D-13-03: Phytosanitary import requirements to prevent the introduction of Lobesia botrana, the European grapevine moth

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Effective date: January 2, 2018
(1st revision)

Under this revision of D-13-03, the fumigation schedules for fresh blueberries and grapes are changing. For six months following the effective date (until June 29, 2018), either the new fumigation schedules specified here or the schedules in the previous version of D-13-03 (i.e. Table 2 in Treatment schedules for horticulture commodities) will be accepted.

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Subject:

This directive provides the phytosanitary import requirements for fresh fruits and plants for planting to prevent the introduction of Lobesia botrana, the European grapevine moth, into Canada.

The following changes were made as part of this revision:

  • Following the eradication of L. botrana in the United States, this country has been removed from the list of regulated countries in Annex 2.
  • The following taxa, both fruits and plants, have been removed from the list of regulated articles in Annex 1 as they have been re-evaluated as posing a relatively low risk for the introduction of L. botrana into Canada: Actinidia spp. (kiwi), Berberis vulgaris (European barberry), Diospyros kaki (persimmon), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Ziziphus jujube (Chinese date).
  • Cut plant material (e.g. for consumption or decorative purposes) and underground propagative plant parts (e.g. bulbs, corms, rhizomes) of regulated host taxa are now exempt from requirements for L. botrana.
  • For plants for planting, the requirement for a pest-free area, systems approach or fumigation has been replaced with a requirement for an additional declaration stating the plants have been inspected and found free from flowers, fruits and L. botrana. These measures are considered sufficient to mitigate the risk of L. botrana being introduced through this pathway, based on a review of the scientific literature.
  • For fresh fruit, the wording of the additional declarations for pest-free areas and systems approaches has been modified.
  • The fumigation schedules for fresh fruit have been moved from the appendices of this directive to a stand-alone webpage referenced in the directive. The fumigation schedules for fresh blueberries and grapes have been modified and equivalent schedules in the United States Department of Agriculture Treatment Manual have been noted.
  • Various editorial changes have been made to improve the clarity of the text.

This document supersedes all previous versions of directive D-13-03.

Table of contents

1.0 Legislative authority

Plant Protection Act (S.C. 1990, c. 22)

Plant Protection Regulations (SOR/95-212)

Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part I (as amended from time to time)

2.0 Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms

Definitions of terms used in the present document can be found in the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 5: Glossary of phytosanitary terms or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA's) Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

3.0 Introduction

Lobesia botrana, the European grapevine moth, is a significant pest of grapes and reduces both grape yields and quality. The larvae feed directly on both flowers and fruit; fruit feeding increases susceptibility to fruit rots caused by fungi such as Aspergillus spp. and Botrytis cinerea.

Lobesia botrana is a polyphagous insect with a wide range of alternate hosts, allowing it to survive during periods when grapes are not available for feeding.

Lobesia botrana can be transported over long distances, most commonly as eggs or larvae within fruits, fruit clusters and flowers of host plants. This insect is difficult to detect by visual inspection.

Lobesia botrana is a quarantine pest for Canada and several other countries, including the United States and Mexico. After being found in California in 2009, L. botrana was eradicated from the United States in 2016. Lobesia botrana is present in most of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, as well as in Argentina, Chile and Kenya.

Lobesia botrana could survive in Canada's major grape-growing areas (southern Ontario and parts of British Columbia) where it is anticipated that it would have a significant negative impact on grape production. If this insect were to establish in Canada, it could also impact Canada's ability to export L. botrana host articles to countries where L. botrana is a regulated pest.

4.0 Scope

4.1 Regulated pests

Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller)

Common names: European grapevine moth, grape berry moth, grape fruit moth, vine moth, grape vine moth, Mediterranean vine moth, grape leaf-roller, grape moth.

4.2 Regulated articles

For the taxa listed in Annex 1:

  • Fresh fruit
  • Plants intended for planting that include above-ground parts (e.g. whole plants, unrooted cuttings)

4.3 Articles exempted from requirements under this directive

Note: The following articles are exempt only from the requirements in this directive and may be subject to other requirements, including prohibitions. Please consult the list of all Plant Health directives and the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) or contact the CFIA for details.

  • Underground plant parts (e.g. bulbs, corms, rhizomes)
  • In vitro plants.
  • Olive fruit (Olea europaea).
  • Seeds and nuts of host taxa (e.g. almonds).
  • Sprouted seeds of host taxa intended for consumption.
  • Cut flowers, leaves and branches, including of the taxa listed in Annex 1, intended for any purpose other than planting/propagation.
  • Articles that have been processed in a way that precludes infestation with L. botrana (e.g. sliced, peeled, pureed, cooked, pickled, canned, frozen, dried, roasted, pasteurized). This includes all dried fruit, as well as grape must, grape pomace and wine.

4.4 Regulated areas

Articles from the countries listed in Annex 2 are subject to the requirements in this directive due to the presence of L. botrana. This list may change at any time based on new information and articles imported to Canada must always be free from L. botrana regardless of country of origin.

Regulated articles that are re-exported to Canada via a third country must meet Canada's import requirements for the country of origin.

5.0 Import requirements

5.1 Requirements by type of article

Note: This directive describes the import requirements related to L. botrana. Other phytosanitary requirements, including prohibitions, may also apply. Please consult the list of all Plant Health directives and the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) or contact the CFIA for details.

Phytosanitary import requirements for articles regulated for Lobesia botrana
Article Requirements

Fresh fruit of the following taxa:

  • Prunus spp. (stone fruit)
  • Ribes spp. (e.g. currants, gooseberries)
  • Rubus caesius (European dewberries)
  • Rubus fructicosus (European blackberries)
  • Vaccinium spp. (e.g. blueberries) other than V. macrocarpon and V. oxycoccos (cranberries)
  • Vitis spp. (grapes) Table Note 1

One of the following options must be met:

  1. Production under a CFIA-accepted systems approach (see section 5.2). A phytosanitary certificate is required, with the following additional declaration:

    "The consignment was produced and prepared for export under a CFIA-accepted systems approach for Lobesia botrana."

    or

  2. Production in a CFIA-recognized pest-free area (see section 5.3). A phytosanitary certificate is required, with the following additional declaration:

    "The consignment was produced in a CFIA-recognized pest-free area for Lobesia botrana."

    or

  3. Fumigation with methyl bromide (see section 5.4). A phytosanitary certificate is required, with the fumigation details indicated in the appropriate section.

    The schedules are specified in Treatment schedules for horticulture products:

    • Schedule 9: Vitis spp. fruit (grapes)
    • Schedules 10-13: Vaccinium spp. fruit (e.g. blueberries)
    • Schedule 2: other regulated fruit
Plants intended for planting of the taxa listed in Annex 1

The articles must be free from fruits, flowers and L. botrana (see section 5.5). The phytosanitary certificate must include the following additional declaration:

"The articles were inspected and found free from fruits, flowers and Lobesia botrana."

Table Notes

Table Note 1

Note: The systems approach requirements for bulk grapes intended for processing may be different from those for table grapes intended for direct consumption.

Return to table note 1  referrer

5.2 Systems approach

Regulated articles may be imported under a CFIA-accepted systems approach that conforms to international guidelines as per ISPM 14: The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management.

The National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of the exporting country must submit a written description of the systems approach to the CFIA for review to determine whether it meets Canada's import requirements. The CFIA will review the systems approach proposal and communicate the results in writing to the NPPO.

Appendix 1 lists the countries and specific commodities for which the CFIA has accepted a systems approach for L. botrana.

5.3 Pest-free area

The NPPO of a regulated exporting country may determine that certain portions of its territory are free from L. botrana, as per ISPM 4: Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas. The NPPO must provide the CFIA with information demonstrating that the ISPM 4 guidelines have been met. The CFIA will review the information provided as per ISPM 29: Recognition of pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence and will communicate the results in writing to the NPPO.

Appendix 2 lists the countries for which the CFIA has recognized a pest-free area for L. botrana.

5.4 Fumigation

The only treatment currently approved by the CFIA for L. botrana is fumigation with methyl bromide as per schedule 2 and 9 through 13 of Treatment schedules for horticulture products.

Note: As a signatory to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer , Canada is phasing out the use of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes. Exporting countries are encouraged to submit data supporting the efficacy of alternatives to methyl bromide fumigation to the CFIA for review.

5.5 Visual inspection of plants for planting

Visual inspection must verify freedom from fruits, flowers and all life stages of L. botrana.

6.0 Non-compliance

Imported articles may be inspected by the CFIA and must meet all requirements when reaching their first point of arrival in Canada. Articles that are found to be infested with pests of quarantine concern or are otherwise non-compliant will be refused entry to Canada, and may be ordered removed from the country or destroyed. Infested shipments may be ordered treated prior to disposal to prevent the spread of pests. The importer is responsible for all costs relating to treatment, disposal or removal of the articles, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken. The CFIA will advise the NPPO of the country of origin and/or re-export of any non-compliance as per directive D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.

7.0 References

7.1 Fees

The CFIA charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees, please contact your local CFIA office or visit the CFIA's Fees Notice website.

7.2 Supporting documents

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 4: Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas. International Plant Protection Convention, 1996.

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 14: The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management. International Plant Protection Convention, 2002.

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 29: Recognition of pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence.International Plant Protection Convention, 2007.

Annex 1: Plant taxa regulated for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)

All fresh fruits (except olives) and plants for planting of the following taxa are regulated for Lobesia botrana. For more information, see Section 4.2: Regulated articles and Section 4.3: Articles exempted.

Plant taxa regulated for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)
Scientific name Common name
Clematis vitalba old man's beard
Daphne gnidium spurge flax
Galium mollugo false baby's breath
Hypericum calycinum great St. John's Wort
Ligustrum vulgare European privet
Olea europaea olive (except olive fruit)
Prunus spp. all species in Prunus genus, including but not limited to: almond, apricot, cherry, nectarine, plum, peach and their hybrids
Rhus glabra smooth sumac
Ribes spp. all species in Ribes genus, including but not limited to: currant, gooseberry
Rosmarinus officinalis rosemary
Rubus caesius European dewberry
Rubus fructicosus European blackberry
Silene vulgaris bladder campion
Trifolium pratense red clover
Urginea maritima sea squill
Vaccinium spp. other than Vaccinium macrocarpon and Vaccinium oxycoccos all species in Vaccinium genus other than cranberry, including but not limited to: blueberry, lingonberry, bilberry, deerberry
Vitis spp. grape, grapevine

Annex 2: Countries regulated for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth) under directive D-13-03

Regulated articles from the countries in the following list are subject to the requirements in directive D-13-03 due to the presence of L. botrana. This list may change at any time based on new information and products imported to Canada must always be free from L. botrana regardless of country of origin.

Note that the articles regulated in D-13-03 may not all be authorized entry into Canada from the countries below. For complete import requirements, including prohibitions, see the list of all Plant Health directives and the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS).

  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Belgium
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bulgaria
  • Chile
  • Crete
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Egypt
  • Ethiopia
  • France
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya
  • Kosovo
  • Lebanon
  • Libya
  • Lithuania
  • Luxemburg
  • Macedonia
  • Malta
  • Moldova
  • Montenegro
  • Morocco
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Russia
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Switzerland
  • Syria
  • Tajikistan
  • Turkey
  • Turkmenistan
  • Ukraine
  • United Kingdom
  • Uzbekistan

Appendix 1: Countries and articles for which the CFIA has accepted a systems approach for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)

Please see Section 5.2: Systems approach for information on requesting CFIA acceptance of a systems approach.

CFIA-accepted systems approaches for Lobesia botrana
Country Article (fresh fruit)
Argentina
  • Prunus avium (cherries)
  • Prunus domestica (plums) Table Note 2
  • Prunus persica (peaches) Table Note 2
  • Vaccinium spp. (blueberries)
  • Vitis spp. (grapes)
Chile All fruits listed in Annex 1 of D-13-03 Table Note 2
Egypt Vitis spp. (grapes)
Italy
  • Prunus domestica, Prunus salicina (plums) Table Note 2
  • Vitis spp. (grapes)
Spain Prunus spp. other than P. avium and P. cerasus (stone fruit other than cherries) Table Note 3

Table Notes

Table note 2

These systems approaches may not be used for stone fruit other than cherries (Prunus spp. other than P. avium and P. cerasus) when destined to British Columbia.

Return to table note 2 referrer

Table Note 3

This systems approach may be used for stone fruit other than cherries destined to British Columbia.

Return to table note 3 referrer

Appendix 2: Countries for which the CFIA has recognized a pest-free area for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)

At this time, the CFIA has not recognized any pest-free areas for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth). Please see Section 5.3: Pest-free area for information on requesting CFIA recognition of a pest-free area.

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