Seed Program Specific Work Instructions (SWI 142.1.1) - Pedigreed Seed Crop Inspection

This page is part of the Guidance Document Repository (GDR).

Looking for related documents?
Search for related documents in the Guidance Document Repository

Table of Contents

Date

Version 3.1 of Specific Work Instruction (SWI) 142.1.1 was issued May 10, 2017.

Contact

The contact person for this document is the National Manager, Seed Section. Comments regarding the content of this document should be addressed to the National Manager at SeedSemence@inspection.gc.ca.

Review

This SWI is subject to periodic review. Amendments will be issued as necessary so that it continues to meet current needs.

Endorsement

This Seed Program SWI is hereby approved by:

space
Director, Plant Production Division
space
Date

Distribution

This document will be maintained on the CFIA website. The signed original will be maintained by the National Manager, Seed Section. A copy of the latest version is available upon request to SeedSemence@inspection.gc.ca.

0.0 Introduction

The CFIA certifies CFIA inspectors and licenses private seed crop inspectors to conduct field inspections of pedigreed seed crops and issue Reports of Seed Crop Inspection that support the issuance of a crop certificate by the Canadian Seed Growers' Association (CSGA).

1.0 Scope

This SWI describes in detail the measures to be taken when inspecting a pedigreed seed crop by any CFIA inspector or Licensed Seed Crop Inspector LSCI (both herein after referred to as the seed crop inspector), based on the procedures outlined in Quality Systems Procedure (QSP) 142.1 Pedigreed Seed Crop Inspection.

2.0 Definitions, Acronyms and References

The definitions, acronyms and references provided in Seed Program Regulatory Authority Standard SPRA 101 - Definitions, acronyms and references for the seed program apply.

3.0 General Requirements

All LSCI must be licensed according to QSP 142.2 Authorized Seed Crop Inspection. All CFIA seed crop inspectors are certified according to QSP 142.4 Official Crop Inspector Certification Procedures.

4.0 Preparing for the Seed Crop Inspection

4.1 Required Documents and Materials

The seed crop inspector should have the following documents and materials available before starting the seed crop inspection:

4.2 Description of Variety (DoV)

The description of the variety (DoV) identifies the morphological characteristics of the plant, known variants within the variety, and the maximum acceptable population level of any known variants as defined by the plant breeder. Ideally, crop inspection should not take place unless the seed crop inspector has a DoV for the variety being inspected. If it is not possible to obtain the DoV, the seed crop inspector should advise the grower that the crop could be declined pedigreed status. The seed crop inspector may perform the inspection based on the uniformity of the crop, providing that it is noted on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection that no DoV was available.

Seed crop inspectors can access descriptions of varieties in CSGA SeedCert under two different tabs. Descriptions for varieties registered in Canada are found under the 'CFIA Registered Varieties' tab. For varieties that are not registered in Canada, such as some OECD varieties and varieties of crop kinds not subject to variety registration in Canada the DoV is found under the "All Other Varieties" tab of SeedCert.

To determine what is a registered variety, seed crop inspectors can access the list of Varieties of Crop Kinds Registered in Canada which is posted on the CFIA website.

The DoV may also contain additional certification standards and inspection requirements (e.g., increased isolation distances established by the variety developer). It is the seed crop inspector's responsibility to ensure that these additional requirements have been addressed during the inspection.

If an LSCI suspects that a DoV does not accurately reflect what they are seeing in the variety, they should notify their Lead Inspector. The lead inspector must validate the finding and then notify the local office regarding their concerns with the variety description. When required, the CFIA will request that the ASCIS/Lead fill out a "Possible Error with Variety Description Form" in SeedCert.

4.3 Pre-Inspection Activities

The seed crop inspector should carefully review the application for Seed Crop Inspection provided by the CSGA for the field that is to be inspected.

If there are any errors in the 'read-only' sections of the report, note the discrepancies in the first comment box. All changes in acreage are noted in the "Comments" box.

The seed crop inspector should be aware of any unusual conditions for the inspection, such as whether the crop is intended for certification pursuant to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Schemes for the Varietal Certification of Seed Moving in International Trade (OECD Seed Schemes).

The application may contain instructional codes which indicate additional inspection requirements for the field. The seed crop inspector can find a listing of instructional codes and abbreviations used by the CSGA in CSGA SeedCert.

In performing this review, the seed crop inspector will determine the pedigreed status of the crop to be inspected, estimate the approximate growth stage of the crop based on the planting date, and identify the pollination mechanism of the crop. Appendix I provides a list of CSGA pedigree class codes to assist the seed crop inspector in determining the pedigreed status of the seed planted.

In the rare occasion the application indicates that the crop was planted with Certified status seed, the seed crop inspector should refer to Section 9 of QSP 142.1.

In the situation where a seed grower has not made an Application for Seed Crop Certification, and therefore the seed crop inspector has no record for the field, the grower must complete an Application for Seed Crop Certification e-form on the CSGA website. With supervisor approval, the seed crop inspector may complete the inspection in rough notes and submit the Report of Seed Crop Inspection when the application has been approved.

If the seed crop inspector determines that the applicant whose name appears on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection is not responsible for the direct management of the crop, the CSGA is to be advised in the "Comments" section of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection. Provide the name and address of the individual who is responsible for the crop.

Field maps are uploaded to CSGA SeedCert and filed by sequence number. The seed crop inspector should review the field map prior to seed crop inspection.

The seed crop inspector should contact and/or meet with the grower prior to the inspection to verify the crop certificates or the seed tags of the planted parent seed and to assess the growth stage of the crop. This will help the seed crop inspector determine the best time to assess the varietal purity of the crop. It is the seed crop inspector's responsibility to schedule crop inspections during the crop's appropriate growth stage. Seed crop inspectors may delay an inspection when the crop has not reached the appropriate growth stage or when a pesticide has just been applied (or application is imminent) and it is not safe to enter the crop.

The seed crop inspector should review the DoV and the crop-specific SWI prior to performing the inspection.

4.4 Determination of Pedigreed Status – Verifying Tags and Documents

If the grower has used their own seed to plant the inspected crop, the seed crop inspector should review the crop certificate of the planted seed and verify the crop certificate number on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection. This must be reported as 1 tag checked, and stated in the "'Comments" what documentation type was verified.

If the seed was purchased, the seed crop inspector must verify that the Report of Seed Crop Inspection accurately provides the crop certificate number(s) printed on the tag(s), the lot number(s) on the tag, the pedigreed status on the tag, and the number of tags. If tags are not available for the purchased seed, this information should be indicated in the "Number of Tags Checked" section of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection. Invoices or bulk pedigreed seed tags may be consulted when the standard pedigreed seed tags are not available.

Where the information on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection is not accurate, the seed crop inspector must provide the correct information. It is the grower's responsibility to ensure that tags are available for verification.

When checking official tags attached to seed of foreign origin, verification should be performed as above, however, the foreign pedigree reference number is provided instead of the Canadian crop certificate number. For unregistered or foreign varieties, a picture of the tag should be uploaded into SeedCert. If the application indicates that the crop was planted with imported seed, every effort should be made to verify the tag, regardless of whether tag verification is requested.

If the planted seed was purchased in bags without tags or with tags with an inappropriate lot number or which appear to not conform to the requirements of the Seeds Regulations (the Regulations), the seed crop inspector must report this to their Lead Inspector or supervisor and the local CFIA office so that appropriate compliance and enforcement action may be taken.

If the tags or crop certificate are not available, the inspector marks "0" and comments why they were not checked.

4.5 Previous Land Use

The seed crop inspector must verify and record the previous land use prior to inspection.

The seed crop inspector should indicate the pedigreed status and crop certificate numbers of previous crops when possible. It is acceptable to use the information provided on the prepopulated Report of Seed Crop Inspection.

The seed crop inspector should refer to Circular 6 to determine the required number of years of previous land use history as the requirements vary with the crop kind and pedigreed status. For perennial crops, this section is required to be completed only in the first year of inspection.

Through examination of previous crop stubble, the seed crop inspector may determine that the previous crop differs from what it is indicated on the application for seed crop inspection. This should be noted in the "Comments" section of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection. If the previous crop appears to be the same species as what is currently being inspected, this should also be noted in the "Comments" section of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection.

5.0 Conducting the Inspection

Seed crop inspection involves:

  • identification of seed crops;
  • seed crop impurity counts;
  • checking isolation distances; and,
  • verifying whether pedigreed seed production procedures have been met.

The seed crop inspector records impurities/contaminants when found:

  • in six randomized counts within the inspected seed crop;
  • dispersed throughout the field, but never found in the six randomized counts;
  • in localized patches within the inspected seed crop but not within the six randomized counts; and
  • within the isolation distance.

During the crop inspection, the inspector must observe and record the following:

  • overall general condition of the crop including,
    • uniformity, general appearance, general weed condition, presence of reportable weeds, and yield;
  • impurities found within six randomized counts and recorded in 'counts' including,
    • off-types/variants,
    • other crop kinds that are difficult to separate, and
    • weeds that are reported by count;
  • impurities dispersed throughout the field, but coincidently never found in the six randomized counts, including,
    • off-types/variants,
    • other crop kinds that are difficult to separate,
    • weeds that are reported by count, and
    • prohibited noxious weeds;
  • localized contaminants found in bunches or patches, including,
    • off-types/variants,
    • other crop kinds that are difficult to separate,
    • weeds that are reported by count, and
    • prohibited noxious weed species;
  • impurities/contaminants found in the isolation distance, including,
    • off-types/variants,
    • other crop kinds that are difficult to separate,
    • weeds that are reported by count, and
    • prohibited noxious weed species;
  • abnormal conditions present in the seed crop (e.g., lodging, flooding, thin stand);
  • reportable disease (smut)
  • the width and description of the strip which exists between the seed crop and the adjacent crop kind; and
  • the condition of the minimum required isolation as stated for the crop kind in Circular 6 (this may or may not be a prepared isolation).

The following are a few examples of requests a seed crop inspector may make of the grower. The seed crop inspector may request the grower to:

  • be available or have a responsible person on hand to assist the inspector on the day of crop inspection;
  • provide field maps with all fields and buildings clearly identified; all required information is to be identified completely and accurately;
  • make available to the seed crop inspector the seed tags and/or previous crop certificates for the planted seed; these should be sorted by field then by lot prior to presentation to the seed crop inspector;
  • drive the seed crop inspector to the crop by tractor, jeep, or other vehicle when difficult conditions exist;
  • open gates and move other obstructions;
  • assist, where requested, in measuring Select and/or Foundation plots; and
  • provide relevant information on recent pesticide application or imminent aerial pesticide application and other known hazards (e.g., bears, hawks, vicious dogs, hunters nearby).

If the inspector is unable to locate the seed crop with the directions provided, they should contact the grower for clarification of the seed crop location.

The LSCI may contact the Lead Inspector of the ASCIS to which they report to ask for assistance, advice, or information in order to complete the seed crop inspection.

Where a seed crop inspector notes conditions that may not conform to requirements in Circular 6 for the crop in question, the seed crop inspector should encourage the grower to contact the CSGA. Seed crop inspectors must not anticipate CSGA decisions based on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection.

5.1 Crop Survey

When approaching the seed crop for inspection, the inspector should perform a cursory verification of the seed crop. This will allow the inspector to estimate the field size, shape, and topography so that the travel pattern can be determined.

The seed crop inspector should make a quick sketch of the field, noting the travel pattern to be walked and areas where counts will be made. While the use of rough notes is not mandatory, they can be valuable and are highly recommended. When rough notes are developed, they should have a clear link to the final report, i.e., they should include field location information and CSGA sequence number.

The seed crop inspector should examine the seed crop as a whole to verify that it is consistent with the characteristics of the variety as provided in the DoV to verify that the inspector is in the correct location.

The seed crop inspector's must complete the inspection during the appropriate growth stage of the crop when impurities will be visible.

The seed crop inspector should also note if the seed crop to be inspected is planted with a companion crop. If so, the seed crop inspector should note the type of companion crop and its stage of development. If the companion crop impedes the inspection and does not permit the inspector to complete six counts, the seed crop inspector should report the field as very weedy as per section 6.3.

5.1.1 Lodged Crops

A rough assessment of varietal purity can be made in lodged seed crops by lifting small portions of the crop and examining the heads very closely. For crops that are almost or completely lodged, inspection may not be refused. The seed crop should be assessed and a Report of Seed Crop Inspection completed. Some deviations from the DoV may result from environmental conditions and management practices for some traits, e.g., plant height. The seed crop inspector should indicate on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection that the crop was lodged, and what proportion.

5.1.2 Crops That Have Been Partially or Completely Swathed

A Report of Seed Crop Inspection must still be completed for crops which have been partially or completely swathed. The report must include the area or location(s) that have been swathed, isolation distances, land use, tag verification, percentage of the crop that was swathed, information on the general weed condition (if possible), and any other additional information that can be provided.

If the crop has been partially swathed, the seed crop inspector should approximate the acreage of the crop that has not been swathed and follow the procedures in section 5.2 for reporting changes in area. The seed crop inspector completes the inspection on the remaining part of the seed crop that has not been swathed. The area that was swathed and not inspected must be reported in the "Comments" section.

5.2 Field and Plot Sizes

The acreage figure on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection may be inaccurate. The seed crop inspector should note the actual acreage in the "Comments" section of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection. When the seed crop inspector changes the acreage, the seed grower signature is not required.

The area of a Select plot is reported as metres x metres. If the plot is not exactly square or rectangular, or if it is a shape such as a triangle, the seed crop inspector should exercise caution to make a fair and accurate measurement of the area. If the plot is an irregular shape, insert zeros in the plot area calculation of the report and state the dimensions in the comments box. Seed crop inspectors are encouraged to utilize GPS acreage calculation tools, if available. A map or sketch should also be included with the Report of Seed Crop Inspection.

If the seed crop inspector notes that the area of land put forward for inspection contains large physical barriers or is comprised of pieces of land that are not adjacent or contiguous, the seed crop inspector should advise the grower that the land may not meet the CSGA definition for a field as described in Circular 6. The grower should complete a new seed crop inspection application for the smaller portion split from the field and indicate on their application in one of the "Comments" boxes that the field has been split. If the seed grower does not agree to split the sequence number into fields which meet the CSGA Field Definition, the seed crop inspector should contact the CSGA.

5.3 Estimated Yield

The seed crop inspector estimates yield as being average, above average, or below average for crops that are inspected near or at the time of maturity. The seed crop inspector uses the seed crop conditions for that crop kind in the district as being the benchmark average.

5.4 Travel Patterns for Seed Crop Inspection

The seed crop inspector determines the travel pattern based on the inspected crop, the type of inspection, and the field size. Each inspection must consist of a minimum of six representative counts in the crop therefore the seed crop inspector should divide the field into six approximately equal areas and randomly take a count in each area.

When selecting a travel pattern, the seed crop inspector should balance the need for the highest degree of accuracy with the most efficient use of the seed crop inspector's time. A travel pattern that will allow the greatest degree of coverage for the least amount of distance traveled will increase accuracy and conserve time. Appendix III provides commonly used travel patterns and a brief discussion of their use.

5.5 Identifying and Counting Impurities

During crop inspection, the seed crop inspector may observe plants with morphological or physical characteristics that differ from the rest of the crop. It is important to be aware of ways in which the environment may affect the crop (e.g., temperature, moisture, wind, insects, diseases, animals or chemical damage) and to consider these when determining the identity of a suspected deviant plant.

Weather and light conditions may influence the appearance and presentation of the crop. Wind makes inspection difficult because it is hard to see the plant's flowers and heads in their natural presentation. When possible, crops should be inspected with the seed crop inspector's back to the sun. This is important when inspecting flowering crops such as flax, as the flowers turn to face the sun. This will allow for easier observation of the flower traits.

Variations between plants may be identified by close observation of the characteristics of plant parts in the flowering body (e.g., colour, shape, type, glume characteristics, presentation, seed body), plant architecture, or growth habit (e. g., attitude, environmental responses, life cycle, maturity). In some cases, the suspected deviant plant is considered part of the variety and is listed in the DoV as a known and expected variant. The inspector should describe the suspected deviant plants. The DoV may aid the inspector in describing suspected deviant plants.

5.5.1 Identifying and Counting Impurities within Counts

Six counts must always be taken for each impurity (off-type/variant, other crop kind (as required in Appendix VI), and weeds that are reported by count (as required in Appendix VII)) noted in the field count areas.

For example, for a crop containing three kinds of off-types/variants and one difficult to separate crop, twenty-four counts should be taken (6 counts x 4 impurities). However, the same six count areas can be used for the four different count objectives.

The count population or area must be identified in the Report of Seed Crop Inspection and must be based on the maximum impurity standard for the crop and pedigreed status as given in Circular 6. Where the plant population density is low and/or difficult to identify (e.g., due to lodging, thin stands, or extreme contamination), counts may be done by area. For example, six counts of 10,000 plants would not be practical if there are only ten plants per square meter. For crops other than forages, when area is used, an estimate of the population in that area is needed for calculation of the impurity level. For forage crops, an estimate of the population in that area is required only when the stand is above or below average for the species.

Reduced plant counts may be used under exceptional circumstances when six counts of 10,000 plants each cannot be conducted due to:

  • the nature or number of the variants and/or off-types that are found (based on experience with the variety or on three initial counts of 1,000 plants);
  • or where the DoV indicates a single variant with maximum allowable levels in excess of two percent (200 per 10,000 plants);
  • weed conditions that do not permit 6 full counts to be completed.

See Appendix V for procedures for reduced plant counts.

In those exceptional circumstances where reduced counts are used, an explanation of why the reduced count procedure was used must be provided in the "Comments" section of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection. The seed crop inspector puts '0' in the count box on the Report for the counts not taken and notes in the "Comments" box that those counts were not taken. This comment distinguishes this situation from an actual count of '0'.

5.5.2 Identifying and Counting Crop Impurities Outside of Counts

In addition to impurities found in the six randomized counts, seed crop inspectors also report impurities found:

  1. dispersed throughout the field, but coincidently never found in the six randomized counts. Any impurities observed outside of the count area should be noted and must be recorded in the "Comments" section of the report. However, seed crop inspectors need not include comments about impurities already noted in counts.
  2. in localized patches within the inspected seed crop but not within the six randomized counts.

The seed crop inspector may encounter localized patches of contamination within the seed field. These are areas within the seed field that contain a concentration of contaminants (e.g., reported in counts, other crop kinds, other varieties, off-types, Prohibited Noxious weeds) that may affect the pedigreed status of the crop. These localized areas of contaminants are not reflected in the counts therefore they must be reported in the "Comments" section of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection. The seed crop inspector must describe in detail the contaminant found, the number of localized areas, number of contaminants in the localized area, and the location and the size of the localized area(s). It may be necessary to attach a map and or photographs to the Report.

Examples include:

  • patches of wild oats in oat crops;
  • contamination introduced by the seed planter.

These localized contaminants are recorded in "Comments"; for example "six patches (averaging 20 sq. m.) of wild oats - too numerous to count - found outside of counts in south east corner of the field."

Areas of potential sources of contamination such as water runs, field grain bins, roadways, rock piles, manure pits, planter commencement areas, should be examined closely.

5.5.3 Count Area Calculation

The seed crop inspector must make an accurate estimate of the number of plants per meter of row in order to have confidence that each count meets the requirements of Circular 6. Appendix IV provides useful estimates of the number of plants per square meter depending on the distance between the rows and the number of plants per metre of row for a count of 10,000 plants. For an inspection to be conducted with reduced counts, refer to the relevant crop-specific SWI.

Seed crop inspection must be conducted following procedures to achieve the highest pedigree possible. In rare instances a seed grower may make a request to CSGA via SeedCert to have the field inspected to a lower pedigree. If the request is not documented in SeedCert, the inspector should record this grower request on the report of seed crop inspection. For example, a field of alfalfa seeded with Breeder Seed, in year 4 of production, is still eligible for Foundation status. However, a grower could request approval to have it inspected to Certified status.

5.6 Verification of Isolation

The seed crop inspector must verify isolation of the seed crop from adjacent crops as described in the crop-specific SWIs and Circular 6. For open-pollinated crops, the distance to the nearest field which contains the same species or species that can cross-pollinate within the required isolation distance must be reported.

When the seed crop inspector suspects that the isolation distance is insufficient to meet CSGA requirements, the seed crop inspector issues to the grower a "Verification of Isolation Corrective Action Notification" (form is available on SeedCert). The seed crop inspector records that the Notice was given to the grower by selecting this checkbox on the Report.

If the isolation distances do not meet the standards for the crop kind and pedigreed status of the crop, the CSGA may withhold the crop certificate until a seed crop inspector has verified that the isolation has been corrected. Inspectors must not anticipate CSGA decisions based on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection.

It is the responsibility of the grower to correct the isolation distance and request a re-inspection prior to harvest. The inspector conducting the re-inspection selects "re-inspection" as the type of inspection. It is not necessary to repeat the full crop inspection, but only to verify the isolation distance in question. To report the re-inspection the seed crop inspector records the same sequence number as the original, the seed crop inspector name and number, and the results of the verification of the isolation.

6.0 Completing the Report of Seed Crop Inspection

The Report of Seed Crop Inspection is the record of an objective assessment of the condition of the field at the time of the inspection. It is the information upon which subsequent certification decisions are based.

The seed crop inspector should complete all required fields of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection and include any additional information in the 'Comments' section of the Report. LSCI may be required to provide additional information to CSGA when requested by CSGA. Rough field notes taken during the inspection and used to complete the Report of Seed Crop Inspection are considered relevant and useful documents and should be retained by the seed crop inspector and the ASCIS for a minimum of seven years after the inspection.

6.1 Reporting Isolation

The reporting of isolations requires national consistency across Regions and crop types. The terms 'strip' and 'isolation' cannot be considered synonyms. Seed growers often do not prepare a strip for isolation which is equal to the required isolation distance (in self-pollinated crops this distance is usually 3 meters).

The seed crop inspector determines (measures) the distance from the seed crop to the adjacent crop and surveys the required isolation distance for contaminants. The findings are reported as described below.

6.1.1 Definition of the terms used in the Isolation table on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection

Isolation
the minimum required isolation as defined in CSGA Circular 6. May or may not be a prepared isolation
Strip
the space between the inspected seed crop and the adjacent crop (includes harvested crops, does not include standing crop).
Crop kind (adjacent crop description)
Crops that can be harvested (includes pasture and hay). A harvested crop is not reported as a crop kind when describing the adjacent crop.
Contaminants
off-types/variants, other crop kinds difficult to separate, other varieties of the same crop kind, weeds reported by count, or prohibited noxious weeds.
Crop of concern
other seed or grain crop which might offer a source of varietal or mechanical contamination through cross-pollination or harvesting mistakes

6.1.2 Completing the Isolation Table on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection

Strip Width
Distance in meters to the adjacent crop kind
Strip Description
Whatever exists within the strip width
Isolation Condition
For the largest required isolation distance in Circular 6, a rating of either Good or Poor.
Good: no contaminants or potential crops of concern are found.
Poor: contaminants or potential crops of concern are found.
Adjacent Crop Description
Name of crop kind
Comments/Open-pollinated crops:
Provide comments when the isolation is rated "Poor". For open-pollinated crops, describe any of the same species or species that can cross-pollinate found in the isolation or if none found, state "none found within "x" m".

When there is more than one condition for the isolation along a field edge, report each condition.

When the isolation condition is rated as "poor", the seed crop inspector must state the reason for this rating in the "Comments" section.

The strip width, strip description and isolation condition must be reported with care as crops may be declined pedigreed status when reports indicate less isolation than the minimum required in Circular 6.

Complete information on adjacent crops should be given, such as kind, variety and pedigreed status, when possible. Where applicable, the crop certificate number for adjacent crops should also be recorded. An example of this is where canola sown with Foundation status seed is adjacent to a crop planted with Certified seed of the same variety. When it is established that the neighboring crop was planted with Certified seed of the same variety and the Crop Certificate number is provided for the seed used, an isolation distanced of only 3 metres is required.

In situations where isolations are complex or appear not to meet Circular 6 standards, a map is a useful reporting tool to describe the situation. The map should include enough detail for CSGA to determine the nature of the isolation situation and/or the source of any isolation problems. Include distances, contaminant information (type, density, maturity in relation to the crop), highlighting the problem areas on the map. Attach this map directly to the report using the "Upload tool" (via SeedCert).

All self-pollinated crop kinds can be described in one of the following scenarios:

1. No isolation strip exists between the seed crop and the adjacent crop:

Strip width
0
Strip description
N/A = Not Applicable
Isolation condition
Good or Poor
Adjacent Crop Description
Name of crop kind

The only situation where strip width is reported as "0" is the situation where the adjacent crop butts up to the inspected seed crop.

2. The 'strip width' is more than or equal to the required isolation (3 m):

a. If inspector can easily see and can therefore identify the adjacent crop kind

Strip width
(equal to) 3m or (greater than) > 3m
Strip description
List of whatever exists until you reach a crop kind
Isolation condition
Good or Poor
Adjacent Crop Description
Name of crop kind

b. If inspector cannot easily see and therefore cannot identify the adjacent crop kind

Strip width
(greater than) > 3m
Strip description
Description of the strip, but never a crop kind
Isolation condition
Good or Poor
Adjacent Crop Description
N/A = Not applicable

3. The 'strip width' is less than the required (3 m):

Strip width
Measured distance (which will be less than 3m)
Strip description
Whatever is in the strip; fallow, mowed sod, etc., but never a crop type
Isolation condition
Good or Poor
Adjacent Crop Description
Crop kind immediately after the distance of the 'strip width' recorded above.

When rating isolation condition, always rate the largest required isolation distance listed in Circular 6 for the crop kind being inspected. This includes any additional isolation distances required for open-pollinated crops.

6.1.3 Additional Requirements for Open-Pollinated Crops

In the case of open-pollinated crops, if harmful contaminants that may cross pollinate are found within the isolation zone, the seed crop inspector should state in the "Comments" the approximate number of contaminating plants found per inspected area, the distance these are from the crop, the maturity of the contaminating plants in relation to the maturity of the crop being inspected and the manner in which the isolation has been prepared such as mowed, etc. (e.g., "common timothy, 100 plants, 25 meters to north, mowed for hay, late June, no blossom"). If harmful contaminants which may cross pollinate are not present the seed crop inspector records "none within xx metres" (the required isolation distance) of the seed crop.

For crops where the 10% rule applies, the seed crop inspector should rate the isolation as good if it appears that 10% or less of the field is in the isolation zone.

The seed crop inspector should refer to Circular 6 and the crop specific SWI for details on border removal in lieu of isolation distance for some crop kinds.

6.1.4 Reporting Isolation of Staked Plots

The information below is provided as additional instruction to LSCI Group 6 licensees for the Reporting of Isolations for Staked plots of Circular 6 Section 12 Crop Types - Select Plots.

1. Staked Plots exist entirely within the surrounding adjacent seed crop (no strip exists between the staked plot and the surrounding adjacent seed crop):

Strip Width 0
Strip Description Staked
Isolation condition Good (no contaminants are found within 1 metre)
or
Poor (contaminants are found within 1 metre)
Adjacent crop description Variety and Field number or Sequence number of the surrounding crop.
Comments If the isolation condition is poor, indicate: [side], [contaminate name] and [# found or # found per m2]

2. Plot is Staked, but not on all sides (i.e. the staked plot is on the corner or the side of the field planted with equivalent pedigreed status seed):

Staked side(s):
Strip Width 0
Strip Description Staked
Isolation condition Good (no contaminants or potential crops of concern are found within 1 metre)
or
Poor (contaminants or potential crops of concern are found within 1 metre)
Adjacent crop description Variety and Field number or Sequence number of the crop surrounding the stakes.
Unstaked side(s) - report as per normal plot isolations:
Strip Width 0, measured distance or >10 metres as applicable
Strip Description Description of the strip, but never a crop kind
Isolation condition Good (no contaminants or potential crops of concern are found within 3 or 10 metres as appropriate)
or
Poor (contaminants or potential crops of concern are found within 3 or 10 metres as appropriate)
Adjacent crop description Name of crop kind or N/A if not identifiable from the field edge
Comments If the isolation condition is poor, indicate: [side], [contaminate name] and [# found or # found per m2]

6.2 Reporting Off-Types and Variants

The number, nature and specific differing morphological characteristics of the off-types and variants identified in the inspection must be noted on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection. If the number of variants reported exceeds the maximum acceptable number in the DoV the excess plants are considered off-types and the number of the plants in excess of the maximum acceptable number is added to the number of off-types observed. A field may be declined or demoted by the CSGA if the total number of off-types exceeds the maximum impurity standards in Circular 6.

When reporting off-types and variants in a soybean crop or "tall" off-types and variants in any crop, the seed crop inspector must report a second characteristic to help distinguish the deviant plant. If no other characteristic can be observed, the seed crop inspector must note the plant's one off-type characteristic (e.g., tall) and "otherwise conforms" in the description.

When the inspector is not sure whether a plant is a variant, off-type or normal plant, the inspector may take a sample of the plant(s). See Appendix VIII for procedures for collecting and submitting samples to the CFIA for identification.

The Report of Seed Crop Inspection must indicate that a sample has been submitted for testing and clearly indicate whether the results of the testing would impact the number of impurities reported. The test results are forwarded from the CFIA laboratory to the CSGA, Seed Section and the submitting local CFIA office. The local CFIA office is responsible for communicating the test results to the ASCIS supervising the LSCI who submitted the sample. The CSGA is responsible for connecting the sample test results to the relevant Report of Seed Crop Inspection and including the results in its certification decision for that seed crop.

6.3 Reporting Weeds

The specific weeds that must be reported for each crop kind are listed in Appendix VII. These weeds are either reported by count or by frequency. When making counts of wild oats, plants are to be counted whether or not there are any seeds on the plant.

Weeds classified as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious under the Weed Seeds Order, 2016 must be reported on the report of seed crop inspection by frequency rating (e.g., trace, numerous). Prohibited noxious weeds must be reported when found in the field or the 3 m isolation regardless of plant growth stage. This finding must also be reported to the CFIA within two business days using the form provided in CSGA SeedCert, and is recorded in the 'Comments' section of the Report.

When describing the "General Weed Condition", and Prohibited Noxious weeds, one of the following frequency terms should be used:

  • "clean" means free from weeds;
  • "trace"(T) (<20 weeds/100 m2) is used when weeds are hardly present in the crop;
  • "few"(F) (20-100 weeds/100 m2) is used when weeds are found throughout the crop;
  • "numerous"(N) (>100 weeds/100 m2) is used when weeds are found throughout the crop and the weed condition is interfering with crop inspection and/or it is reasonable to assume the weeds will present difficulty in processing;
  • "very weedy"(VW) is used when weeds or other crops cover the crop and do not permit the inspector to complete six counts; this condition usually is cause for CSGA to decline pedigreed status; The inspector may attempt to do reduced plant counts when possible.

ASCIS/LSCI may report weeds for Seed Growers. Seed Growers may want to request the reporting of Class 2 Primary Noxious weeds from their ASCIS/LSCI.

When inspecting a pedigreed seed crop planted with imported seed, the seed crop inspector should be alert for weeds that are not normally found in the region. Note this in the "Comments" section of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection, and contact the Lead Inspector. If the Lead Inspector is unable to identify the weed, a sample should be sent for identification to local CFIA office which will forward the sample to the Genotyping/Botany Unit of the Ottawa Plant Laboratory Fallowfield (See Appendix VIII).

6.4 Reporting Plant Disease

Visual symptoms smut in barley should be described. Seed crop inspectors must describe the location of the disease in the field and the approximate area (percent) of diseased plants in the field.

6.5 Reporting Comments

The seed crop inspector should provide an explanatory statement in the "Comments" section of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection when:

  • the condition of the isolation is poor;
  • the general weed condition is very weedy;
  • a change is made to acreage; and/or
  • reduced counts are used.

In those exceptional circumstances where reduced counts are used, this should clearly be highlighted along with an explanation of why the reduced count procedure in Appendix V was used. The inspector should indicate crop plant density in the "Comments" section of the Report, particularly when dealing with reduced counts, e.g., "crop density 60 plants per sq. m."

Issues or conditions not noted elsewhere within the Report of Seed Crop Inspection but that may affect the pedigreed status of the crop should be included in the "Comments" section. It may be useful to provide clarification in order to provide a complete description of the crop.

The following conditions may also be reported in the "Comments" section of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection:

  • if greater than 20% the crop is lodged, the location and percentage of affected crops should be indicated, e.g., "completely lodged", "50% lodged north side", etc.;
  • a description of the layout of the land put forward for inspection if it does not meet the CSGA definition for a field;
  • impurities found outside counts;
  • where a portion of the crop was not inspected because it was swathed, this must be clearly identified, as well as the % swathed or acreage swathed;
  • information on hail, insect, or pesticide damage when its occurrence interferes with crop inspection along with an estimate of the proportion of the crop that is affected;
  • if the seed crop inspector has taken samples of unusual plants for assessment or identification;
  • if the inspected crop is seeded with a companion crop, the companion crop and its stage of development;
  • when a grower accompanies a seed crop inspector during the inspection and commences any roguing activities during the crop inspection, the following procedures should be used for reporting,
    • where the roguing activities are random during the crop inspection, the presence of the rogued impurities should be noted in the "Comments" section but not included in the counts, or
    • where the roguing activities occur only in the specific areas being used by the seed crop inspector for counts, the rogued impurities must be reported in counts.
  • When the seed crop inspector is unable to take six counts, record "0" for the counts not taken and record in "Comments" that these counts were not taken.
  • Dimensions of irregularly shaped plots

6.6 Reporting Changes in Acres Inspected

To cancel an inspection the seed crop inspector utilizes the "Cancel, Combine or Report a Duplicate Application" form in CSGA SeedCert. The signature of the seed grower is required. Pedigreed seed crops that are swathed or harvested prior to inspection but not previously cancelled are to be reported as indicated in Section 5.1.2.

If the actual crop area differs from the area indicated on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection, the seed crop inspector should record the correct acreage in the "Comments" section.

6.7 Report Types in CSGA SeedCert

There are several report types within CSGA SeedCert. Depending on the type of inspection selected, the required fields on the report may change.

  • Report of Seed Crop Inspection: initial inspection report supplied for each CSGA sequence number; not to be used for re-inspection, land use inspection, or internal inspections;
  • Re-Inspection: to record a re-inspection which is completed after the Report of Seed Crop Inspection for this sequence number has already been completed; records a change in field information and is usually completed at the request of the seed grower; this report type is not to be used to make modifications to an existing Report of Seed Crop Inspection.

    Example: CSGA has sent an email to a seed grower requesting three meters to be removed from the North isolation. The grower has made this correction and requests that the LSCI come back to do a re-inspection. The LSCI would select Re-Inspection as the inspection type.

  • Report Modification: to modify a previously submitted report, select report modification as the inspection type;

    Report modification should only be used if the original report has either been approved or rejected by the ASCIS.

    Example: An LSCI submits aa report to their Lead Inspector for review. The Lead Inspector rejects the report due to an issue reporting weeds. The LSCI can report modification to recall the information previously submitted.

  • Internal Inspection: for internal use by ASCIS and LSCI for internal training or testing or other reporting needs prior to inspection. This inspection type is not part of the CFIA seed program.
  • Land Use Inspection: used when a land use inspection has been requested by the seed grower.
  • Hemp Inspection Report - 1st Inspection - This report should be used for the 1st hemp inspection. Located in the forms tab of SeedCert. For Certified and Registered hemp seed crops this is the only report that is submitted.
  • Hemp Inspection Report - 2nd Inspection (and 3rd if applicable) - This report should be used for the subsequent hemp inspections when required (Breeder, Foundation and Probation plots). Located in the forms tab of SeedCert.

There are two other report types which are accessible to CFIA staff only.

  • Check Inspection: used by CFIA Official inspectors for oversight purposes.
  • Referee Inspection: used by CFIA Official inspectors to resolve a disagreement between a seed grower and an ASCIS. This process is rarely used. The seed grower will be charged an assessment fee by the CSGA.

7.0 After the Inspection

At the end of each day, the LSCI must report the sequence numbers of the fields inspected that day. This populates the "actual inspection date" column in CSGA SeedCert.

The Report of Seed Crop Inspection must be signed and dated by the seed crop inspector, reviewed by the ASCIS Lead Inspector and submitted electronically to the CSGA within two business days of the inspection having been completed.

The seed crop inspector is responsible for responding to any follow up requests from the CSGA, the CFIA, the seed grower or their assignee, related to the crop inspection or the Report.

It is recommended that the seed crop inspector keep a copy of any rough notes for their own files and that these notes are also kept on file at the ASCIS.

8.0 Health and Safety Considerations

ASCIS are required to have health and safety programs in place commensurate with the regulations within the jurisdictions in which they operate.

The following is a partial list of health and safety considerations.

  • Any unsafe condition or activity should be reported to the Lead Inspector or quality manager of the ASCIS. The seed crop inspector may resume work only after the situation has been properly assessed and corrected as required.
  • Seed crop inspectors should dress appropriately for the weather. Waterproof boots, pants, and coat are helpful in rain or irrigation. Proper dress includes proper footwear; the seed crop inspector should never walk barefoot or in sandals when crop inspecting. If lightning is near, the inspector shall remain in or return to their vehicle. Insect repellent or netting are also usual necessities.
  • The seed crop inspector should be aware of any crop protection products that have been applied to the crop. Direct communication with the grower is recommended to determine the applied product and the safe re-entry time. Consult product labels or the Pest Management Regulatory Agency website. Do not enter fields recently sprayed with pest control products unless you are confident the re-entry period has passed.
  • The seed crop inspector should also ask the grower if there are any other hazards that may be encountered in the crop and proceed accordingly. The seed crop inspector should be alert for aggressive animals and hidden dangers when driving and walking. The seed crop inspector should never drive a grower's farm equipment. Other hazards may be encountered.
  • The seed crop inspector should be aware of any hunting activities potentially occurring nearby and wear reflective clothing if necessary.

9.0 Biosecurity Considerations

Seed crop inspectors should be aware of and comply with biosecurity programs in effect on the farms and in the areas in which they are performing seed crop inspection. Always remove soil and organic matter from boots and vehicles between fields.

10.0 Inspection of Probation, Foundation and Select Plots

The seed crop inspector must measure the plot dimension in meters then indicate the plot area and dimensions on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection. A single plot must not exceed 2.5 acres or 1 Ha. If the plot size exceeds 2.5 acres or 1 Ha, the seed crop inspector should indicate "plot exceeds 2.5 acres (or 1 Ha)" in the "Comments" section of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection. The measurements are to be taken using a measuring wheel, GPS unit, or other reliable device.

The seed crop inspector shall examine the entire plot for the crop condition, i.e., uniformity of stand, general appearance and general weed condition. A minimum of six impurity counts (20,000 plants each) are based on the Circular 6 standard for the crop inspected for most crops. For industrial hemp plots six counts of 10,000 are to be made. However, reduced plant counts may be required (as per SWI 142.1.2-7). For sunflower plots, six counts of 200 plants are to be performed. The seed crop inspector may refer to the guide in Appendix IV for estimating count areas. Emphasis should be given to the accuracy of impurity identification and quantification within the count areas rather than the occurrence of impurities outside the count areas.

Where the entire plot contains less than 120,000 plants, the seed crop inspector should estimate the total population size and conduct as many counts as possible on the 20,000 plant count areas. For the remaining count area, the seed crop inspector will estimate and report the number of plants in the small count area, and perform the count on this smaller area. The seed crop inspector puts '0' in the count box on the Report for the counts not taken and notes in the "Comments" box that those counts were not taken. This comment distinguishes this situation from an actual count of '0'.

If the entire plot size provides less than 20,000 plants in total, the seed crop inspector must estimate and report the total number of plants in the plot and treat the area as one plant count area. This situation occurs rarely but may be encountered in Breeder Plots when there is a small amount of high value seed available or in other Plots when damage has occurred but the grower still wishes to certify the crop. When there is only one count, the seed crop inspector notes "0" in the 'Counts' and records the results in 'Comments'.

10.1 Staking of Plots

Some Probation and Select plots can be marked by staking the plot in lieu of the standard isolation requirement, when adjacent plots or plots within a Foundation status crop are of the same variety. It is the grower's responsibility to ensure that the stakes are present prior to crop inspection and that they are visible above the crop canopy.

The staked plot must be inspected and reported on, even if the seed crop inspector has reason to believe that the crop within which the plot is staked may not meet CSGA's pedigreed seed crop standards.

11.0 Land Use Inspection

Previous land use inspections are required in order to determine the suitability of the land for a pedigreed seed crop in the following year. They may be conducted in standing crops or fallow fields and do not assess the pedigreed status of the crop. They are generally conducted later in the season when volunteers are fully emerged and easily identified but before the standing crop is harvested. It is the seed crop inspector's responsibility to report any contamination which may pose a varietal purity problem in the pedigreed seed crop to be planted in the field in the following year.

The following information is required on the Report of Previous Land Use Inspection:

  • variety planted, and/or crop kind inspected;
  • crop certificate number if pedigreed seed is used;
  • acreage;
  • land location;
  • land use in year before seeding;
  • Prohibited Noxious weeds if present;
  • other crop kinds observed in six counts of 10 000 plants;
  • the yield, isolation and crop condition areas/sections of the report are to remain blank; and
  • the planting intentions for the next year are to be indicated in the "Comments" section.

12.0 Other Issues

12.1 Industrial Hemp

Crops grown for Certified and Registered require one inspection. Breeder, Foundation and Probation plots require a minimum of two inspections (in some cases a third additional inspection may be required). When LSCI are conducting multiple inspections for a seed crop of hemp, they must schedule all inspections in Seedcert. For crops requiring only one inspection or for the first inspection, the seed crop inspector will use the "Hemp Inspection Report - 1st Inspection" report found in the forms tab of SeedCert. When a second or third inspection is required, the seed crop inspector will choose "Hemp Inspection Report - 2nd Inspection" as the report type (also found in the forms tab).

12.2 CFIA Seed Crop Inspectors - Industrial Hemp Inspection for Health Canada

CFIA official seed crop inspectors no longer perform inspections of industrial hemp on behalf of Health Canada.

12.2.1 CFIA Seed Crop Inspectors - Suspicious Cannabis Crops

If, during the course of pedigreed seed crop inspection of industrial hemp, or any other crop, the CFIA seed crop inspector encounters a crop or plants that he/she suspects are not included on the List of Approved Cultivars of industrial hemp for the current growing season, Seed Section or the Industrial Hemp Section of Health Canada's Office of Controlled Substances must be notified. Similarly, the same notification must be made if the inspector encounters an industrial hemp crop that they suspect has not been licensed for cultivation. Inspectors are not responsible for enforcing the Industrial Hemp Regulations, nor should any recommendations be made to the grower.

12.3 Requests for Very Early or Late Inspection

A grower may request a very early or late crop inspection. Similar to cancellation requests, requests for very early or late inspections require a record of authorization by the grower. The grower's intent to have the inspection carried out on a particular date must be clearly indicated in the "Comments" with a reference to a phone record or by attaching a signed declaration from the grower.

At the time of the request for early or late inspection, the grower should be reminded that Circular 6 states, "Crops not inspected at the proper stage of growth for determining varietal purity may be cause for declining pedigreed status."

12.4 Additional Inspection and Reporting Requirements

There may be contractual agreements between the grower/assignee and the ASCIS for the reporting of crop information in addition to what is required to be reported as per this SWI. For example, ASCIS may report weeds found in the seed crop.

12.5 Additional Applications

If, upon arriving at a location at which a crop inspection is to be conducted, the seed crop inspector is presented with additional applications for seed crop inspection by the grower, or with a situation that requires the inspection of additional seed crops, the following procedures must be followed.

  • The seed crop inspector will have no record for the field therefore the grower must complete an Application for Seed Crop Certification e-form on the CSGA website. The grower may do this using the seed crop inspector's tablet (iPad), as long as there is internet connectivity.
  • The seed crop inspector should determine the type and priority of the inspection and the appropriate time of inspection.
  • If the application pertains to a high priority inspection (i.e., pedigreed seed crop inspection as opposed to land use) and the crop is at the correct stage for inspection and the seed crop inspector can reasonably accommodate the inspection without jeopardizing the timely performance of other high priority inspections, the inspection may be performed at that time.
  • If the inspection cannot be reasonably performed at that time, the seed crop inspector should accept the application and consult with their supervisor as soon as it is practical to schedule the inspection.
  • If the grower was unable to submit an application in the field, the seed crop inspector may conduct the inspection in rough notes to transcribe into the pre-populated report when it is available.

Appendix I CSGA Pedigreed Class Codes

The following table lists the CSGA pedigreed class code and its corresponding class name.

CSGA Pedigreed Class Codes
Class Code Class Name
0 Pre-variety Germplasm
1 Foundation
2 Registered
3 Synthetic Select
4 Certified
5 Breeder
6 Select
7 Certified OECD
8 Re-Certified
9 Certified 2nd Generation under OECD Seed Schemes
G0 Generation 0, Pre-Variety Germplasm
G1 Generation 1, Pre-Variety Germplasm
G2 Generation 2, Pre-Variety Germplasm
G3 Generation 3, Pre-Variety Germplasm

Appendix II Instructional Codes Used by CSGA on Reports of Seed Crop Inspection

The seed crop inspector can view the Instructional Codes used by CSGA on Reports of Seed Crop Inspection in SeedCert.

Appendix III Travel Patterns

The following diagrams are general guidelines for travel patterns to be used for seed crop inspections. As the inspection must usually include a minimum of six representative counts of the seed crop to be inspected, the seed crop inspector should divide the field into six relatively equivalent sectors and perform a random count in each sector. Patterns A and B are taken from the AOSCA Suggested Sampling Procedure for Inspecting Fields for Seed Certification. All examples are based on a hypothetical, rectangular 100 acre field.

Pattern A
Image - Pattern A. Description follows.
Description of image of Pattern A

Pattern A is a rectangular shape inside the field boundaries with rectangular insets. The seed crop inspector travels into a field, perpendicular to the top end and parallel to the side, some distance from the side edge. Partway along the field, the seed crop inspector makes a left turn towards the center of the field. After some distance, the seed crop inspector makes a right hand turn and continues along the field before making another right hand turn and then another left hand turn to bring them back into alignment with the starting direction. The seed crop inspector follows the rectangular pattern to near the bottom edge of the field, turns left within the field and continues part way to the other side and turns left again. On the return to the top edge of the field, the inspector again, makes a right turn, and then two left turns followed by a right turn to create a rectangular inset into the standard rectangular pattern, ending up at the top of the field.

This pattern covers seven-eighths of the crop and requires the inspector to step out of the pattern to reach the isolation strip or check the isolations when accessing the crop. The most remote part of the crop is sufficiently close to the inspector walking the pattern so that the pattern can be easily varied to examine any part of the crop that appears, from a distance, to be doubtful.

Pattern B
Image - Pattern B. Description follows.
Description of image of Pattern B

Pattern B is roughly circular but with angled turns and covers approximately half of the rectangular field. The turns are taken within the boundaries of the field, not at the edges, and the length between the turns can be adapted to by-pass obstacles in the field such as bodies of water or tree-covered areas. This is demonstrated in the distinguishing feature of this pattern which is the deep turn inwards on the right hand side of the rectangle which leaves a substantial portion vacant.

This is a shorter travel pattern than (A) that covers about one-half of the crop and requires the inspector to step out of the pattern to reach the isolation or check the isolations when accessing the crop.

Pattern C
Image - Pattern C. Description follows.
Description of image of Pattern C

In Pattern C, the seed crop inspector walks an X pattern across the field, including traversing the ends of the field, within the field boundaries, between the arms of the X to create two adjoining triangles.

This pattern satisfactorily covers the inspection of the crop but not the isolation. The central area of the crop is covered twice while the outer edges of the middle are not approached. Using this pattern, the seed crop inspector should divert from the travel pattern to check the isolation and possibly to take counts as well.

Pattern D
Image - Pattern D. Description follows.
Description of image of Pattern D

In Pattern D the seed crop inspector begins near one corner of the field, travelling across the field parallel to the short edge. When the seed crop inspector comes close to the side of the field, the seed crop inspector executes a rounded turn along the length of the field and travels a short distance along the length of the field before turning again to cross over to the other side of the field. This is repeated until the full length of the field has been covered.

This pattern adequately covers all areas of the crop including the isolation. However, this pattern is more time consuming. It may be useful for small fields, plots and crops requiring close scrutiny due to previously identified problems with the variety. If the seed crop inspector needs to exit the crop on the side of entry, the pattern can be modified by the addition or deletion of one pass.

Pattern E
Image - Pattern E. Description follows.
Description of image of Pattern E

In Pattern E, the seed crop inspector starts in the middle of one edge of the field and travels across the corner of the field in a straight, diagonal line to the center of the adjoining edge, repeating this until they return to their starting point. This creates a diamond shaped pattern.

The diamond pattern is commonly used. It allows for verification of the isolation as well as inspection of the crop. The seed crop inspector may need to divert from the pattern in order to examine the central part of the crop if it appears doubtful from a distance.

Pattern F
Image - Pattern F. Description follows.
Description of image of Pattern F

Pattern F is two identical ovals inside a rectangular field, each taking up approximately one quarter of the rectangle. The seed crop inspector enters the field at one corner and travels a roughly circular pattern covering approximately one quarter of the whole field in one circle and returning to their starting point. The seed crop inspector then repeats this pattern starting in the corner diagonally opposite to the previous circle.

This pattern may be used when two seed crop inspectors are available for simultaneous inspections or when the crop condition limits mobility in one corner of the crop.

Appendix IV: Approximate Area Required for 10,000 Plants as Determined by Plant Population and Row Spacing

The table below should be used to establish a count area for the detailed inspection. The seed crop inspector must conduct the counts according to the standards required for the crop kind inspected. The tables show the area that will contain approximately 10,000 plants when the number of plants per meter of row and the spacing between rows are known.

Square metres of crop area required for 10,000 plants at varying stand densities

Square metres of crop area required for 10,000 plants at varying stand densities
Average Number of plants per metre of row Distance between rows = 6" (15 cm) Distance between rows = 7" (18 cm)
m2 m2
16.5 93 108
18 84 98
19.5 77 90
21.5 72 83
23 66 78
24.5 62 72
26 58 68
28 55 64
29.5 52 60
31 49 57
33 46 54
34.5 44 52
36 42 49
37.5 40 47
39.5 39 45
41 37 43
42.5 36 42
44 34 40
46 33 39
47.5 32 37
49 31 36
Square metres of crop area required for 10,000 plants at varying stand densities
Average Number of plants per metre of row Distance between rows = 6" (15 cm) Distance between rows = 7" (18 cm)
m2 m2
52.5 29 34
55.5 27 32
59 26 30
62.5 24 29
65.5 23 27
69 22 26
72 21 25
75.5 20 24
78.5 19 23
82 19 22
83.5 18 21
88.5 17 20
92 17 19
95 16 19
98.5 16 18
101.5 15 17
105 14 17
108 14 16
111.5 14 16
115 13 16
118 13 15

Appendix V: Procedures for Reduced Plant Counts

a) The following procedure is to be used for species for which the CSGA standards for off-types or other varieties of the same crop kind are:

Foundation and Registered
1 per 10,000
Certified
5 per 10,000
Procedures for reduced plant counts when the standards are one or five off-types or other varieties of the same crop kind per 10,000 plants
Crops producing pedigreed status Number of Initial Counts of 1,000 plants Number of off-types or other varieties of the same crop kind found in initial counts
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 > 6
Foundation 15 D A A D C C C D
Registered 15 D A A D C C C D
Certified 10 D D D D B B B D

A = take 15 additional plant counts of 1,000 plants to allow the CSGA to clearly determine if the crop meets the standard for the pedigreed status

B = take 10 additional plant counts of 1,000 plants to allow the CSGA to clearly determine if the crop meets the standard for the pedigreed status

C = take 5 additional plant counts of 1000 plants to allow CSGA to clearly determine if the crop meets the standard for a pedigreed status at a demoted level.

D = discontinue counts

b) The following procedure is used for species for which the CSGA standards for off-types or other varieties of the same crop kind are:

Foundation
2 per 10,000 plants
Registered
4 per 10,000 plants
Certified
20 per 10,000 plants
Procedures for reduced plant counts when the standards are two, four or twenty off-types or other varieties of the same crop kind per 10,000 plants
Crops producing pedigreed status Number of Initial counts of 1,000 plants Number of off-types or other varieties of the same crop kind found in initial counts
0-1 2-3 4 5-6 7-16 17-21 > 21
Foundation 15 D A D C D C D
Registered 15 D D D A D C D
Certified 10 D D D D D B D

A = take 15 additional plant counts of 1,000 plants to allow the CSGA to clearly determine if the crop meets the standard for the pedigreed status

B = take 10 additional plant counts of 1,000 plants to allow the CSGA to clearly determine if the crop meets the standard for the pedigreed status

C = take 5 additional plant counts of 1000 plants to allow CSGA to clearly determine if the crop meets the standard for a pedigreed status at a demoted level.

D = discontinue counts

Appendix VI Other Crop Kinds to Report in Counts

Cereals
Inspected Crop Other Crop Kinds to be Reported in Counts
Barley All cereals, buckwheat
Canaryseed Flax
Oats All cereals, buckwheat
Rye All cereals, buckwheat
Triticale All cereals, buckwheat
Wheat All cereals, buckwheat
Durum All cereals, buckwheat
Grasses
Inspected Crop Other Crop Kinds to be Reported in Counts
Bentgrasses Redtop, bluegrasses, orchardgrass, other bentgrasses
Bluegrasses Other bluegrasses, bentgrasses, orchardgrass, redtop
Bromegrasses Meadow fescue, other bromegrasses, wheatgrasses, wild ryes
Fescues Bromegrasses, other fescues, ryegrasses, wheatgrasses, wild ryes
Junegrass Bentgrasses, bluegrasses, orchardgrass, redtop
Needlegrass Bromegrasses, fescues, ryegrasses, wheatgrasses, wildryes
Orchardgrass Bentgrasses, bluegrasses, redtop
Redtop Bentgrasses, bluegrasses, orchardgrass
Reed Canarygrass None
Ryegrasses Fescues, other ryegrasses, wheatgrasses
Timothy None   
Wheatgrasses Bromegrasses, fescues, ryegrasses, other wheatgrasses, wild ryes
Wild Rye Fescues, wheatgrasses, other wild ryes
Legumes
Inspected Crop Other Crop Kinds to be Reported in Counts
Alfalfa Sweet clover, red clover
Alsike Clover Bird's-foot trefoil, white clover, black medick
Bird's-foot Trefoil Alsike clover, black medick, white clover
Black medick Alsike clover, bird'sfoot trefoil, white clover
Chickling vetch Chickpea, lentil, pea
Cicer milkvetch, crownvetch     Canola, other vetch species
Red Clover Alfalfa, sweet clover
Sainfoin Barley, oats, wheat
Sweet Clover Alfalfa, red clover
White clover Alsike clover, bird's-foot trefoil, black medick
Oilseeds
Inspected Crop Other Crop Kinds to be Reported in Counts
Canola, rapeseed Mustard, oilseed radish, white mustard
Mustard Canola, oilseed radish, rapeseed, white mustard
Oilseed radish Mustard, canola, rapeseed, white mustard
White mustard Mustard, canola, rapeseed, oilseed radish
Pulses
Inspected Crop Other Crop Kinds to be Reported in Counts
Bean, Fababean Other bean types, soybeans, peas
Lentil, lupin None
Pea, Chickpea Fababeans, soybeans, beans, other pea types
Soybean beans, lupins, peas
Special Crops
Inspected Crop Kind Other Crop Kinds to be Reported in Counts
Buckwheat All cereals
Camelina, coriander None
Canaryseed Flax
Fenugreek Canaryseed, flax
Flax Canaryseed
Hybrid asparagus, industrial hemp None
Millet Sorghum
Niger, Phacelia tanacetifolia, safflower None
Sorghum Millet
Sugar beet Fodder beet, mangel, red beet, swiss chard
Sunflower None
Tobacco None

Appendix VII Weeds to be reported when observed in the inspected crop

For all crop kinds, weed species classified in the Weed Seeds Order, 2016 as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious weeds are reported by frequency.
Inspected Crop Kind Weeds to Report in Counts Weeds to Report by Frequency

Bromegrass

None

Couchgrass

Downy brome

Buckwheat

None

Tartarian Buckwheat

Canola
Rapeseed
Mustard
Oilseed radish

Cleavers (bedstraw)
Wild mustard
Wild radish

None

Fescues
Needlegrass
Ryegrasses
Wheatgrasses (other than green wheatgrass)
Wild rye

None

Couchgrass

Industrial hemp

Broomrape (Orobanche spp.)
Hemp nettle

None

Oats

Wild oats

None

Timothy

None

Oxe-eye daisy

Appendix VIII: Recommended Procedures for Sampling Plants or Plant Parts for Laboratory Variety Identification

While counting, describing and recording the presence of suspected deviant plants during seed crop inspection, there may be a need to confirm their status. Only submit samples when confirmation is required to determine if the plants are off-types or variants.

The ASCIS may provide samples collected by an LSCI to their local CFIA office for submission to the Seed Science Unit of the Ottawa Plant Laboratory (OPL) - Fallowfield.

When possible, entire plants should be sampled. At the very least, heads or panicles including the culm and upper node of cereal crops should be sampled. When collecting and packaging plants care should be taken to cause as little damage to the plants as possible. Avoid folding the plants and send the plants in tall boxes. In order to maintain the integrity of the sample, each type of suspicious plant should be packaged separately from the sample of the norm of the variety; each package should be accurately labeled.

Soybean and bean plants should be individually wrapped in paper or plastic bags (if the plants are dry enough). In the case of corn, one main ear from the suspected deviant plant may be harvested.

If it is suspected that there is more than one deviant type in the crop, the seed crop inspector may submit an example of each of the suspected deviant plants, providing that they are kept separate.

The seed crop inspector should collect five or six suspected deviant plants of each type as well as five to six plants from the normal bulk of the variety. Package each type of deviant plant and the normal bulk plants in a separate envelope or paper bag. The normal bulk plants are to be labeled as NB (normal bulk).

LSCI should provide the samples to their Lead Inspector who will forward them to the local CFIA office for submission to the OPL.

CFIA seed crop inspectors may submit samples directly to the OPL and must include an LSTS form and a copy of the crop inspection report giving a brief description of the characteristics of the off-types. The sample code to be used is IDS and the analysis code is marked as "purity". The CFIA seed crop inspector's name and number must be included in the request. In addition, the sequence number should be noted under the lot number as "sequence # XXXXX". Send one LSTS form for the set of normal bulk plants and one LSTS form for each set of deviant plants.

When samples are submitted, the seed crop inspector must note on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection that samples have been submitted for identification.

The samples are shipped by the CFIA via Canada Post or courier, to:

Seed Science Unit,
Ottawa Plant Laboratory (Fallowfield),
3851 Fallowfield Rd.,
Building No. 210, Nepean, Ontario K2H 8P9

When submitting samples of varieties not registered in Canada for variety verification testing, the seed crop inspector is asked to include a copy of the variety description with the sample.

Include the fax number or e-mail address to which the results should be sent.

Some off-types may be confirmed on the basis of morphological characteristics while others may require other laboratory tests which could delay the lab's response. The test reports are copied to the submitting senior inspector, the CSGA and Seed Section. The CFIA senior inspector who submitted the sample is responsible for notifying the appropriate ASCIS of the results.

For varietal identification issues involving industrial hemp, plant samples must not be taken. Instead, digital pictures can be submitted to the OPL via e-mail to Seed-Science-desSemencesOPL@inspection.gc.ca. The digital pictures submitted must show plants which conform to the norm of the variety along with pictures of the suspected off-types. A light coloured background is ideal and it is better to avoid taking the picture in the sunlight if it creates a shadow. Seed crop inspectors should submit pictures of whole plants or the upper half of the plants, a close-up of the stalk (stem), leaves and flowers. Each picture has to be identified with the variety name.

The seed crop inspector should provide detailed plant morphological observations of the norm of the variety and the suspected off-types and the frequency of off-types. If there is anything notable about the environment it should also be indicated (e.g., water accumulation in some parts of the fields, frost, possible border effect, etc.).

Date modified: