D- 97-10: Policy on Importation into Canada and Movement within Canada, of plants and plant parts of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp. to prevent the spread of European larch canker

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Effective date: May 18, 2011
(2nd Revision)

Subject

This directive contains the phytosanitary requirements for the importation into Canada and movement within Canada of plants and plant parts of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp. with respect to the control of European larch canker, caused by the fungus Lachnellula (Dasyscypha) willkommii (R. Hartig) Dennis.

In addition to meeting the requirements outlined in this directive, regulated commodities must also meet all other existing Canadian phytosanitary import requirements for any other regulated pests by Canada.

This directive has been revised to reorganize the display of Import and Domestic Movement requirements. Minor administrative changes were also made.

Table of Contents

Review

This directive will be reviewed every 5 years unless otherwise needed. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Endorsement

Approved by:

Chief Plant Health Officer

Amendment Record

Amendments to this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution below.

Distribution

  1. Directive mail list (Regions, PHRA, USDA)
  2. Provincial Government, Industry (determined by Author)
  3. National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
  4. Internet

Introduction

European larch canker, caused by the fungus Lachnellula willkommii, is a serious disease in many parts of Europe. Larch canker can kill both mature and immature trees. The presence of this fungus has resulted in the exclusion of larch from plantation programs in Europe. In North America, the disease was first found in Massachusetts in the 1920's (subsequently eradicated) in plantings of European larch and more recently in north-eastern Maine in 1981. Larch canker is not widely distributed within Canada. It occurs only in parts of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.

According to the Canadian Forest Service Larix spp. ranks 20th on the list of economically important tree genera in Canada; and Western larch (Larix occidentalis) is the 7th most important tree species in British Columbia. Spread of the disease into non-infested areas of Canada would affect the productivity of larch stands. In many parts of Europe, Larch canker has eliminated European larch as a plantation species. As a result, Larch canker is regulated in a number of countries.

This policy clarifies the domestic movement requirements of larch material and reflects the current disease situation.

Scope

This directive is intended for the use of the CFIA inspection staff, Canada Border Service Agency, Canadian importers and national plant protection organizations, industry and the public. The directive outlines the necessary requirements and inspection procedures for the importation of and domestic movement of larch (Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp.) material.

This policy supersedes the D-97-10, 1st revision.

Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 General Requirements

1.1 Legislative Authority

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act, S.C. 1997, c.6

The Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c.22

The Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212

Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part I (as amended from time to time)

1.2 Fees

The CFIA is charging fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, please contact the Import Service Centre (ISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice Web Site.

1.3 Regulated Pests

European Larch Canker, Lachnellula (Dasyschyphus) willkommii (Hartig) Dennis, synonym Trichoscyphella willkommii Nannf.

1.4 Regulated Commodities

All species, hybrids and horticultural varieties of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp., including plants, plant parts (branches, twigs, scions, logs with bark, pulpwood, isolated bark), plant propagative material and seed with debris.

1.5 Commodities Exempt

Non-propagative material which is free of bark such as bark free logs, lumber, and wood packaging material of regulated host species.

1.6 Regulated Areas for the European Larch Canker

International

Continental Europe, United Kingdom, Ireland, Russia and the former states and territories of the USSR, Japan and the United States (U.S.) - Maine (counties of Hancock, Knox, Lincoln, Waldo and Washington).

In Canada

The province of Nova Scotia, except Cape Breton Island.

The province of New Brunswick, except the counties of Madawaska, Restigouche, Gloucester, Victoria, Carleton, that portion of Northumberland County west of the

Southwest Miramichi River and that portion of York County lying west of highway number 8 and north of the Saint John River.

The province of Prince Edward Island, specific areas of Prince County. Specifically the northeast boundary beginning at the Northwest at Higgins Wharf Road to highway number 128 then east to highway number 2 then north to highway number 132 and continuing northeast to route number 12 then south to Mill Creek on route number 12 and a southeast and west boundary beginning at Borden highway number 1 and continuing to highway 1A then northwest to Travellers Rest Road continuing west along highway number 2 to St. Eleanors and then north to North St. Eleanors.

For any questions related to the regulated areas, please contact the CFIA.

2.0 Specific Requirements

2.1 Import Requirements

2.1.1 Seeds

For the importation of seeds of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp., all shipments must be accompanied by a Phytosanitary Certificate issued by a State or National Plant Protection Organization of the country of origin, identifying the country of orgin and with an additional declaration that "the seeds are free of debris". Shipments originating in the state of Maine must clearly identify the county of origin.

2.1.2 Propagative and Non-propagative Material with Bark from Regulated Areas

Propagative (excluding seed) and non-propagative material with bark may not be imported from regulated areas other than the U.S., to regulated areas of Canada.

Propagative (excluding seed) and Non-propagative material with bark may be imported from regulated areas of the U.S. to regulated areas of Canada but the destination of shipment must be clearly identified on shipping documents.

2.1.3 Propagative Material from Non-Regulated Areas

A CFIA Permit to Import is required for the importation of propagative material from non-regulated areas and the shipment must be accompanied by a Phytosanitary Certificate issued by a State or National Plant Protection Organization of the country of origin, identifying the country of origin.

For propagative material originating from a non-regulated area of the State of Maine, the Phytosanitary Certificate must also have an additional declaration stating that "the material certified was produced outside of the Larch Canker regulated area"

2.1.4 Non-propagative Material (With or Without Bark) from Non-Regulated Areas of the U.S.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is not required for the importation of non-propagative material of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp. from non-regulated areas in the U.S., but the origin of shipment must be clearly identified on shipping documents and material identified as larch.

2.1.5 Non-propagative Material Without Bark from Regulated Areas of the U.S.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is not required for the importation of non-propagative material without bark of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp. from regulated areas in the U.S., but the origin of shipment must be clearly identified on shipping documents and material identified as larch and free of bark.

2.2 Domestic Movement Requirements

2.2.1 Seeds

All seeds moving out of or within the infested areas of Canada must be accompanied by a Movement Certificate stating that "the seeds are free from debris".

2.2.2 Propagative and Non-propagative Material with Bark from Regulated Areas of Canada

Propagative (excluding seed) and non-propagative material with bark listed in Section 1.4 may not be transported to or moved within Canada from regulated areas to non-regulated areas of Canada.

Exceptions:

Logs and pulpwood moving from regulated areas within Canada directly to pulp and paper mills may move with a Movement Certificate (See Appendix 1 for conditions).

2.2.3 Non-propagative Material Without Bark from Regulated Areas of Canada

A Movement Certificate is not required for the movement of non-propagative material of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp. from regulated areas.

2.2.4 Propagative and Non-propagative Material from Non-Regulated Areas of Canada

A Movement Certificate is not required for the movement of non-propagative material of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp. from regulated areas.

2.3 Inspection Requirements

Infection with the fungus results in canker formation. Young cankers appear as swellings on twigs and branches, or as depressions on larger stems and are accompanied by exuding resin. This gives the cankers a shiny appearance, often with a bluish hue. White, hairy, cup-shaped fruiting bodies with yellowish interiors are usually found in or around the canker during most of the year. The fungus kills the cambium within the affected area, but as growth around it continues, a ridge rings the canker. Needles above the canker on affected branches and small stems either shrivel up and die in the spring or discolour early in the fall. Dead, dying branches should be checked carefully. One or more cankers may be present on a single branch or section of stem. The cankers are perennial and enlarge from year to year.

2.4 Non-Compliance

Material showing cankerous symptoms should be suspected of being infected with L. willkommii and placed under detention. Samples of cankers exhibiting characteristic fruiting bodies should be submitted to the Ottawa Laboratory (Fallowfield) for confirmation. Importations not in conformance with the requirements of this directive will be refused entry.

Movement out of infested areas within Canada found in violation of these requirements must be returned to origin or destroyed at the expense of the owner.

Host plants outside of the infested area found to be infested with the pest must be reported immediately to the CFIA.

3.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: Conditions for the issuance of Movement Certificates

The following are the conditions under which a Movement Certificate can be issued for logs and/or pulpwood (with bark) moving from infested areas within Canada directly to pulp and paper mills located in areas considered to be free of European larch canker:

Shipper

  1. Must apply for and be granted a Movement Certificate to move the restricted material out of the infested area.
  2. The restricted material must be transported directly to a mill that has been granted a Movement Certificate.
  3. All shipping records and other documents pertaining to the movement of the restricted material must be maintained on file for a period of at least one year from the date of shipment and must be provided to an inspector upon request.

Receiving Mill

  1. All mills located in an area considered to be free of European larch canker must apply for and be granted a Movement Certificate to receive the restricted material out of the regulated area.
  2. All logs and/or pulpwood must be debarked and the bark must be disposed of or treated within 30 days of receiving the restricted material in a manner pre-approved by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. (For example, as hog fuel, reprocessing using chemical and/or heat treatments).
  3. All shipping records and other documents pertaining to receiving the restricted material from an infested area must be maintained on file for a period of at least one year and must be provided to an inspector upon request.

Should the mill be found in non-compliance with the conditions specified herein, a domestic Movement Certificate will not be issued by the inspector.

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