Domestic Plant Protection Measures

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Many pests present risks to Canada's environment and natural resources, including to our agricultural and forestry sectors. As part of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA) plant protection mandate and as Canada's National Plant Protection Organization, the CFIA adopts regulatory measures under the Plant Protection Act and Plant Protection Regulations to prevent the introduction and spread of these plant pests in Canada.

Different regulatory measures are adopted by the CFIA to prevent and control the spread of plant pests within Canada. This includes prohibiting or restricting movement of commodities that have the potential to spread pests across Canada. Examples of other activities that could be impacted by domestic measures include the handling, growing, distribution, sale and production of pests or commodities.

The information presented on this page provides an overview of some of the domestic regulatory measures adopted by the CFIA and that may have an impact on your activities. Further and more specific information should be sought by contacting your local CFIA inspection office.

What the CFIA regulates

The CFIA regulates plant pests, as well as commodities or articles capable of harbouring or spreading these pests. The scope and strength of regulatory measures adopted by the CFIA are informed by an evaluation of risk which considers scientific and economic evidence.

Plant pests are insects, pathogens, plants or other organisms which are injurious or potentially injurious to plants or plant products. They may directly or indirectly impact plants, including from their effects on other organisms.

Because plants and plant products are considered principal pathways of introduction for many plant pests, these commodities are also regulated by the CFIA.

The following provides an overview of commodity types and classes that are commonly regulated by the CFIA under the Plant Protection Act and Plant Protection Regulations for their potential to introduce or spread pests:

  • Plants for planting, including rooted plants and plant root systems; greenhouse and nursery plants; fruits; vegetables, including root crops; cut flowers; branches.
  • Trees and any part thereof, sawn wood, bark, logs, lumber, and pulpwood; firewood; Christmas trees; wood chips; wood packaging and dunnage.
  • Grains and field crops, including cereals, oilseeds, pulses, hay and pastures; straw; hay.
  • Potatoes and potato parts for propagation including seed tubers, true (botanical) seed, in vitro plantlets, micro-tubers, mini-tubers and cuttings; potatoes not intended for propagation, including packaged and bulk potato tubers for human or animal consumption, processing, packing, and repacking.
  • Soil and related matter, as well as the loose surface of the earth in which plants grow which includes humus, compost, earthworm castings, muck, plant litter and debris; peat moss.

Other commodities or articles that may be the subject of plant protection measures include soil-contaminated vehicles, equipment or machinery, as well as bags, boxes, containers or other things used to hold or transport a regulated commodity.

How the CFIA regulates

Domestic regulatory measures may consist of prohibitions, restrictions or requirements, and may apply to a variety of persons, activities or commodities. These measures are implemented by the CFIA using one or more of the mechanisms provided under the Plant Protection Act and Plant Protection RegulationsFootnote 1. The different regulatory mechanisms are summarized below.

Note: The CFIA publishes plant protection directives that define the pests and commodities regulated in specified circumstances, as well as the applicable regulatory measures.

General prohibition

The Plant Protection Act prohibits certain activities from being undertaken in respect of organisms and other things that present a risk to plant health. This is covered by subsection 6(1):

“Except as permitted under this Act or the regulations, no person shall move, grow, raise, culture or produce any thing that there are reasonable grounds to believe is a pest, that is or could be infested with a pest or that constitutes or could constitute a biological obstacle to the control of a pest.”

The movement and handling of regulated pests or of commodities infested with pests may be allowed by the CFIA under strict conditions and in special circumstances, notably for scientific research, educational, processing, industrial or exhibition purposesFootnote 2 .

Ministerial orders

Domestic regulatory measures may be specified in orders made by the Minister under subsection 15(3) of the Plant Protection Act. These orders are used for declaring infested areas in Canada, and may prohibit or restrict the movement of persons or things into or out of these areas.

Orders are communicated by the CFIA to persons likely to be affected by them, and are available on the CFIA's Web site:

Schedules I and II of the Plant Protection Regulations

Schedules I and II list a number of domestic movement prohibitions or restrictions that apply in Canada. These schedules specify the pests and commodities regulated, and for Schedule II, the requirements that must be met before movement is allowed. The affected areas are either identified in the schedules themselves, or are communicated by the CFIA to persons likely to be affected by them and defined in plant protection directives.

Legislative notices

Inspectors have authorities under the Plant Protection Act and Plant Protection Regulations to prohibit, restrict or require actions to address risks to plant health. Regulatory measures are specified in notices which are communicated to the persons concerned (e.g., the owner or the person in possession, care or control of a pest or commodity).

Notices are issued by inspectors for different purposes, including to detain, quarantine or confiscate, prohibit or restrict activities including movement, and to require disposal, treatment or processing. Regulatory measures may also be specified in conditions to permissive notices, such as movement certificates or other written authorizations.

Where the CFIA regulates

Regulatory measures may be in place wherever plant pests are located in Canada. Measures may apply to any area, from small properties specified in legislative notices to entire provinces. Larger areas are normally identified in Ministerial orders, in the schedules of the Plant Protection Regulations or in plant protection directives. The following tables present infested areas in Canada and the products subject to movement restrictions from or within these areas.

Note: These tables are for reference purposes, alerting only to the possibility of regulatory measures applying to you. They should not be considered as a comprehensive and current account of prohibitions or restrictions in Canada. Verification should be made by consulting the appropriate references and by contacting your local CFIA inspection office.

Canada

Products subject to movement restrictions in Canada
Product Pest Reference
Plants and plant material of Berberis spp., Mahoberberis spp. and Mahonia spp. Black stem rust of wheat, barley, oat and rye D-01-04; Schedule I of the Plant Protection Regulations
Buckthorn (Rhamnus spp.) plants Crown rust of oats Schedule I of the Plant Protection Regulations
Products subject to movement restrictions in Canada, except the whole or parts of British Columbia
Product Pest Reference
Plants with roots of Malus spp., Crataegus spp., Prunus avium and P. cerasus; Fresh fruits of Malus spp., Crataegus spp.; Fresh fruits of Prunus avium and P. cerasus originating from Utah or Wisconsin; Containers used in relation to the regulated fruit or rooted plants; Soil and other growing media attached to plants of the listed host species Apple maggot D-00-07; 95-26; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Plants and plant parts for planting (excluding nuts) and sterile tissue cultured plantlets for planting belonging to Corylus spp. (filbert, hazelnut, cobnut) Eastern Filbert Blight D-00-03; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Sorghum spp. commodities: stalk and inflorescence of broomcorn as finished or unfinished brooms; seed of Sorghum spp. for propagation; grain and seed imported for cleaning in Canada; screenings European corn borer D-96-08
Corn commodities: Corn seed; material derived from a plant with novel traits; fresh corn on the cob; fresh or dried corn stalks (whole or in part), leaves, cobs and husk; corn seed or grain for cleaning, corn screenings European corn borer D-95-28
Almond, apple, apricot, cherry, hawthorne, nectarine, peach, pear, plum and quince plants;  Used baskets, boxes and other containers used to move quince fruit or to transport Prunus fruit Oriental fruit moth Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Grape plants grape phylloxera, and nematodes of the following genera: Longidorus, Trichodorus, and Xiphinema Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Products subject to movement restrictions in Canada, except Newfoundland and Labrador
Product Pest Reference
Potato plants of the blue or purple skin varieties (incl. Brigus, Blue Mac, A.C. Blue Pride and A.C. Domino) Potato Wart Schedules I and II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Potato plants, except true seed Colorado potato beetle Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations

British Columbia

Products subject to movement restrictions in British Columbia, whole or parts thereof
Product Pest Reference
Firewood of all species; Certain propagative and non-propagative commodities of Tsuga spp., Picea jezoensis, and Picea polita Hemlock Woolly Adelgid D-07-05; D-01-12; Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infested Place Order
Seed and grain of wheat, triticale, barley and rye; Straw and hay of wheat, triticale, barley, rye and oat; Compost , grain and seed for cleaning, screenings, chaff, hulls Dwarf bunt of wheat D-99-01
Plants with soil attached Japanese beetle D-96-15; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Soil; Plants and plant parts with no soil attached Japanese beetle D-96-15; D-95-26; Japanese Beetle Infested Place Order for the City of Vancouver, in the Province of British Columbia
Potatoes tubers intended for direct consumption, processing or repacking Potato cyst nematodes; Potato wart; Potato rot nematode D-96-05; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Soil and sand and media containing soil or sand; plants and parts thereof, with soil or with roots; eggplant, potato and tomato plants, and parts thereof; root crops and vegetables in a raw or unprocessed state; containers and packing material containing soil or sand or to which soil or sand adheres; hay, straw, plant litter and manure; machinery, implements and vehicles containing soil or sand or to which soil or sand adheres Golden nematode Golden Nematode Order

Alberta

Products subject to movement restrictions in Alberta, parts thereof
Product Pest Reference
Potatoes tubers intended for direct consumption, processing or repacking Potato cyst nematodes; Potato wart; Potato rot nematode D-96-05; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations

Saskatchewan

Products subject to movement restrictions in Saskatchewan, parts thereof
Product Pest Reference
All propagative material and non-propagative material with bark of elm (Ulmus and Zelkova spp.) Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi D-97-07; D-01-12; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations

Manitoba

Products subject to movement restrictions in Manitoba, whole or parts thereof
Product Pest Reference
Trees and any part thereof that could harbour or sustain the life cycle of emerald ash borer; Nursery stock of the genus Fraxinus; Fraxinus spp. bark and chips; All wood packaging materials with an ash component; Firewood of all genera Emerald ash borer D-03-08; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
All propagative material and non-propagative material with bark of elm (Ulmus and Zelkova spp.) Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi D-97-07; D-01-12; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations

Ontario

Products subject to movement restrictions in Ontario, whole or parts thereof
Product Pest Reference
Fresh cherry fruit European cherry fruit fly D-17-03; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Any non-propagative parts of trees; Wood and bark chips of certain species; Firewood of all genera Asian Long-horned Beetle D-11-05; D-01-12; Asian Long-Horned Beetle Infested Place Order
Rooted and unrooted plants for planting and fresh branches of certain species Anoplophora spp D-11-01; Asian Long-Horned Beetle Infested Place Order
Trees and any part thereof that could harbour or sustain the life cycle of emerald ash borer; Nursery stock of the genus Fraxinus; Fraxinus spp. bark and chips; All wood packaging materials with an ash component; Firewood of all genera Emerald ash borer D-03-08; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Fresh fruit and plants with roots of certain species of cultivated and wild blueberries, huckleberries, lingonberries (host species); Containers, conveyances, farm equipment used in relation host species; Soil attached to plants of host species or as a contaminant of fruit, used containers, farm machinery and equipment, or transportation vehicles Blueberry maggot D-02-04; 95-26; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
All material of Plum Pox Virus -susceptible Prunus species Plum Pox Virus – Sharka D-99-07; Plum Pox Virus Infested Place Order, 2014
Seed and grain of wheat, triticale, barley and rye; Straw and hay of wheat, triticale, barley, rye and oat; Compost , grain and seed for cleaning, screenings, chaff, hulls Dwarf bunt of wheat D-99-01
Christmas trees, nursery stock, non-propagative forest products with bark attached, outdoor household articles, military vehicles and equipment, recreational and personal vehicles and equipment North American gypsy moth D-98-09; Schedule I of the Plant Protection Regulations
Living plants of Pinus spp. including nursery stock and forest tree seedlings Scleroderris canker, European race D-98-02; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
All propagative material and non-propagative material with bark of elm (Ulmus and Zelkova spp.) Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi D-97-07; D-01-12; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Plants with soil attached Japanese beetle D-96-15; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Soil; plants and plant parts with no soil attached Japanese beetle D-96-15; D-95-26; Japanese Beetle Infested Place Order for the City of Vancouver, in the Province of British Columbia
Potatoes tubers intended for direct consumption, processing or repacking Potato cyst nematodes; Potato wart; Potato rot nematode D-96-05; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Pine plants Pine shoot beetle D-94-22; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations

Quebec

Products subject to movement restrictions in Quebec, whole or parts thereof
Product Pest Reference
Trees and any part thereof that could harbour or sustain the life cycle of emerald ash borer; nursery stock of the genus Fraxinus; Fraxinus spp. bark and chips; all wood packaging materials with an ash component; firewood of all genera Emerald ash borer D-03-08; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Fresh fruit and plants with roots of certain species of cultivated and wild blueberries, huckleberries, lingonberries (host species); containers, conveyances, farm equipment used in relation host species; soil attached to plants of host species or as a contaminant of fruit, used containers, farm machinery and equipment, or transportation vehicles Blueberry maggot D-02-04; 95-26; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Living plants of Pinus spp. including nursery stock and forest tree seedlings Scleroderris canker, European race D-98-02; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
All propagative material and non-propagative material with bark of elm (Ulmus and Zelkova spp.) Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi D-97-07; D-01-12; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Plants with soil attached Japanese beetle D-96-15; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Soil; Plants and plant parts with no soil attached Japanese beetle D-96-15; D-95-26; Japanese Beetle Infested Place Order for the City of Vancouver, in the Province of British Columbia
Christmas trees, nursery stock, non-propagative forest products with bark attached, outdoor household articles, military vehicles and equipment, recreational and personal vehicles and equipment North American gypsy moth D-98-09; Schedule I of the Plant Protection Regulations
Soil; plants or parts thereof; potato plants or parts thereof; tomato or eggplant plants or parts thereof, other than their fruits; machinery, implements and vehicles; manure. Golden nematode Golden Nematode Infested Places Order

New Brunswick

Products subject to movement restrictions in New Brunswick, whole or parts thereof
Product Pest Reference
Fresh fruit and plants with roots of certain species of cultivated and wild blueberries, huckleberries, lingonberries (host species); containers, conveyances, farm equipment used in relation host species; soil attached to plants of host species or as a contaminant of fruit, used containers, farm machinery and equipment, or transportation vehicles Blueberry maggot D-02-04; 95-26; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Christmas trees, nursery stock, non-propagative forest products with bark attached, outdoor household articles, military vehicles and equipment, recreational and personal vehicles and equipment North American gypsy moth D-98-09; Schedule I of the Plant Protection Regulations
Living plants of Pinus spp. including nursery stock and forest tree seedlings Scleroderris canker, European race D-98-02; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
All species of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp. European Larch Canker D-97-10; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
All propagative material and non-propagative material with bark of elm (Ulmus and Zelkova spp.) Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi D-97-07; D-01-12; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Plants with soil attached Japanese beetle D-96-15; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Soil; Plants and plant parts with no soil attached Japanese beetle D-96-15; D-95-26; Japanese Beetle Infested Place Order for the City of Vancouver, in the Province of British Columbia

Nova Scotia

Products subject to movement restrictions in Nova Scotia, whole or parts thereof
Product Pest Reference
Firewood of all species; certain propagative and non-propagative commodities of Tsuga spp., Picea jezoensis, and Picea polita Hemlock Woolly Adelgid D-07-05; D-01-12; Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infested Place Order
Fresh fruit and plants with roots of certain species of cultivated and wild blueberries, huckleberries, lingonberries (host species); containers, conveyances, farm equipment used in relation host species; soil attached to plants of host species or as a contaminant of fruit, used containers, farm machinery and equipment, or transportation vehicles Blueberry maggot D-02-04; 95-26; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Christmas trees, nursery stock, non-propagative forest products with bark attached, outdoor household articles, military vehicles and equipment, recreational and personal vehicles and equipment North American gypsy moth D-98-09; Schedule I of the Plant Protection Regulations
All species of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp. European Larch Canker D-97-10; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
All propagative material and non-propagative material with bark of elm (Ulmus and Zelkova spp.) Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi D-97-07; D-01-12; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Plants with soil attached Japanese beetle D-96-15; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Soil; Plants and plant parts with no soil attached Japanese beetle D-96-15; D-95-26; Japanese Beetle Infested Place Order for the City of Vancouver, in the Province of British Columbia
Firewood of all species, as well as spruce (Picea spp.) logs Brown spruce longhorn beetle D-01-12; Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle Infested Place Order

Prince Edward Island

Products subject to movement restrictions in Prince Edward Island, whole or parts thereof
Product Pest Reference
Fresh fruit and plants with roots of certain species of cultivated and wild blueberries, huckleberries, lingonberries (host species); containers, conveyances, farm equipment used in relation host species; soil attached to plants of host species or as a contaminant of fruit, used containers, farm machinery and equipment, or transportation vehicles Blueberry maggot D-02-04; 95-26; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Christmas trees, nursery stock, non-propagative forest products with bark attached, outdoor household articles, military vehicles and equipment, recreational and personal vehicles and equipment North American gypsy moth D-98-09; Schedule I of the Plant Protection Regulations
All species of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp. European Larch Canker D-97-10; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
All propagative material and non-propagative material with bark of elm (Ulmus and Zelkova spp.) Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi D-97-07; D-01-12; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Plants with soil attached Japanese beetle D-96-15; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Soil; Plants and plant parts with no soil attached Japanese beetle D-96-15; D-95-26; Japanese Beetle Infested Place Order for the City of Vancouver, in the Province of British Columbia
Potatoes tubers intended for direct consumption, processing or repacking Potato cyst nematodes; Potato wart; Potato rot nematode D-96-05; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations

Newfoundland and Labrador

Products subject to movement restrictions in Newfoundland and Labrador, whole or parts thereof
Product Pest Reference
Living plants of Pinus spp. including nursery stock and forest tree seedlings Scleroderris canker, European race D-98-02; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Potatoes tubers intended for direct consumption, processing or repacking Potato cyst nematodes; Potato wart D-96-05; Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations
Plants; Soil, compost material, peat moss or any thing with soil, compost material or peat moss attached; Used bags, boxes, containers and other things used to move rootcrops, soil, compost material or peat moss; Used vehicles and equipment that are infested or likely to be infested Potato cyst nematodes; Potato wart Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations

What you can do

In addition to the mandate, policies, programs and work of the CFIA, actions initiated or led by others also contribute to meeting plant protection objectives. This includes actions of other governmental departments and jurisdictions, industry, non-governmental organizations, academic researchers and the general public.

Some steps that can be taken include:

Inquiries

For information on plant protection measures that may apply to your activities, please contact your local CFIA inspection office. To find out more about the CFIA's domestic plant health program, please contact the Invasive Alien Species and Domestic Programs section by e-mail at: cfia.ias-eee.acia@canada.ca.

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