would survive to NAPPFAST Zone 5. C. solstitialis was added to the WSO in 1986 as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Based on the outcome of the pest risk assessment, C. solstitialis is considered likely to establish and become invasive in parts of Canada, including southern BC, if it is introduced to these areas. It is proposed that C. solstitialis remain listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Crupina vulgaris
English Common Name: Common crupina
French Common Name: Crupine commune
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Crupina vulgaris is a winter annual weed of the aster family (Asteraceae) and is native to the Mediterranean region of Europe. Since its introduction in the United States in 1968 in Washington, Idaho, Oregon and California, its populations have been increasing. Based on current distribution, Crupina vulgaris could establish in Canada in USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 4 to 8. C. vulgaris has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1986, when it was added to the WSO as a Prohibited Noxious weed. Depending on the level of infestation and the potential range of the species, C. vulgaris could have serious negative economic impacts on at least two major industries in Canada, forage and livestock production. The marketing of seed commodities could also be affected due to its designation as a federal noxious weed in the United States. Crupina vulgaris contributes to the degradation of native and managed plant communities and increases the risk of soil erosion.

As it is not yet present in Canada and a pest risk assessment has shown that it is a potential threat to Canada, it is proposed that C. vulgaris remain listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Cuscuta spp.
English Common Name: Dodder
French Common Name: Cuscute
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Cuscuta spp. are annual parasitic vines of the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae). The genus is widespread around the world and most of the exotic species are now of very sporadic occurrence in Canada. Exotic species could be considered to be "not widely distributed and under official control" and therefore qualify as quarantine pests to Canada. Further definition to the species level is needed. Cuscuta spp. is a regulated pest of many grain trading nations.

Latin Name: Echinochloa colona
English Common Name: Jungle rice
French Common Name: Échinochloé cultivé
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Echinochloa colona is an annual grass in the tribe Paniceae. E. colona grows in cultivated fields, waste ground and along ditches. E. colona is most likely to enter Canada as a contaminant of seed and grain lots, but seeds of Echinochloa are difficult to identify to species, so it is probably that such contaminant seeds would be misidentified as barnyard grass. E. colona is likely to survive to USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 6b, therefore corn and soybean production in a small area of south western ON would be the one area of concern. E. colona is propagated primarily by seed. Multiple herbicide resistance has been observed in this species within several herbicide groups.

The seeds of E. colona can be identified by seed analysts under the microscope. The regulation of this species has the potential to greatly increase the number of submissions of Echinochloa seeds, common contaminants of seed, to the CFIA seed laboratory for identification.

Latin Name: Echium plantagineum
English Common Name: Paterson's curse
French Common Name: Vipérine faux-plantain
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Echium plantagineum is an annual or biennial broadleaved weed. It has been widely introduced around the world as a garden plant and pasture species. Some of the major issues surrounding E. plantagineum include its ability to dominate pastures in its exotic range, toxicity to livestock and potential control issues including herbicide resistance. E. plantagineum has demonstrated herbicide resistance in Australia. E. plantagineum has shown the ability to flower and set seed up to Zone 2 or 3 in field trials. CFIA conducted public consultations on E. plantagineum using a document which included the PRA for E. plantagineum, management options and finally resulted in the decision to strictly prohibit the importation of Echium plantagineum into Canada. The recommendation was also made to regulate E. plantagineum as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Eriochloa villosa
English Common Name: Woolly cup grass
French Common Name: Ériochloé velue
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Eriochola villosa is an annual grass (Poaceae), is native to Eastern Asia and is introduced in the USA. Four known populations in Canada are in Quebec and are under official control for eradication. Controlling E. villosa populations in the field requires a combination of chemical, mechanical and cultural control methods. The potential range of this species includes the corn and soybean growing areas in Canadian Plant Hardiness Zones 3-8 E. villosa reduces crop yield in corn, soybean and cereals. E. villosa has been regulated as a Prohibited Noxious weed since 2005, when it was added to the WSO.

As E. villosa is undergoing eradication efforts in Quebec, it is proposed that E. villosa remain listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Halogeton glomeratus
English Common Name: Halogeton
French Common Name: Halogeton
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Halogeton glomeratus is an herbaceous, semi-succulent annual of the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae). It is native to cold desert regions of central Asia and is widely established in the western USAH. glomeratus is listed as noxious in AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA and WY. The main pathways of introduction are thought to be through human travelling and through the import and movement of live sheep and other livestock. H. glomeratus is poisonous to livestock due to its high concentrations of oxalates. H. nglomeratus is thought to negatively impact soil processes in several ways, thereby further degrading disturbed or overgrazed ranges and pastures and inhibiting their recovery. H. glomeratus has been regulated as a Prohibited Noxious weed since 1960. This species is not present in Canada. This species is considered to be hardy in USDA hardiness zones 3 and higher.

It is proposed that H. glomeratus remain listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Milium vernale
English Common Name: Spring Millet grass
French Common Name: Millet de printemps
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Milium vernale is an annual grass which reproduces only by seed. This species is not regulated as a federal noxious weed in the U.S. but it is listed as a noxious weed in IDM. vernale was first detected in North America in 1987, when it was found infesting winter wheat and other crops in north-central Idaho. Although the infested area has increased since it was first detected, it has not been reported within North America outside of Idaho. Due to its presence in Idaho, a possible pathway of introduction into Canada is as a seed contaminant in grain or in seed lots from Idaho. It is probable that M. vernale would survive to USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 5, which includes coastal and southern BC, south western ON and the Maritimes.

M. vernale is considered likely to become weedy or invasive in the winter wheat growing areas of southern Canada. Based on the results of the Weed Risk Assessment conducted by the CFIA, it is proposed to add this species as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Nassella trichotoma
English Common Name: Serrated tussock
French Common Name: Stipe à feuilles dentées
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Nassella trichotoma is a perennial grass which is native to eastern South America. There are no established populations known in North America. N. trichotoma is listed by the U.S. as a Federal Noxious Weed and has been regulated in Canada as a Prohibited Noxious weed since 2005. The potential range of this species in Canada would likely be confined to Canadian Plant Hardiness Zone 8, possibly extending into Zone 7. In pasture, this species reduces the carrying capacity due to its low nutritive value and poor palatability to livestock. N. trichotoma is a risk to native grasslands as it has the potential to become established in those areas. The main pathway for introduction of N. trichotoma into Canada is considered to be as a contaminant of seed.

As N. trichotoma is not yet present in Canada and a pest risk assessment has shown that it is a potential threat, it is proposed that N. trichotoma remain listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Paspalum dilatatum
English Common Name: Dallis grass
French Common Name: Paspale dilaté
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Paspalum dilatatum is a perennial, C4 grass. In parts of the southern USA, P. dilatatum is a perennial weed problem on lawns, golf courses and other turf areas. Control in turf is very difficult. This species is considered a weed of 14 crops in 28 countries. P. dilatatum is not currently regulated as either a U.S. federal or state noxious weed. It is probable that the most likely pathway for introduction into Canada is as contaminants in grass seed.

P. dilatatum is considered likely to establish and become invasive in parts of Canada, including southern and coastal BC and possibly southern Ontario and parts of the Maritime provinces, if it is introduced to these areas. Therefore, based on the results of the Weed Risk Assessment conducted by the CFIA, it is proposed to include P. dilatatum as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Peganum harmala
English Common Name: African-rue
French Common Name: Rue de Syrie, pégane, harmel
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Peganum harmala is an erect, stiff-stemmed, bushy perennial herbaceous plant. It is not known to be present or cultivated in Canada. This species reproduces through seed and by natural spread. P. harmala was first planted in the United States in 1928 in NM for dye production. It is regulated in AZ, CA, CO, NM, NV and ORP. harmala has been reported from NAPPFAST zone 3 in Montana. The main area of establishment at present is concentrated in NM, TX and AR. Once P. harmala is established, it is persistent, dominant and difficult to control. P. harmala is considered likely to establish and become invasive in parts of Canada, especially drier areas in southern BC and possibly most of the southern prairies, if introduced. Intentional introduction is the most likely pathway for entry to Canada as the seeds are readily available on the internet.

It is toxic and unpalatable to grazing animals, and is toxic to humans. Two substances found within P. harmala (harmaline and harmalol) are regulated as controlled substances under Schedule 3 of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) administered by Health Canada. According to s. 22 of the CDSA, a controlled substance includes any thing that contains a controlled substance and any thing that is intended for use in producing the substance. The substance may not be obtained by cultivating, propagating, or harvesting it from any living thing from which it may be extracted. The import, export, sale and production of harmaline, harmalol and plants that contain these substances is prohibited (s. 4). Regulating P. harmala under the Weed Seeds Order in addition to measures already in place under the CDSA will provide another means to prevent the species from entering the country and additional enforcement measures if the species is intercepted at the border. Under the CDSA, only the chemicals contained within P. harmala are listed under Schedule III. If placed on the WSO, the plant name will be listed.

Therefore, based on the results of the Weed Risk Assessment conducted by the CFIA, it is proposed that P. harmala be listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Persicaria perfoliata
English Common Name: Devil's-tail tearthumb (Mile-a-minute weed)
French Common Name: Renouée du Turkestan
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Persicaria perfoliata is an annual or perennial weed that is native to cool temperate regions of eastern Asia. This species reproduces by seed only. It is not considered an agricultural weed, but has caused economic damages and losses to trees and shrubs in orchards, nurseries, Christmas tree plantations (and potentially other commercial forest sites), and regeneration sites. The spiny, thicket-forming nature of P. perfoliata could also make natural areas unpleasant for tourists and thereby bring about reductions in the tourism industry in infested areas. Potential indirect economic impacts include cost of control to a variety of sectors, including seed or grain contamination. In the literature, this species is considered to be hardy to USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 6.

Based on a CFIA pest risk assessment, it is proposed that P. perfoliata be listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Pueraria montana
English Common Name: Kudzu
French Common Name: Kudzu, vigne japonaise, vigne kudzu
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Pueraria montana is a perennial, deciduous, semi-woody vine. P. montana is notorious in the United States where it is referred to as the "plant that ate the south". It shades and crushes its competitors, killing native vegetation and forming kudzu monocultures. In the US, this species is listed as a noxious weed in CT, FL, IL, KS, KY, MA, MS, MO, OR, PA, TX, WA and WV. It has also been nominated as one of the "World's Worst" invaders. P. montana is not native or naturalized in Canada and there is a known plantation of P. montana in Toronto, which is maintained by a researcher under carefully controlled conditions. One incursion of P. montana was discovered in southwestern Ontario in September 2009. Based on U.S. naturalized range of P. montana, it is thought that this species could survive in southern and coastal BC, southwestern ON and the Maritimes. In November 2005, P. montana was found within the city of Albany, NY, which is approximately 320 km from the Canadian border. The main pathway for entry into Canada is considered to be intentional movement and planting by humans. P. montana also has medicinal, culinary, forage and bioenergy uses that may make it an attractive species for cultivation, regulation of this species as a Prohibited Noxious weed would limit these uses. P. montana is an alternate host for soybean rust.

Although seed is not a major pathway for P. montana, the results of the pest risk assessment indicated that the prevention of P. montana should be stressed as it is very difficult to control once established. Well established stands of P. montana can take up to ten years to eliminate, and require persistent elimination of all root material.

Therefore, it is proposed that P. montana be listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Senecio inaequidens
English Common Name: Narrow-leaved ragwort, South African ragwort
French Common Name: Sénéçon du Cap, sénéçon sud-africain
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Senecio inaequidens is a broadleaved, herbaceous short-lived perennial shrub. This species is not thought to be present or cultivated in Canada. This species is a prolific seed producer and is designated a federal noxious weed in the United States. S. inaequidens is considered likely to become weedy or invasive in parts of Canada, including southern and coastal British Columbia, extreme southern Ontario and parts of the Maritimes, if it were to be introduced. S. inaequidens contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids that are toxic to both livestock and humans.  This species prefers warm, dry disturbed sites with well-drained soils. This species is considered a weed of crops and pastures in Europe. Herbicide resistance of S. inaequidens has been reported from Germany. Based on the results of the Weed Risk Assessment conducted by the CFIA, it is proposed that S. inaequidens be listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Solanum elaeagnifolium
English Common Name: Silverleaf nightshade
French Common Name: Morelle jaune, Morelle à feuilles de chalef
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Solanum elaeagnifolium is an erect, deep-rooted, shrub-like perennial herb. It is a weed of crops, pastures and disturbed areas in its native and introduced ranges worldwide. S. elaeagnifolium is not reported to occur in Canada and no evidence was found that it is cultivated in Canada. S. elaeagnifolium is regulated as a noxious weed in the following 19 U.S. states: AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, FL, GA, HI, ID, KS, LA, MI, NM, NV, OK, OR, SC, TX and WA. This species invades cultivated and agricultural land and occurs along roadsides and in rangelands. All parts of the plant, but particularly the berries, are poisonous to livestock. The most likely pathway of entry for this species into Canada is through unintentional introduction as a contaminant of fodder or crop seed. S. elaeagnifolium has the potential to become weedy or invasive in parts of BC, southern ON and the Altlantic provinces. The introduction of this species may reduce the yields of forages, corn, wheat, cultivated pastures, vegetables (e.g. potato, asparagus, and tomato), grapes and some fruit trees (e.g. peaches).

Based on the results of the Weed Risk Assessment conducted by the CFIA, it is proposed that S. elaeagnifolium be listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Xanthium sibiricum
English Common Name: Siberian cocklebur
French Common Name: Lampourde
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Xanthium sibiricum is a member of the aster family whose habitat is farmlands, wastelands and crop fields. The main pathways of introduction for this species are as a seed and grain contaminant and through human mediated transport. X. sibiricum is not yet present in North America. The potential impacts of this species are not fully understood since the species is not present in NA; however all Xanthium species that are present in NA are considered weeds. In China, this species damages cotton, pulses and other crops

As this species is not yet present in Canada and could affect the value and/or intended use of seed, then this species meets the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Zygophyllum fabago
English Common Name: Syrian bean-caper
French Common Name: Fabagelle, faux câprier
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Zygophyllum fabago is a much-branched herbaceous plant with a deep, well-developed tap root which spreads primarily by seeds. This species can form large dense colonies that exclude native plants and animals. The thick, waxy leaves allow the plants to survive long periods of drought and the extensive root system provides a competitive advantage over native species. As Z. fabago can form dense masses that displace beneficial species on rangelands, this species` biggest economic threat is to ranchers. Control with herbicides is difficult because of the waxy leaf surfaces and extensive root system.  The plants of this species are not palatable to livestock.  Z. fabago is reported to be used as a medicinal herb.  It is not known to occur in Canada. Z. fabago is not regulated as a federal noxious weed in the U.S., but it is listed as a noxious weed in CA, ID, NV, OR and WA. The species is thought to have been imported to the U.S. in contaminated alfalfa seed.

The current range of this species in the USA suggests that the species would be hardy to NAPPFAST zone 5. Therefore,Z. fabago is considered to be likely to establish and become invasive in parts of Canada, including southern BC, if it is introduced. Based, on the results of the Weed Risk Assessment conducted by the CFIA, it is proposed that Z. fabago be listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Abutilon theophrasti
English Common Name: Velvetleaf
French Common Name: Abutilon
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Abutilon theophrasti is an annual herb of the mallow family which is native from the Mediterranean area to central Asia. A. theophrasti is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS and PE and spreads only by seed. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, one sample was found to contain A. theophrasti in 2005.

A. theophrasti was first listed on the WSO in 1986 as a Primary Noxious weed, where it remains currently.

Latin Name: Acroptilon repens
English Common Name: Russian Knapweed
French Common Name: Centaurée de Russie
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Acroptilon repens is an herbaceous perennial of the aster family which is native to Eurasia which reproduces mainly by vegetative shoots from rhizomes but also produces small quantities of viable seed. This species is present throughout the west and central USAA. repens is a noxious weed in Alberta and is a quarantine weed in Australia, New Zealand and Russia. A. repens is present in Canada (BC, AB, SK, MB, ON) and is not under official control, therefore does not meet the definition of a quarantine pest. A. repens has been listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed on the WSO since 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, no seeds of this species were detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed. A. repens has been reported as difficult or challenging to control in organic production systems. Although this species is present in Canada, there is still the desire to control the spread. The spread of this species through seed can be slowed by reclassifying A. repens to a Class 2 Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Alliaria petiolata
English Common Name: Garlic mustard
French Common Name: Alliaire officinale
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Alliaria petiolata is an annual, winter annual or biennial, most commonly found in moist woodlands, ditches and fencerows. Seeds are shed in June, and remain dormant for up to 20 months. A. petiolata disperses only by seed. A. petiolata is present in BC, ON, QC, NB, NS and PEA. petiolata is listed as a noxious weed in AL, CT, MA, MN, NH, OR, VT, and WA. The current distribution suggests that A. petiolata is hardy to at least NAPPFAST zone 4. This would predict a potential range in Canada that includes coastal and southern BC, southern AB, southern ON and QC, and most of the Maritime Provinces. During consultations, stakeholders indicated that Garlic mustard was primarily a weed in forests, rather than a seed contaminant. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. petiolata was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples.

Latin Name: Amaranthus tubriculatus (Amaranthus rudis)
English Common Name: Tall water-hemp
French Common Name: Acnide tuberculé
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Amaranthus tuberculatus is an annual herbaceous plant, with both male and female plants. A. tuberculatus disperses by seed and grows in wet areas, such as margins of rivers, ponds, marshes, lakes, and creeks, disturbed habitats, such as agricultural fields, roadsides, and railroads. It is currently very limited in distribution in south-western Ontario. The current range of A. tuberculatus suggests that the species is hardy to NAPPFAST plant hardiness zone 4. This would predict a potential range that includes coastal and southern BC, small areas in extreme southern AB and SK, southern ON and QC, and most of the Maritime Provinces. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. tuberculatus was not detected in domestic and imported seed samples. Seed identification may be difficult and require good microscopes and specialized training as most Amaranthus seeds are similar in appearance. A. tuberculatus has demonstrated herbicide resistance in ON.

Latin Name: Ambrosia trifida
English Common Name: Giant ragweed
French Common Name: Grande herbe à poux
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Ambrosia trifida is an annual herb of the aster family and is native to North America. A. trifida is present in AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS and PE and is spread by seed. A. trifida is designated as a noxious weed in CA, DE, IL and NJ. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, 17 domestic seed samples, 1 imported seed sample and 1 unspecified seed sample were found to contain A. trifida. A. trifida was listed as a federally regulated weed in Canada beginning in 1905. In 1960, A. trifida was included as a Primary Noxious weed on the WSO, where it is currently listed. Confirmation of glyphosate tolerant A. trifida was reported in Ontario in 2009.

As A. trifida can be difficult to control and due to herbicide tolerance, it is proposed that A. trifida remain listed as a Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Ammi majus
English Common Name: Bishop's weed
French Common Name: Ammi élevé, Ammi commun
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Ammi majus is a glabrous annual, biennial or perennial herb of the parsley family. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental, for the cut-flower trade, and is used medicinally as a source of xanthotoxin. It is toxic to mammals causing photosensitization. There have been no reports of A. majus in Canada; however, it may be sold as an ornamental in Ontario. It is unclear to what extent it may be present in Canada in cultivation. A. majus is reported as an agricultural weed in Europe, is reported as a principal weed in Argentina, a common weed in Morocco, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon and Iraq and an agricultural weed in the U.S. and Uruguay.

A. majus is not reported from Canada, although it may be present in cultivation. Its known distribution suggests it would find suitable climatic and ecological conditions in Canada.  It is proposed that this species be listed as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Bassia scoparia
English Common Name: Kochia
French Common Name: Bassie à balais
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Bassia scoparia is a bushy, annual herbaceous plant. B. scoparia is listed as a noxious weed in MB and the Peace River district in BC and is listed as a noxious weed in CT, OH, OR and WA. This species is most common in semiarid grass lands in the Prairie Provinces and is tolerant of elevated salt levels that would not permit the growth of crop plants. Based on the current range in Canada, B. scoparia is hardy to at least NAPPFAST plant hardiness zone 3, which would include most of southern Canada, including parts of all provinces. The seeds of B. scoparia are identified, with some care, by trained analysts. B. scoparia is a common and economically important weed in crops and disturbed areas across the prairies and Great Plains of central Canada. This species can be toxic to livestock if consumed in large quantities. Herbicide resistance is an increasing problem with control of B. scoparia and there are a number of herbicide-resistant types. No-till systems are more susceptible to B. scoparia infestation than conventional tillage systems.

Latin Name: Bidens pilosa
English Common Name: Spanish needles, Hairy beggarticks
French Common Name: Herbe à aisuilles, bident poilu
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Bidens pilosa is an erect, annual herb of the Aster family. This species has been reported to occur in ON and QC; however, these populations are not believed to have persisted and no further collections have been made. Therefore, this species is not considered to be present in Canada. The most likely pathway of entry of B. pilosa into Canada is unintentional seed or commodity contamination. The outcome of the risk assessment was that B. pilosa has the potential to become weedy or invasive in Vancouver Island and coastal BC, and possibly southern ON and parts of the Atlantic provinces. This is a taxonomically difficult genus and identification may be an issue. Further investigation and consultation with the CFIA Seed Laboratory may be necessary to determine if this species can be reliably identified and distinguished from other closely related species.

Latin Name: Bromus japonicus
English Common Name: Japanese brome
French Common Name: Renouée japonaise
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Bromus japonicus grows as winter annuals, spring annuals or, rarely, biennials. B. japonicus grows in fields, waste places, and road verges. B. japonicus spreads by seed only and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC and YK. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, B. japonicus was detected in 14 domestic seed samples, 11 imported seed samples and 3 seed samples of unspecified origin. Seeds can be very difficult to identify to species. B. japonicus hybridizes with some other Bromus species which makes identification even more difficult.

Latin Name: Bromus secalinus
English Common Name: Cheat
French Common Name: Brome faux-seigle, brome des seigles, brome sécalin
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Bromus secalinus is an annual or winter annual grass. It is common in recently burned rangeland, winter crop, disturbed areas, abandoned fields, eroded areas, and overgrazed grass lands. Seeds are dispersed short distances by wind, but the awns can attach to fur or clothing. B. secalinus is present in BC, AB, ON, QC, NB, NS, NF and YKB. secalinus is listed in the U.S. as a noxious weed in the state of AR. Internationally, B. secalinus is regulated in India and Bromus spp. is regulated in Algeria. The historical and present distribution of B. secalinus suggests that the species is hardy to NAPPFAST zone 3. This would give a potential Canadian range that includes all of the densely-populated regions of Canada. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, B. secalinus was detected in 1 domestic seed sample and 2 imported seed samples. B. secalinus is similar in its growth and timing to winter wheat which makes control difficult.

Latin Name: Carduus nutans
English Common Name: Nodding thistle
French Common Name: Chardon penché
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Carduus nutans is an herbaceous biennial of the aster family and is native to Eurasia. This species reproduces only by seed which is dispersed by wind, water, wildlife and livestock. C. nutans is a restricted weed in Alberta and a quarantine weed in Australia and New Zealand. This species is considered widespread in Canada (BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, and NF); however there is still a desire to control the spread as its presence can have significant impacts. C. nutans has been regulated as a Prohibited Noxious weed on the WSO since 1986.  In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, C. nutans was not detected in samples of either domestic seed or imported seed.

As C. nutans is widespread and is not under official control, this species does not meet the definition of a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious weed species. Therefore, it is proposed to reclassify C. nutans as a Class 2 Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Centaurea diffuse
English Common Name: Diffuse Knapweed
French Common Name: Centaurée diffuse
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Centaurea diffusa is an herbaceous annual or biennial of the aster family and is native to Eurasia and reproduces solely from seed. C. diffusa is a restricted weed in Alberta and a quarantine weed in India. C. diffusa is present in BC, AB, SK, ON, and YK and is not under official control; therefore this species would no longer meet the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed species. C. diffusa has been regulated as a Prohibited Noxious weed on the WSO since 1986. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, no C. diffusa was detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed.

C. diffusa is not known to be present in Quebec or the Maritimes; therefore there is a desire to control the spread to these areas. In order to slow the spread, it is being proposed for reclassification as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Centaurea stoebe
English Common Name: Spotted knapweed
French Common Name: Centaurée maculée
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Centaurea stoebe is an herbaceous biennial of the aster family and is native to Eurasia. It reproduces solely from seed. C. stoebe is a restricted weed in Alberta and is a quarantine weed in India. This species is present in BC, AB, ON, QC, NB, NS, and YK, but is not known to be present in Saskatchewan or Manitoba. C. stoebe has been regulated as a Prohibited Noxious weed on the WSO since 1986. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, C. stoebe was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed.

There is a desire to control the spread of C. stoebe; therefore, it is proposed to reclassify the species as a Primary Noxious weed species. Since C. stoebe is present in Canada and is not under official control, it would no longer meet the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa
English Common Name: Square rose knapweed
French Common Name: Centaurea vigata var. squarrosa
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa is a perennial species and is very similar in appearance to diffuse knapweed. This species spreads by seed, which readily attach to animal fur and vehicle tires. C. virgata var. squarrosa is listed as a noxious weed in AZ, CA, CO, NV, OR, UT and WY. In UT, this species is a considered a threat for several reasons, including the fact that it destroys wildlife habitat and livestock forage, it produces a natural herbicide that kills beneficial plants around it. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples.

Latin Name: Conium maculatum
English Common Name: Poison hemlock
French Common Name: Ciguë maculée
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Conium maculatum is an herbaceous biennial of the parsley family and is poisonous to livestock and humans. All plant parts are poisonous. It reproduces strictly via seeds. C. maculatum is a noxious weed in Ontario and is a quarantine weed in New Zealand. It is regulated in the U.S. states of Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Nevada, New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon and Washington. This species no longer meets the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed species as it is present in BC, AB, SK, ON, QC, NB, and NS and is not under official control. C. maculatum has been regulated as a Prohibited Noxious weed on the WSO since 1986. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, C. maculatum was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed. C. maculatum has been found in two grain imports sampled since February 2008. It is proposed that C. maculatum be reclassified as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Convolvulus arvensis
English Common Name: Field bindweed
French Common Name: Liseron des champs
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Convolvulus arvensis is a perennial herbaceous vine of the morning glory family which is native to North Africa and Eurasia. Convolvulus arvensis is widely established in North America and spreads by seed and asexually from roots. It is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS and PE. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Convolvulus arvensis was found in 10 domestic and imported seed samples. Convolvulus arvensis has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. In 2005, Convolvulus arvensis was reclassified within the WSO from a Prohibited Noxious weed to a Primary Noxious weed. Convolvulus arvensis is considered one of the most difficult or challenging species to control in conventional, organic, and no-till systems

It is proposed that it remains listed as a Primary Noxious weed on the WSO.

Latin Name: Datura stramonium
English Common Name: Jimsonweed
French Common Name: Stramoine commune
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Datura stramonium is an herbaceous annual of the nightshade family, is native to Asia, is poisonous to humans and livestock and reproduces only by seed. D. stramonium is a noxious weed in Manitoba and a quarantine weed in Australia and South Africa. D. stramonium no longer qualifies as a Prohibited Noxious weed species as it is present in BC, SK, ON, QC, NB, NS and PE and is not under official control. D. stramonium has been regulated as a Prohibited Noxious weed since 1986. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, D. stramonium was not detected in samples of domestic or imported seed.

It is proposed that D. stramonium be reclassified as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Euphorbia esula
English Common Name: Leafy spurge
French Common Name: Euphorbe ésule
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Euphorbia esula is a perennial herb of the spurge family, is native to Eurasia and is a serious weed of pastures, rangelands and roadsides. E. esula reproduces by seeds and vegetatively by rhizomes. E. esula is poisonous to livestock. This species is a noxious weed in BC, AB, SK, MB, NS and ON and is a quarantine weed in New Zealand.  E. esula has been regulated as a Prohibited Noxious weed since 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, E. esula was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed. E. esula no longer meets the definition of Prohibited Noxious weed species as it is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, and YK and is not under official control. E. esula has been reported as difficult or challenging to control in organic production systems.

Although widespread in Canada, it is considered a serious weed whose dispersal through seed should be controlled. Therefore, it is proposed that E. esula be reclassified as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Galega officinalis
English Common Name: Goat's-rue
French Common Name: Galéga officinal
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Galega officinalis is a stout, erect, glabrous perennial herb. It has been grown for medicinal use, as a forage crop and as a honey plant. G. officinalis was introduced in North America as a medicinal herb and for forage crop trials. This species contains a poisonous alkaloid, galegin, which gives the plants a bitter taste, making them unpalatable to cattle and horses. G. officinalis has been reported to occur in localized areas in Ontario and Quebec. Plants of this species prefer stream banks and other moist areas in full sun. G. officinalis is listed as a federal noxious weed by the USDA and as noxious or quarantine weed in twelve states in the USA. The current range of this species suggests that plants can survive to NAPPFAST zone 5, which would include coastal, southern and interior BC, small areas of the Peace region of Alberta as well as parts of southern AB and SK, southern ON and QC and most of the Maritime Provinces.

As this species is present in Canada and is not under official control, it does not qualify as a Prohibited Noxious weed. It is therefore proposed to include G. officinalis as a Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Galium aparine
English Common Name: Cleavers
French Common Name: Gaillet gratteron
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Galium aparine is an annual herbaceous vine of the madder family and is a world-wide weed of uncertain origin. G. aparine is a common annual weed of cereal crops, canola and flax. It is impossible to mechanically separate G. aparine seed from canola seed and planting of contaminated canola seed is the primary method of spread. In cereal and flax crops, G. aparine reduces yields, causes lodging and interferes with harvesting operations. G. aparine spreads by seed only and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, NF and NT. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, G. aparine was detected in 190 domestic seed samples, 7 imported seed samples and 24 unspecified samples. G. aparine has been regulated in Canada as a weed since 1960 when it was added to the WSO as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3). In 1986, G. aparine was reclassified within the WSO from a Secondary Noxious weed to a Primary Noxious weed, where it remains currently.

It is proposed that G. aparine remains listed as a Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Galium spurium
English Common Name: False cleavers
French Common Name: Gaillet bâtard
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Galium spurium is an annual herbaceous vine of the madder family which is native to North Africa and Eurasia. G. spurium is a common annual weed of cereal crops, canola and flax. It is impossible to mechanically separate G. spurium seed from canola seed and planting of contaminated canola seed is the primary method of spread. G. spurium spreads by seed only and are present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, NF and NTG. spurium reduces the yields, causes lodging and interferes with harvesting operations in cereal and flax crops. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, G. spurium was found in 53 domestic seed samples and 7 unspecified seed samples. G. spurium has been reported as possessing herbicide resistance in AB and SKG. spurium was added to the WSO as a Primary Noxious weed in 1986 and currently remains listed in this class.

Based on consultations to date and on the information above, it is proposed that G. spurium remains listed as a Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Galium verrucosum
English Common Name: Warty bedstraw
French Common Name: Gaillet à verrues
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Stakeholders have indicated that this species is very problematic in canola. The USDA Plants Database lists this species as present in the state of Michigan. Stakeholder feedback on species characteristics and distribution is requested.

Latin Name: Heracleum mantegazzianum
English Common Name: Giant hogweed
French Common Name: Berce de Caucase
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Heracleum mantegazzianum is a large, hairy perennial herb that can produce 50,000 seeds per plant. H. mantegazzianum is a phytotoxic plant whose sap can cause severe skin inflammation and burns when skin is exposed to sunlight or UV rays. This species spreads by seed and asexually from the crown. H. mantegazzianum is currently present in BC, ON, NB and NS. This species is designated as a noxious weed under municipal law in the District of Saanich as well as in the bylaws of Grey and Huron counties in Ontario. H. mantegazzianum is listed as a federal noxious weed in the US and is listed as a noxious weed in CT, FL, MA, NC, NH, OH, OR, PA and WA. The current range in North America suggests that H. mantegazzianum is hardy to at least NAPPFAST zone 3, which would include all of the densely-populated regions of Canada. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, H. mantegazzianum was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples.

Latin Name: Impatiens glandulifera
English Common Name: Himalayan balsam
French Common Name: Impatiens de l'Himalaya
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Impatiens glandulifera is an annual succulent herb of which the seed capsules "explode" at maturity to release hundreds of tiny seeds. This species spreads only by seed. I. glandulifera is present in BC, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, I. glandulifera was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples.

Latin Name: Knautia arvensis
English Common Name: Field scabious
French Common Name: Knautia arvensis
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Knautia arvensis is a tall, tap-rooted perennial that can produce up to 2000 seeds per plant, which may remain viable in the soil for many years. This rapidly spreading weed is very competitive with forage stands and native pastures. K. arvensis is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB and NF. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, K. arvensis was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples.

Latin Name: Lepidium appelianum
English Common Name: Globe-pod hoary cress
French Common Name: Cranson velue
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Lepidium appelianum is a perennial herb of the mustard family that spread more by vegetative reproduction than by seed. L. appelianum is designated as a noxious weed in Alberta and a quarantine weed in New Zealand. It is widespread in BC, AB, SK, and MB, is not under official control and is considered difficult to control. L. appelianum was added to the WSO as a Prohibited Noxious weed in 2005. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, L. appelianum was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed. L. appelianum is now too widely distributed to meet the criteria of a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious weed species and should be reclassified as a Class 2 Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense
English Common Name: Lens-pod hoary cress
French Common Name: Cranson rampant
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense is a perennial herb of the mustard family, is native from the Middle East to China and spreads more often by vegetative reproduction than by seed. Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense is designated as a noxious weed in Alberta and a quarantine weed in New Zealand, Australia and South Africa. This species is widespread in BC, AB, SK, MB, and ON and is not under official control; therefore, Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense no longer meets the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed species. Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense was added to the WSO as a Prohibited Noxious weed in 2005. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed.

Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense is now too widely distributed to meet the criteria of Class 1 Prohibited Noxious weed species and is proposed for reclassification as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Lepidium draba subsp. draba
English Common Name: Heart-pod hoary cress
French Common Name: Cranson dravier
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Lepidium draba subsp. draba is a perennial herb of the mustard family, is native to Europe and western Asia and spreads more often by vegetative reproduction than by seed. Lepidium draba subsp. draba is designated as a noxious weed in Alberta and a quarantine weed in South Africa. It is widespread in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, and NS and is not under official control; therefore, Lepidium draba subsp. draba no longer meets the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed species. Lepidium draba subsp. draba was added to the WSO as a Prohibited Noxious weed in 2005. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Lepidium draba subsp. draba was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed.

Lepidium draba subsp. draba is now too widely distributed to meet the criteria of a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious weed species and is proposed for reclassification as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Lythrum salicaria
English Common Name: Purple loosestrife
French Common Name: Salicaire commune
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Lythrum salicaria is a perennial herb or sub-shrub of the loosestrife family which is native to Eurasia. L. salicaria spreads by seed and asexually from roots. Detached root or stem fragments can also root and develop into flowering stems. This species is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, one sample in 2001 was found to contain L. salicariaL. salicaria has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 2005 when it was added to the WSO as a Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Nicandra physalodes
English Common Name: Apple of Peru
French Common Name: Nicandre faux-coqueret
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Nicandra physalodes is an herbaceous annual plant native to Peru. It is a serious agricultural weed in some parts of the world. It invades many crops, including Glycine max (soyabean), Hordeum vulgare (barley), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Triticum aestivum (wheat), Zea mays (maize), and others. In Canada, Nicandra physalodes is introduced in BC, ON, QC, NS and PEI. Nicandra physalodes is not regulated as a federal noxious weed in the U.S., but is regulated at the state level in Ohio. In the U.S., Nicandra physalodes is cultivated as an ornamental, but tends to escape and become weedy. It is also considered to have low sensitivity to most commonly used herbicides. In Canada, Nicandra physalodes has been found as a contaminant in survey samples of birdfeed and wheat. Seeds of Nicandra physalodes are similar to those of some other Solanaceae species (e.g. Physalis spp.), but they can be distinguished with care and training.

Nicandra physalodes meets the definition of Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Odontites vernus subsp. serotinus
English Common Name: Red bartsia
French Common Name: Odontite rouge
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Odontites vernus subsp. serotinus is an annual parasitic herb of the broomrape family and is native to Eurasia. It is present in Canada and is not under official control.  Odontites vernus subsp. serotinus was added to the WSO as a Prohibited Noxious weed in 1986.  Odontites vernus subsp. serotinus does not persist under cultivation. For this reason it is seldom a problem in cereals or special crops. The weed is, however, a serious concern in hayland and in pastures. In hay fields, the tiny seedlings grow rapidly after the first cut of hay has been removed. Plants begin flowering two to three weeks later, making the danger of seed contamination in the second cut a serious concern. In pastures, the weed is not grazed by cattle and, with time heavy infestations spread through the field.

Latin Name: Phragmites australis
English Common Name: Common reed
French Common Name: Phramite
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Phragmites australis is a robust, perennial grass of wetlands and is found mainly in the highest part of marshes, but also along the edge of roads and fields. This species is mainly dispersed asexually via creeping rhizomes that may reach 20 mP. australis is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF and NT. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, P. australis was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples. P. australis does not usually impact agriculture, as it is a wetland species, however, it is becoming very common in drainage ditches and around field edges in southern Quebec.

Although P. australis qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed, there will always be confusion with the native subspecies which will make effective regulation difficult.

Latin Name: Polygonum cuspidatum Synonym: Fallopia japonica
English Common Name: Japanese knotweed
French Common Name: Renouée japonaise, renouée du Japon, liseron japonaise, persicaire cupidée
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Polygonum cuspidatum may be found in gardens, in neglected or former garden sites and in waste places. In some places it has escaped from cultivation to become a very aggressive, troublesome weed. P. cuspidatum spreads by rhizomes and, rarely, by seed. P. cuspidatum is present in BC, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NFP. cuspidatum is not regulated as a federal noxious weed in the U.S., but it is listed as a noxious weed in AL, CA, CT, MA, NH, OR, VT and WA.  Based on current distribution, it is thought that P. cuspidatum is hardy to NAPPFAST plant hardiness zone 3, which includes parts of all the provinces. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, P. cuspidatum was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples.

Latin Name: Raphanus raphanistrum
English Common Name: Wild radish
French Common Name: Radis sauvage
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Raphanus raphanistrum is an annual or biennial herb of the mustard family which is native to Eurasia. R. raphanistrum spreads only by seed and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, 10 samples of domestic and imported seed were found to contain R. raphanistrumR. raphanistrum has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1960 when it was listed as a Primary Noxious weed in the WSO. During consultations, stakeholders indicated that this species is difficult to control.

Latin Name: Ricinus communis
English Common Name: Castor bean
French Common Name: Graine de ricin
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Ricinus communis exhibits various growth patterns (herb, shrub or tree) according to its climatic distribution. The toxicity of seeds is well documented and accidental ingestion of R. communis seeds has caused deaths in animals and humans. The toxin ricin is at its highest concentration in the seeds, but it is also found in the leaves. This species is indigenous to eastern Africa, and most probably originated in Ethiopia. It is widely naturalized in the tropics and warm regions of the world. A hard frost will terminate R. communis plants in USDA plant hardiness zones 2 to 7.  In zones 8 to 11, castor can be treated as a perennial. Since only a small portion of British Columbia is in zone 8, there is little likelihood of R. communis behaving as a perennial in Canada. R. communis plants are common along stream banks, riverbeds, disturbed areas and can interfere with succession.

R. communis is strictly grown as an ornamental in Canada but is cultivated in other countries as industrial, vegetable or medicinal oil. Records of it in the Canadian nursery trade are from as early as 1827. R. communis is listed on 3 invasive weed lists in the southern U.S. In Canada, weediness and invasiveness issues will be limited by R. communis` intolerance to cold temperatures.

As R. communis seeds and plant parts are toxic to animals and humans, it is proposed this species be listed as Primary Noxious on the Weed Seeds Order.

Latin Name: Senecio jacobaea
English Common Name: Tansy ragwort
French Common Name: Sénéçon jacobée
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Senecio jacobaea is a perennial herb of the aster family which is native to North Africa and Eurasia. S. jacobaea spreads by seed, primarily by wind, water and animals. This species is present in BC, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. jacobaea was not detected in domestic or imported seed samples. S. jacobaea was added to the WSO in 1960 as a Prohibited Noxious weed and was reclassified in 2005 to a Primary Noxious weed, where it is currently listed.

Latin Name: Setaria faberi
English Common Name: Giant foxtail
French Common Name: Sétaire géante
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Setaria faberi is an annual grass which is native to eastern Asia. S. faberi is present in ON and QC and is not under official control. S. faberi was added to the WSO as a Prohibited Noxious weed in 2005. June 24th, 2009 S. faberi was reclassified to a Primary Noxious weed. S. faberi is known to have herbicide resistance in ON.

In order to help slow the spread of this species, it is proposed that S. faberi remain listed as a Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Silene latifolia subsp. alba
English Common Name: White cockle
French Common Name: Lychnide blanche
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Silene latifolia subsp. alba is a biennial or perennial herb of the pink family which is native to Eurasia. Silene latifolia subsp. alba spreads mostly from seed but root and stem fragments can establish. Silene latifolia subsp. alba seeds are similar in size to clovers, so seed impurities have been a source of dispersal. Silene latifolia subsp. alba is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Silene latifolia subsp. alba was detected in 56 samples of imported and domestic seed. Silene latifolia subsp. alba has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. It was included in the WSO in 1960 as a Primary Noxious weed, where it currently remains listed. During consultations, stakeholders indicated that they considered this species difficult to control.

Latin Name: Silene vulgaris
English Common Name: Bladder campion
French Common Name: Silène enflé
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Silene vulgaris is a perennial herb of the pink family which is native to Eurasia. S. vulgaris is spread by seed and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF and YK. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. vulgaris was detected in 6 samples of domestic and imported seed. S. vulgaris has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1923. During consultations, stakeholders indicated that they considered this species difficult to control.

Latin Name: Silybum marianum
English Common Name: Milk thistle
French Common Name: Chardon-marie
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Silybum marianum is considered an annual species in colder provinces such as SK, although in mild climates it may be biennial. A single seed head can produce from 100 to 190 seeds. In the soil, seed can remain viable for up to nine years. S. marianum is present in BC, AB, SK, ON, QC, NB, and NS. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. marianum was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples.

Latin Name: Sinapis arvensis
English Common Name: Wild mustard
French Common Name: Moutarde des champs
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Sinapis arvensis is an annual herb of the mustard family which is native to Eurasia. S. arvensis spreads by seed and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK and NT. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. arvensis was detected in 190 samples of domestic and imported seed. S. arvensis is considered one of the most difficult or challenging species to control in organic production systems. S. arvensis is known to have herbicide resistance in AB, MB, ON and SKS. arvensis has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. It was added to the WSO in 1960 as a Primary Noxious weed, where it currently remains listed.

Latin Name: Solanum carolinense
English Common Name: Horse-nettle
French Common Name: Morelle de la Caroline
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Solanum carolinense is a perennial herb of the nightshade family, is native to eastern North America and propagates by seed, horizontal root sprouts or by resprouting from root fragments. S. carolinense is a noxious weed in Manitoba and a quarantine weed in Australia, India and Russia. S. carolinense has been regulation as a Prohibited Noxious weed since 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. carolinense was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed. It has possibly reached the extent of its potential range in eastern Canada. As it is not under official control, S. carolinense does not meet the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed species. It is proposed that S. carolinense be reclassified as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Soliva sessilis
English Common Name: Carpet burweed
French Common Name: Soliva sessile
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Soliva sessilis is a prostrate winter annual or annual weed of the aster family. Seeds are small and the flattened structures terminate in up-turned spine tips that easily attach to shoes, clothing and animals. This species is well adapted to disperse and infests walkways, lawns, parks, golf greens and disturbed areas in general. The CFIA risk assessment stated the overall risk associated with S. sessilis to be medium. S. sessilis is currently present in BCS. sessilis is regulated as a noxious weed in the U.S. state of WA. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. sessilis was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples. The current distribution in North America suggests that S. sessilis can survive to NAPPFAST zone 7.

Latin Name: Sorghum halepense
English Common Name: Johnson grass
French Common Name: Sorgho d'Alep
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Sorghum halepense is a perennial grass which is native to the Middle East and western and southern Asia. S. halepense is present in ON and has possibly reached the limits of its potential range in Canada. S. halepense was first regulated in Canada as a weed in 1923. It was added to the WSO in 1986 as a Primary Noxious weed and then in 2005 it was reclassified as a Prohibited Noxious weed. As Sorghum halepense is present in Ontario and not under official control it is proposed that this species be reclassified as Primary Noxious.

Latin Name: Tripleurospermum maritimum subsp. inodorum
English Common Name: Scentless chamomile
French Common Name: Matricaire inodore (matricaire camomile)
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 3.5

Rationale:
Tripleurospermum maritimum subsp. inodorum is an annual herb of the pink family and is native to Eurasia. Tripleurospermum maritimum subsp. inodorum is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK and NTTripleurospermum maritimum subsp. inodorum was listed as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3) in 1986. In 2005, this species was also included as a Noxious weed (Class 5). In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Tripleurospermum maritimum subsp. inodorum was detected in 12 domestic seed samples, 1 imported seed sample and 7 seed samples of unspecified origin.

During consultations, stakeholders identified this species as difficult to control particularly in reduced tillage systems and an Invasive Alien Species concern. Stakeholders recommended listing Tripleurospermum maritimum subsp. inodorum as a Primary Noxious weed instead of a Secondary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Vincetoxicum rossicum AND Vincetoxicum louiseae
English Common Name: Dog strangling vine and Black dog strangling vine
French Common Name: Vigne étrangle-chien, cynanque
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Vincetoxicum rossicum is a perennial herb or small vine. This species disperses by seed and by rhizomes. V. rossicum is currently present in ON and QCV. rossicum is regulated as a noxious weed in CT, MA and NH. The current distribution of V. rossicum suggests that it is hardy at least to NAPPFAST zone 4. This would give a potential Canadian range that includes coastal and southern BC, southern AB, southern ON and QC and most of the Maritime provinces. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, V. rossicum was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples. There is difficulty in distinguishing seeds of V. rossicum from Vincetoxicum louiseae, therefore either both species would need to be regulated or neither.

Latin Name: Cirsium arvense
English Common Name: Canada thistle
French Common Name: Chardon des champs (chardon du Canada)
Proposed Classification: 2.5
Current Classification: 2.5

Rationale:
Cirsium arvense is a perennial prickly herb of the aster family which is native to Eurasia. Cirsium arvense spreads by seed or asexually from roots. It is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK and NT. C. arvense is listed as a noxious weed in AK, AL, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, AND WY. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Cirsium arvense has been found in 32 imported and domestic seed samples. Cirsium arvense was first regulated in Canada in 1667 in Quebec and has been regulated federally since 1905. Cirsium arvense is considered one of the most difficult or challenging species to control in most crops and management systems. C. arvense is regulated federally in the U.S. and by many other trading partners.

It is proposed that Cirsium arvense remain listed as a Primary Noxious weed and a Noxious weed (Class 2 and 5).

Latin Name: Sonchus arvensis
English Common Name: Perennial sow thistle
French Common Name: Laiteron des champs
Proposed Classification: 2.5
Current Classification: 2.5

Rationale:
Sonchus arvensis is a perennial herb of the aster family and is native to Eurasia. This species spreads by seed and vegetatively from roots. S. arvensis is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK, NU and NT. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. arvensis was detected in six seed samples in 2001. During consultations, stakeholders identified S. arvensis as difficult to control. S. arvensis has been regulated in Canada as a weed since 1905. S. arvensis is considered one of the most difficult or challenging species to control in organic and no-till production systems (OMAFRA, 2009).

It is proposed that S. arvensis remain listed as both a Primary Noxious weed and a Noxious weed (Class 2 and 5).

Latin Name: Amaranthus hybridus
English Common Name: Slim amaranth (Smooth amaranth)
French Common Name: Amaranthe hybride
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Amaranthus hybridus has caused poisoning of cattle from nitrate accumulation. Pigweeds are a problem in both conventional and reduced tillage, or no-till, fields. A. hybridus is present in MB, ON, QC and NS. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. hybridus was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples. Stakeholders have indicated during consultations that it is difficult to separate A. hybridus species by seed.

Latin Name: Amaranthus powelli
English Common Name: Powell's amaranth
French Common Name: Amaranthe de Powell
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Amaranthus powelli is present in BC, AB, SK, ON and QC. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. powelli was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples. A. powelli is known to have herbicide resistance in ON.

Latin Name: Amaranthus retroflexus
English Common Name: Redroot pigweed
French Common Name: Amarante à racine rouge
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Amaranthus retroflexus is an annual weed that grows in cultivated fields, pastures, roadside ditches, and undeveloped areas. It is a common annual weed which produces many seeds that remain viable for up to 5 years. This weed can be difficult to control in non-competitive crops like flax. This species spreads by seed only. A. retroflexus is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, NT and NU. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. retroflexus was detected in 18 domestic seed samples, 5 imported seed samples and 3 seed samples of unspecified origin. A. retroflexus is known to have multiple herbicide resistances in MB, ON and QC.

Latin Name: Ambrosia artemisiifolia
English Common Name: Common ragweed
French Common Name: Petite herbe à poux
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an annual herb of the aster family and is native to eastern and central North America. A. artemisiifolia spreads by seed and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. artemisiifolia was detected in 2 samples of domestic seed, 17 samples of imported seed and 5 seed samples of unspecified origin. A. artemisiifolia is known to demonstrate herbicide resistance in QCA. artemisiifolia has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905.

Latin Name: Anthemis cotula
English Common Name: Mayweed (stinking mayweed)
French Common Name: Camomille des chiens
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Anthemis cotula is an annual herb of the aster family and is native to Eurasia. A. cotula spreads only by seed and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF and YK. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. cotula was detected in 41 domestic seed samples, 9 imported seed samples and 10 samples of unspecified origin. A. cotula has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1986 when it was added to the WSO as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3), where it currently remains listed.

Latin Name: Avena fatua
English Common Name: Wild oat
French Common Name: Folle avoine
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Avena fatua is an annual grass which is native to Eurasia. A. fatua is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF and NT. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. fatua was detected in 133 domestic seed samples, 5 imported seed samples and 41 seed samples of unspecified origin. A. fatua has demonstrated herbicide resistance in AB, MB and SKA. fatua has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905.

Latin Name: Avena sterilis
English Common Name: Sterile oat
French Common Name: Avoine stérile
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Avena sterilis is an annual grass that is native to Eurasia. A. sterilis has become naturalized in California and Oregon, where it can be found in fields, vineyards, orchards and on hillsides. A. sterilis is present in ON and QC. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. sterilis was not detected in domestic or imported seed samples. This species was added to the WSO in 2005 as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3). It is not established in Canada although it has been grown rarely.

Latin Name: Barbarea spp.
English Common Name: Yellow rocket
French Common Name: Barbarée vulgaire ou cresson de terre
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Barbarea spp. are biennial herbs of the mustard family which are native to Eurasia and are widely established in North America. Barbarea spp. spread by seed. These species are present in BC, AB, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK and NT. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, one imported seed sample and one seed sample of unspecified origin were found to contain Barbarea spp.Barbarea spp. was included in the WSO in 1960, as a Primary Noxious weed. Further definition to the species level is needed.

Latin Name: Bromus tectorum
English Common Name: Downy brome
French Common Name: Brome des toits
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Bromus tectorum is a tufted annual, winter annual or biennial grass. The species displays considerable variation in characteristics due to genetic differences and responses to local conditions. This species spreads by seed. B. tectorum is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, YK and NT and is a serious weed in rangelands, winter wheat, alfalfa and grass seed fields. B. tectorum is primarily a threat in the West. Dry plants of B. tectorum are extremely flammable and, at high densities, its presence contributes to the frequency and intensity of fires. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, B. tectorum was detected in 8 domestic seed samples, 4 imported seed samples and 4 seed samples of unspecified origin.  There are reports of atrazine-resistant strains of B. tectorum in the U.S. During the consultations for the 2005 revision to the WSO, some stakeholders expressed concern over the listing of B. tectorum as a Secondary Noxious weed. These stakeholders felt that including B. tectorum on the WSO would result in reduced revenues for Canadian companies exporting to the US and that it could be interpreted as a non-tariff trade barrier to American seed entering Canada, potentially resulting in retaliatory action.

Latin Name: Cerastium spp.
English Common Name: Chickweed, mouse-ear
French Common Name: Céraiste
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3.5

Rationale:
Cerastium spp. are biennial or perennial herbs of the pink family and are native to Eurasia. Cerastium spp. spreads by seed and by horizontal stems which root at the nodes and form dense patches. These species are present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK and NT. Cerastium spp. was listed as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 4) and a Noxious weed (Class 5) on the WSO in 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Cerastium spp. were detected in 2 domestic seed samples, 11 imported seed samples and 2 seed samples of unspecified origin. Further definition to the species level is needed.

Latin Name: Chenopodium album
English Common Name: Lambsquarters
French Common Name: Chénopode blanc, chou gras
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Chenopodium album is one of the most abundant weeds of agronomic, horticultural, and vegetable crops. Its tall stature and high water consumption allow it to out compete crops and seriously reduce yield. This species spreads only by seed. C. album is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK, NT and NU. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, C. album was detected in 711 domestic seed samples, 41 imported seed samples and 137 seed samples of unspecified origin. C. album is known to have herbicide resistance in ON.

Latin Name: Daucus carota subsp. carota
English Common Name: Wild carrot
French Common Name: Carotte sauvage
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Daucus carota subsp. carota is a biennial herb of the carrot family and is native to Eurasia. Daucus carota subsp. carota spreads only by seed and is present in BC, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. Daucus carota subsp. carota has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1923. In 1960, it was listed on the WSO as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3). In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Daucus carota subsp. carota was detected in 10 domestic seed samples, 2 imported seed samples and 1 seed sample of unspecified origin. This species has demonstrated herbicide resistance in ON. It is difficult to control in no-till systems. Note that carrot (Daucus carota subsp. carota) is a crop kind in Schedule I and the seeds cannot be differentiated.

Latin Name: Digitaria spp.
English Common Name: Crabgrasses
French Common Name: Digitaire
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 4.5

Rationale:
Digitaria spp. are annual grasses that are native to Eurasia. Digitaria spp. spread by seed and are present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. Crabgrass have been regulated as Secondary Noxious (Class 4) and Noxious (Class 5) weeds on the WSO since 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Digitaria spp. were detected in 10 domestic seed samples and 2 seed samples of unspecified origin. Further definition to the species level is needed.

Latin Name: Erucastrum gallicum
English Common Name: Dog mustard
French Common Name: Moutarde des chiens
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Erucastrum gallicum is an annual or biennial herb of the mustard family and is native to Europe. E. gallicum is naturalized in North America. E. gallicum spreads by seed and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF and NTE. gallicum has been regulated on the WSO as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3) since 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, E. gallicum was detected in 5 domestic seed samples and 3 seed samples of unspecified origin.

Latin Name: Hordeum jubatum
English Common Name: Foxtail barley (Wild barley)
French Common Name: Orge agreeable, Queue d'écureuil, Orge sauvage
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Hordeum jubatum is a perennial plant that grows in tufts and is often found on the edges of alkaline sloughs and salt marshes. This species spreads primarily by seed, but can also spread by tillering once established. H. jubatum is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, NT and YK. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, H. jubatum was detected in 62 domestic seed samples, 4 imported seed samples and 11 seed samples of unspecified origin.

Latin Name: Lepidium campestre
English Common Name: Field peppergrass
French Common Name: Lépidie des champs
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Lepidium campestre is an annual or biennial herb of the mustard family and is native to Eurasia. L. campestre spreads only by seed and is present in BC, AB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, L. campestre was detected in 27 domestic seed samples and 3 seed samples of unspecified origin. L. campestre was listed in 1960 in the WSO as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3), where it currently remains listed.

Latin Name: Linaria spp.
English Common Name: Toadflax
French Common Name: Linaire
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Linaria spp. are perennial herbs of the snapdragon family which are native to Eurasia. Linaria spp. spread by seed and creeping roots. These species are present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK and NTLinaria spp. species were added to the WSO in 1960 as Primary Noxious weeds. Further definition to the species level is needed. Linaria spp. is considered difficult or challenging to control in organic production systems.

Latin Name: Lolium persicum
English Common Name: Persian darnel
French Common Name: Ivraie de Perse
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Lolium persicum is an annual or biennial grass that is native to western and central Asia. L. persicum is present in AB, SK, MB, ON, QC and NU. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, L. persicum was not detected in domestic and imported seed samples. L. persicum is known to show herbicide resistance in SKL. persicum was added to the WSO in 1986 as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3), where it currently remains listed.

Latin Name: Panicum spp.
English Common Name: Panic grass
French Common Name: Panic
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 4.5

Rationale:
Panicum spp. are annual grasses that are native to Eurasia and North America. These species are present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB and NS. Panicum spp. were listed as Secondary Noxious (Class 4) and Noxious (Class 5) weeds on the WSO in 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Panicum spp. were detected in 1 domestic seed sample, 7 imported seed samples and 6 seed samples of unspecified origin. Panicum spp. consists of over 400 species. Further definition to the species level is needed.

Latin Name: Pastinaca sativa
English Common Name: Wild parsnip
French Common Name: Panais sauvage
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Pastinaca sativa is a member of the carrot family, a biennial and reproduces only by seed. P. sativa contains furocoumarins which can cause severe skin dermatitis when affected skin is exposed to sunlight or UV rays. P. sativa is present in throughout Canada and usually occurs in abandoned yards, waste places, meadows, old fields, roadsides and railway embankments.

Latin Name: Plantago lanceolata
English Common Name: Ribgrass
French Common Name: Plantagin lancéolé
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Plantago lanceolata is an annual, biennial or perennial herb of the plantain family and is native to Eurasia. P. lanceolata spreads only by seed and is present in BC, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NFP. lanceolata has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. It was listed as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3) on the WSO in 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, P. lanceolata was detected in 125 domestic seed samples, 11 imported seed samples and 19 seed samples of unspecified origin.

Latin Name: Prunella vulgaris
English Common Name: Heal-all
French Common Name: Prunelle vulgaire
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 4.5

Rationale:
Prunella vulgaris is a perennial herb of the mint family that is native to Eurasia and North America. P. vulgaris spreads mainly by seed and by somewhat creeping stems. P. vulgaris is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF and YKP. vulgaris was listed as a Secondary Noxious (Class 4) weed and Noxious (Class 5) weed on the WSO in 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, P. vulgaris was detected in 4 domestic seed samples, 6 imported seed samples and 2 seed samples of unspecified origin.

Latin Name: All Rumex species except R. maritimus & R. acetosella
English Common Name: Dock
French Common Name: Patience
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Dock are perennial herbs of the buckwheat family and are native to Eurasia. These species are present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, MB, NS, PE, NF, YK and NT. Dock has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. Rumex crispus and R. obtusifolius were listed as Secondary Noxious weeds on the WSO in 1960. The remaining species were included in 1986. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Dock species were detected in 36 domestic seed samples, 133 imported seed samples and 4 seed samples of unspecified origin.

Latin Name: Silene noctiflora
English Common Name: Night-flowering catchfly
French Common Name: Silène noctiflore
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Silene noctiflora is a perennial herb of the pink family and is native to Eurasia. Seeds are very similar to those of crop clovers and are difficult to separate, so seed impurities have been an important source of dispersal. Ingested seeds survive passage through the digestive system of livestock. S. noctiflora is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF and YKS. noctiflora has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. It was listed as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3) on the WSO in 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. noctiflora was detected in 530 domestic seed samples, 6 imported seed samples and 97 seed samples of unspecified origin.

Latin Name: Sisymbrium loeselii
English Common Name: Tall hedge mustard
French Common Name: Sisymbre élevé de Loesel
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Sisymbrium loeselii is an annual or biennial herb of the mustard family and is native to Eurasia. S. loeselii is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC and NBS. loeselii was listed as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3) since 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. loeselii was detected in one domestic seed sample.

Latin Name: Solanum ptycanthum
English Common Name: Eastern black nightshade
French Common Name: Morelle noir de l'Est
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Solanum ptycanthum is an annual or, rarely, a short-lived perennial. Berries contain up to 100 seeds each and a single plant can easily produce up to 1000 berries. All parts of the plant are reputed to be poisonous; however, the green leaves, stems and seeds are especially toxic. Berries frequently become mixed with agricultural crops, which decreases their quality. This species spreads by seed only. S. ptycanthum is present in BC, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS and PE. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. ptycanthum was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples. S. ptycanthum is known to have herbicide resistance in ON.

Latin Name: Solanum sarachoides (Solanum physalifolium Rusby)
English Common Name: Hairy nightshade
French Common Name: Morelle poilue
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Solanum sarachoides is a common weed of disturbed habitats and cultivated fields. Berries frequently become mixed with agricultural crops, which decreases their quality. The plants produce a sticky substance that can clog agricultural equipment such as combine screens and rotors. This species spreads by seed only. S. sarachoides is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB and NS. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. sarachoides was not detected in domestic or imported seed samples.

Latin Name: Stellaria media
English Common Name: Chickweed, common
French Common Name: Mouron des oiseaux ou stellaire moyenne
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 4.5

Rationale:
Stellaria media is a biennial or perennial herb of the pink family. This species is likely native to Eurasia, but wide range as a weed makes origin obscure. S. media is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK and NTS. media has been listed as a Secondary Noxious (Class 4) weed and a Noxious weed (Class 5) on the WSO since 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. media was detected in 90 domestic seed samples, 5 imported seed samples and 19 seed samples of unspecified origin. S. media has demonstrated herbicide resistance in AB and SK. It is difficult to control in reduced tillage production systems.

Latin Name: Vicia cracca
English Common Name: Tufted vetch
French Common Name: Vesque craque
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Vicia cracca is a perennial, twining or trailing herbaceous plant. V. cracca is widely introduced in Canada and is reported from scattered locations in the southern half of BC, throughout AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, and throughout the Maritimes, as well as a few locations in all three Territories. V. cracca is listed as a noxious weed in AK. Many Vicia seeds are difficult to separate, but V. cracca is one of the easiest to identify among the commonly-encountered species in the genus. This species is persistant and difficult to control in perennial crops, such as orchards, berrycrops, shrub and forestry plantings, and pastures. V. cracca does not persist in cultivated fields, although it can grow from seed in annual crops.

Latin Name: Elytrigia repens
English Common Name: Couch grass
French Common Name: Chiendent
Proposed Classification: 3.5
Current Classification: 2.5

Rationale:
Elytrigia repens is a perennial rhizomatous grass which is native to north Africa and Eurasia. E. repens, which is also known as Quackgrass, spreads mainly asexually from rhizomes but also by seed. E. repens is present throughout Canada. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, E. repens was found in 75 domestic seed samples, 7 imported seed samples and 20 unspecified seed samples. E. repens is considered one of the most difficult or challenging species to control in organic production systems. E. repens has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1960 when it was added as a Primary Noxious weed and a Noxious weed (Class 5), where it remains listed today.

Latin Name: Leucanthemum vulgare
English Common Name: Ox-eye daisy
French Common Name: Marguerite blanche
Proposed Classification: 3.5
Current Classification: 2.5

Rationale:
Leucanthemum vulgare is a perennial herb of the aster family which is native to Europe. This species spreads by seeds and asexually from roots. L. vulgare is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK, NU and NT. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, L. vulgare was detected in 1 imported seed lot. L. vulgare has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905.

Latin Name: Camelina microcarpa
English Common Name: Little-pod false flax
French Common Name: Caméline à petits fruits
Proposed Classification: N/A
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Camelina microcarpa is an annual or biennial herb of the mustard family and is native to Eurasia. This species spreads only by seeds and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF and NT. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, C. microcarpa was detected in one seed sample of unspecified origin.

It is proposed that C. microcarpa be removed from the WSO.

Latin Name: Camelina sativa
English Common Name: Gold-of-Pleasure
French Common Name: Caméline
Proposed Classification: N/A
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Camelina sativa is an annual or biennial herb of the mustard family and is native to Eurasia. It spreads only by seed and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NT. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, it was detected in 2 domestic seed samples and 2 seed samples of unspecified origin. C. sativa is proposed as a new crop type in the prairie region of Canada.

It is proposed that C. sativa be removed from the WSO.

Latin Name: Cichorium intybus
English Common Name: Chicory
French Common Name: Chicorée sauvage
Proposed Classification: N/A
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Cichorium intybus is a biennial or perennial herb of the aster family and is native to Eurasia. C. intybus spreads by seed and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NFC. intybus has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Chicory was detected in 17 domestic seed samples, 1 imported seed sample and 3 seed samples of unspecified origin.

C. intybus is also a crop cultivated in Canada and is listed in Table XX of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations.

It is proposed that C. intybus be removed from the WSO.

Latin Name: Thlaspi arvense
English Common Name: Stinkweed
French Common Name: Tabouret des champs
Proposed Classification: N/A
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Thlaspi arvense is an annual herb of the mustard family and is native to Europe. T. arvense spreads only by seed and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK and NTT. arvense has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. It was listed as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3) on the WSO in 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, T. arvense was detected in 291 domestic seed samples, 40 imported seed samples and 70 seed samples of unspecified origin. Thlaspi arvense is proposed as a crop type in Alberta.

It is proposed that Thlaspi arvense be removed from the WSO.

Latin Name: Vaccaria hispanica
English Common Name: Cow cockle
French Common Name: Saponaire de vaches
Proposed Classification: N/A
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Vaccaria hispanica is an annual herb of the pink family and is native to Eurasia. V. hispanica spreads by seed and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS and YKV. hispanica was regulated in Canada as a weed from 1905 until 1960. V. hispanica was listed as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3) on the WSO in 1986. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, V. hispanica was detected in 2 domestic seed samples. This species is proposed for cultivation as a crop.

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