D- 99-03: Phytosanitary Measures to Prevent the Entry of Oak Wilt Disease (Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt) from the Continental United States
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Effective Date: April 28, 2011
This directive contains the phytosanitary requirements for the importation of propagative and non-propagative materials, of oak (Quercus spp.), chestnut (Castanea spp.), chinquapin (Castanopsis spp.), and tanbark oak (Lithocarpus spp.), originating from the continental United States (U.S.), to prevent the entry of oak wilt disease caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt.
Note: All non-propagative forest products with bark and nursery stock are subject to requirements pertaining to gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L). Depending on the state of origin, nursery stock shipments may be subject to additional phytosanitary requirements to prevent the entry of soybean cyst nematode, Japanese beetle, Columbia root knot nematode, and golden nematode into Canada.
Note: All non-propagative forest products with bark from all areas other than the continental U.S. require prior approval from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) based on a Pest Risk Assessment as stipulated in CFIA's directive D-02-12.
This policy directive is being revised to define the exemption for branches and wreaths, with or without foliage, from requirements pertaining to oak wilt disease.
Table of Contents
- Amendment Record
- Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms
- 1.0 General Requirements
- 2.0 Specific Requirements
- 2.1 Import Requirements
- 2.1.1 From Regulated States in the Continental U.S.
- 2.1.2 From Non-regulated States in the Continental U.S.
- 2.2 Inspection Requirements
- 2.2.1 Shipments of Non-propagative Material Entering Under a Section 43 Permit to Import
- 2.2.2 Other Shipments of Propagative and Non-propagative Material
- 2.3 Non-Compliance
- 2.1 Import Requirements
- 3.0 Appendices
This directive will be reviewed every five years unless otherwise needed. For further information or clarification, please contact the CFIA.
Chief Plant Health Officer
Amendments of this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution below.
- Directive mail list (Regions, PHRA, USDA)
- Provincial Government, Industry (determined by Author)
- National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
Oak wilt disease, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, does not occur in Canada. It is considered the most serious disease of oak in North America. Oak and other related species, such as chestnut, are valuable hardwood species in the Deciduous Forest, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence and Acadian Forest regions in Canada. They are also valuable as landscaping and shade trees in urban areas. Their wood is much in demand for furniture and flooring.
The major method of transmission of oak wilt disease is by the passive movement of spores of the fungus from a diseased tree to an adjacent healthy tree via natural root grafts. Spread of the disease by this means is slow. The other method of infection is via wounds that penetrate the bark of the tree. Nitidulid beetles commonly attracted to sap exudates caused by fresh wounds and the fruit-like odour of the fungus mat may be responsible for the transmission of fungal spores from diseased trees to healthy trees.
Currently the control for oak wilt disease is difficult and ineffective. As the fungus has not been isolated from heartwood, removal of bark before logs are shipped may reduce the risk of spreading the fungus by logs.
Canadian manufacturers have been importing logs and other forest products with bark attached of various species from the continental U.S. for many years. In general, these products have been certified as coming from an area free from quarantine pest(s) or treated in a manner to kill quarantine pest(s). However, the CFIA has made exceptions to allow non-propagative forest products with bark moving from infested areas of the U.S. to non-infested areas of Canada in the cases of gypsy moth and oak wilt disease provided special permit conditions were met. These conditions included proper treatment and disposal of bark and timber waste materials.
Any person importing propagative or non-propagative materials of oak (Quercus spp.), chestnut (Castanea spp.), chinquapin (Castanopsis spp.) or tanbark oak (Lithocarpus spp.) must meet the requirements of this directive in order to prevent the introduction into Canada of oak wilt disease (Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt.
This directive supersedes the dirctive D-99-03, 1st revision.
Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms
Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.
1.0 General Requirements
1.1 Legislative Authority
The Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22
The Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette: Part I (as amended from time to time)
The CFIA is charging fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, please contact the Import Service Centre (ISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice Web Site.
1.3 Regulated Pests
Oak wilt disease (Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt)
1.4 Regulated Commodities
Propagative and non-propagative material, including nursery stock, logs with bark attached, branches and wreaths (with or without foliage) larger than 1.5 cm (0.6 inch) in branch diameter, bark, pulpwood and firewood, of all species of: oak (Quercus spp.), chestnut (Castanea spp.), chinquapin (Castanopsis spp.) and tanbark oak (Lithocarpus spp.).
1.5 Commodities Exempt
Debarked forest products of the regulated species. Debarked wood must have no more than 2% of the surface of all regulated articles and no more than 5% of the surface of a single article retaining bark in a shipment.
Branches and wreaths of regulated species, with or without foliage, less than 1.5 cm (0.6 inch) in branch diameter.
1.6 Regulated Areas
See Appendix 3 for a list of states in the continental U.S. that are regulated for oak wilt disease:
2.0 Specific Requirements
2.1 Import Requirements
2.1.1 From Regulated States in the Continental U.S.
18.104.22.168 Propagative Material
A Permit to Import is required for plants and plant parts of regulated species.
A Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the national plant protection organization of the exporting country must accompany the shipment and include the following additional declaration:
"Material was produced in a nursery declared to be free of oak wilt disease (Ceratocystis fagacearum) on the basis of inspection during the previous growing season."
22.214.171.124 Non-propagative Material
A Permit to Import is not required for regulated material originating from regulated states of the continental U.S., except situations described in Section 126.96.36.199 below. A Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the national plant protection organization of the exporting country must accompany the shipment and include the following additional declaration:
"The material was produced in a County where oak wilt disease (Ceratocystis fagacearum) does not occur."
The Phytosanitary Certificate must show, in the treatment section, that the material was fumigated with methyl bromide. Temperature, dosage and duration of the treatment must be provided and must be done in accordance with the treatment manual of the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
The Phytosanitary Certificate must include in the treatment section that the material has undergone another treatment pre-approved by CFIA.
The requirement for phytosanitary certification may be waived if an importer has obtained a Permit to Import issued pursuant to Section 43 of the Plant Protection Regulations for processing. Although other conditions may apply, the following conditions are normally stipulated on the Permit to Import:
- No Phytosanitary Certificate is required.
- The material covered by this Permit to Import must be transported directly to the place specified herein.
- All logs must be processed and/or debarked within 30 days after importation.
- All logs must be held in a secure area isolated from host tree stands.
- All bark and other waste products must be disposed of or treated (e.g., burning) in a manner approved by CFIA.
- The importer must clean the storage yard annually in a manner approved by CFIA to remove all bark and other residue.
- All shipping records and other documents pertaining to the imported material must be maintained on file by the importer for a period of at least one year from the date of importation, and must be provided to a CFIA inspector upon request.
Prior to the issuance of Permit to Import, the importer must complete and sign a Conditions of Entry form (Appendix 1) and have the importing facility inspected by a CFIA inspector. The Permit to Import may be renewed annually if the importer has demonstrated a good compliance record and passed the CFIA inspections.
2.1.2 From Non-regulated States in the Continental U.S.
188.8.131.52 Propagative Material
A Permit to Import is required for plants and plant parts of regulated species originating in non-infested states of the continental U.S.. A Phytosanitary Certificate is required but the requirement for an additional declaration for oak wilt does not apply.
184.108.40.206 Non-propagative Material
All regulated material harvested in non-infested states of the continental U.S. may be imported without a Permit to Import or a Phytosanitary Certificate, provided that the shipping documents clearly state the origin of the material.
2.2 Inspection Requirements
2.2.1 Shipments of Non-propagative Material Entering Under a Section 43 Permit to Import
All establishments which import regulated materials from infested states in the continental U.S. for processing, will be inspected bi-annually, once in the spring and once in the fall when the fungus produces cushion-like fungus mat under bark. During each inspection, a CFIA inspector may request a review of shipping records and other import documents, and may walk through the facility verifying safeguard measures that prevent the oak wilt fungus from spreading into the surrounding environment as stipulated in the Conditions of Entry form (Appendix 1).
The inspector may also select and inspect a representative number of logs at each importing establishment, as per sampling table found in Appendix 2. The selected logs should be set aside in a manner to allow for proper and safe inspection by an inspector. Inspection of logs in stock piles can be dangerous and is not recommended. During inspection of individual logs, the inspector should look for discolouration of the outer ring of sapwood and for a fungus mat ("cushion mat") under bark which may crack or split the bark. If found, samples of discoloured wood or of a fungus mat may be submitted to the Ottawa Lab (Fallowfield), Ottawa, Ontario for identification and confirmation.
2.2.2 Other Shipments of Propagative and Non-propagative Material
Pursuant to the work plan, CFIA inspectors will inspect shipments and ensure that:
- Phytosanitary Certificate accompanies the shipment and that the appropriate additional declaration is included, and
- the shipment is visually free from regulated pests.
Any regulated material certified free from oak wilt disease and found to be in non-compliance with the import requirements will be ordered removed from Canada, disposed of or treated in a manner approved by a CFIA inspector. Any costs incurred are the responsibility of the importer.
For facilities that import regulated materials for processing under special Permit to Import conditions, any non-compliance with the permit conditions will result in suspension of the Permit to Import.
Appendix 1: Conditions of Entry For a Permit to Import Logs with Bark For Processing From Areas Infested With Oak Wilt
A Permit to Import issued pursuant to Section 43 of the Plant Protection Regulations authorizes the importation of logs with bark from areas of the U.S. infested with oak wilt with phytosanitary certification at origin waived. The issuance of a Permit to Import will be based on the capacity of the importer, named below in section 1, to comply with the conditions stipulated in section 2 below.
1. Applicant/Permit Holder Information:
A) Name of Importer:
B) Location of plant (Receiving mill):
C) Type of mill: veneer, sawn mill, or other
D) Anticipated sources (States where logs were harvested):
Estimated quantity of logs:
Period of importation:
2. Specific Conditions of Entry to be Followed:
A) All logs must be processed and/or debarked within 30 days after importation.
B) Logs must be held in a secure area isolated from host tree stands.
Description of log yard and security measures in place:
C) Bark and/or timber waste must be disposed of or treated in a manner approved by CFIA.
All bark wasteFootnote * must be chipped and either burned on site or held in isolation (at the chipper site) for transportation to the following sites only for burning as hog fuel.
All waste timberFootnote * from oak logs including reject logs or end pieces must be burned on site or transported to the following sites for burning as hog fuel.
Burning Site's Name & Address:
Burning Site's Name & Address:
Burning Site's Name & Address:
D) The storage yard and chipper site must be annually cleaned in an approved manner as directed by the CFIA inspector.
Name of person responsible for clean-up & procedure:
E) The importer must maintain accurate records of logs imported, treatments used, and methods of disposal conducted for a period of one year. No diversion of logs or bark to any other site is permitted without the prior approval of an inspector of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
Name of contact person for record management:
Importer or Designate's Name
Importer's signature of acceptance
CFIA Inspector/Officer signature of approval
Appendix 2: Sampling Table For Inspection of Logs
|Lot Size||Sample Size|
|500 or less||10% Table Note **|
|501 - 800||75|
|801 - 1,300||110|
|1,301 - 3,200||150|
|3,201 - 8,000||225|
|8,001 - 22,000||300|
|22,001 - 110,000||450|
|110,001 - 555,000||750|
|555,001 and over||1500|
- Table Note **
For lot sizes of 500 or less, the sample size is determined by taking a 10% sample of the total lot.
Appendix 3: States in the Continental U.S. that are Regulated
- Date modified: