D- 97-07: Phytosanitary Requirements for the Importation from the United States and Domestic Movement of Elm Material (Ulmus spp. and Zelkova spp.) to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Dutch Elm Disease Ophiostoma ulmi (Buisman) Nannf. and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi (Brasier) within Canada

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Effective Date: January 25, 2010
(1st Revision)

Subject

This directive contains the phytosanitary requirements to prevent the introduction of Dutch elm disease, Ophiostoma ulmi (Buisman) Nannf. and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier, from the United States (U.S.) and infested areas of Canada into uninfested areas of Canada. This directive regulates commodity pathways and therefore governs the movement of propagative material, including nursery stock, and non-propagative material with bark attached such as logs, lumber, firewood, crates and isolated bark of all species, hybrids and horticultural cultivars of elm (Ulmus spp. and Zelkova spp.)

This directive has been revised to strengthen the phytosanitary requirements pertaining to the domestic movement and importation of some regulated commodities such as elm nursery stock from infested areas of Canada and the U.S.

Table of Contents

Review

This directive will be reviewed every 5 years unless otherwise needed. The next review date for this directive is January 25, 2015. For further information or clarification, please contact Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Endorsement

Approved by:

space
Chief Plant Health Officer

Amendment Record

Amendments of this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution below.

Distribution

  1. Directive mail list (Regions, PHRA, USDA)
  2. Provincial Government, Industry (via Regions)
  3. National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
  4. Internet

Introduction

Dutch elm disease is a serious disease of elms in almost every country where elm is grown or is native. Dutch elm disease was first discovered in Canada in 1944. It has killed millions of trees in Canada and cost millions of dollars annually to control.

The major methods for the disease to spread are through the following bark beetle vectors: the native bark beetle Hylurogopinus rufipes (Eichh.), the European elm bark beetle Scolytus multistriatus (Marsh.), and most recently, the banded elm bark beetle Scolytus schevyrewi (Semenov), and the movement of elm trees, logs and firewood. Unbranched young trees of elm varieties grown to a length of two metres (79 inches) or less and no larger than 1.27 cm (½ inch) in diameter pose less risk of carrying the Dutch elm disease fungus, especially if produced from disease-free stock initially. This is because beetle feeding or breeding necessary to introduce the Dutch elm disease fungus is unlikely to occur on unbranched material of this size or smaller. Trees of this size are expected to be free of Dutch elm disease provided that they were produced from disease-free stock initially.

The most effective control measure is the control of movement of elm material. The provinces of Alberta, Nova Scotia, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan have provincial regulations in place to control the introduction or spread of Dutch elm disease into their provinces.

The disease occurs in all provinces except British Columbia, Alberta and Newfoundland and Labrador. The European Elm Bark Beetle Scolytus multistriatus (Marsh.) has been trapped in British Columbia and Alberta. However, the disease has not been reported in either province except for an isolated find of Dutch elm disease in Wainwright, Alberta in 1999 that was removed and destroyed, further surveys have not detected any Dutch elm disease since.

Scope

This directive is intended for the use of the CFIA inspection staff, Canada Border Service Agency, Canadian importers and national plant protection organizations, industry and the public. The directive outlines the necessary requirements and inspection procedures for the importation of and domestic movement of elm (Ulmus spp. et Zelkova spp.) material.

This directive supercedes D-97-07 (Original); Quarantine Directive Domestic-8, dated 1985-12-31 (amended 1991-03) and any reference to the subject of domestic movement of elm material concerning Dutch elm disease in any other document.

References

ISPM No. 4, Requirements for the establishment of Pest Free Areas. 1995., FAO, Rome.

ISPM No. 5, Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms. FAO, Rome (updated annually).

ISPM No. 13, Guidelines for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action. 2001. FAO, Rome.

ISPM No. 20, Guidelines for a phytosanitary import regulatory system. 2004., FAO, Rome.

Related CFIA Policies

CFIA Policy D-08-04, Plant Protection Import Requirements for Plants and Plant Parts for Planting: Preventing the Entry and Spread of Regulated Plant Pests Associated with the Plants for Planting Pathway:

CFIA Policy D-02-12, Import Requirements of non-manufactured wood and other non-propagative wood products, except solid wood packaging material, from all areas other than the continental United States.

CFIA Policy D-01-12, Phytosanitary Requirements for the Importation and Domestic Movement of Firewood.

Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 General Requirements

1.1 Legislative Authority

The Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22
The Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette: Part I (as amended from time to time)

1.2 Fees

The CFIA is charging fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, please contact the Import Service Centre (ISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice Web Site.

1.3 Regulated Pests

  • Ophiostoma ulmi (Buisman) Nannf. (= Ceratocystis ulmi (Buisman) C. Moreau)
  • Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier

1.4 Regulated Commodities

All propagative material including nursery stock, and non-propagative material, with bark attached such as logs, lumber, firewood, crates and isolated bark of all species, hybrids and horticultural cultivars of elm (Ulmus and Zelkova spp.)

1.5 Commodities Exempt

Seeds, and non-propagative material which is de-barked such as logs, lumber, and solid wood packing material of regulated host species.

1.6 Regulated Areas

1.6.1 Generally Infested Areas

Canada: Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba

United States: All states

1.6.2 Partially Infested Provinces

Saskatchewan (see map Appendix 2)

1.7 Non-regulated Areas

1.7.1 Non Infested Provinces

Newfoundland and Labrador, Alberta and British Columbia

2.0 Specific Requirements

2.1 Prohibitions

The import of untreated non-propagative material with bark attached such as logs, lumber, crates, firewood and isolated bark of all elm (Ulmus and Zelkova spp.) species hybrids and cultivars from the U.S. to non-infested provinces or non-infested areas within a partially infested province is prohibited.

2.2 Import Requirements (See summary in Appendix 2)

This directive only contains the phytosanitary requirements for importation from the U.S. and the domestic movement within Canada. For importation of non-propagative material from all areas other than the continental U.S. please consult D-02-12, Import requirements for non-manufactured wood and other non-propagative wood products, except solid wood packaging material, from all areas other than the continental U.S. For importation of propagative material from all countries please consult D-08-04, Plant Protection Import Requirements for Plants and Plant Parts for Planting: Preventing the Entry and Spread of Regulated Plant Pests Associated with the Plants for Planting Pathway.

2.2.1 From the U.S. to generally infested provinces

2.2.1.1 Non-propagative material with bark or isolated bark:

Proof of destination.

2.2.1.2 Propagative material:

A Permit to Import is required.

A valid Phytosanitary Certificate must accompany the shipment.

2.2.2 From the U.S. to partially infested provinces

2.2.2.1 Non-propagative material with bark or isolated bark:

A Permit to Import is required, the shipment must be destined to Dutch elm disease-infested areas within the partially infested province as per the map in Appendix 2.

2.2.2.2 Propagative material:

A Permit to Import is required, and

A valid Phytosanitary Certificate is required.

The following additional declaration must appear on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

"Ulmus spp. and/or Zelkova spp. material visually inspected and found to be free of signs and symptoms of Dutch elm disease, Ophiostoma ulmi (Buisman) Nannf. and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier".

The shipment must meet the following conditions:

  • All material must be transported within the time period of November 1 to April 30, the low risk period.
  • Plants must be branchless and 2 metres (79 inches) in height or less and 1.27 cm (½ inch) in diameter or less.
  • All material is destined to Dutch elm disease infested areas within the province as per the map in Appendix 2.

2.2.3 From the U.S. to non-infested provinces and non-infested areas of partially infested provinces of Canada

2.2.3.1 Non-propagative material with bark or isolated bark:

Prohibited.

2.2.3.2 Propagative material:

Prohibited.

2.3 Domestic Movement Requirements

2.3.1 From a generally infested province to a generally infested province of Canada

2.3.1.1 Non-propagative material with bark or isolated bark:

No requirements.

Note: All non-propagative material is subject to provincial and/or municipal legislation where it exists, please contact the relevant provincial or municipal authorities.

2.3.1.2 Propagative material:

No requirements.

Note: All non-propagative material is subject to provincial and/or municipal legislation where it exists, please contact the relevant provincial or municipal authorities.

2.3.2 From a generally infested province to a partially infested province of Canada

2.3.2.1 Non-propagative material with bark or isolated bark:

A valid Movement Certificate is required. The shipment must be destined to Dutch elm disease- infested areas within the partially infested province as per the map in Appendix 2 of D-97-07.

2.3.2.2 Propagative material:

A valid Movement Certificate is required.

The following additional declaration must appear on the Movement Certificate:

Ulmus spp. and or Zelkova spp. material visually inspected and found to be free of signs and symptoms of Dutch elm disease, Ophiostoma ulmi (Buisman) Nannf. and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier.

The shipment must meet the following conditions:

  • All material must be transported within the time period of November 1 to April 30, the low risk period.
  • Plants must be branchless and 2 metres (79 inches) in height or less and 1.27 cm (½ inch) in diameter or less.
  • All material is destined to Dutch elm disease-infested areas within the province as per the map in Appendix 2.

2.3.3 From a generally infested province to a non-infested province and non-infested areas of partially infested provinces of Canada

2.3.3.1 Non-propagative material with bark or isolated bark:

Prohibited.

2.3.3.2 Propagative material:

Prohibited.

2.3.4 From a partially infested province to a generally infested province of Canada

2.3.4.1 Non-propagative material with bark or isolated bark:

No requirements.

Note: All non-propagative material is subject to provincial and/or municipal legislation where it exists, please contact the relevant provincial or municipal authorities.

2.3.4.2 Propagative material:

No requirements.

Note: All non-propagative material is subject to provincial and/or municipal legislation where it exists, please contact the relevant provincial or municipal authorities.

2.3.5 From a partially infested province to non-infested a province of Canada

2.3.5.1 Non-propagative material with bark or isolated bark:

Prohibited.

2.3.5.2 Propagative material:

Prohibited.

2.3.6 From a non-infested province to all provinces of Canada

2.3.6.1 Non-propagative material with bark or isolated bark:

No requirements.

Note: All non-propagative material is subject to provincial and/or municipal legislation where it exists, please contact the relevant provincial or municipal authorities.

2.3.6.2 Propagative material:

No requirements.

Note: All non-propagative material is subject to provincial and/or municipal legislation where it exists, please contact the relevant provincial or municipal authorities.

3.0 Material for Research

There has been interest in testing the winter hardiness of some Ulmus spp. and or Zelkova spp. varieties. The CFIA may approve the importation of propagative and or non-propagative Ulmus spp. and or Zelkova spp. material from the U.S. and partially infested and generally infested provinces of Canada for research. Any proposed research material originating in the U.S. and moving to in non-infested areas of Canada will require CFIA approval via a CFIA issued Permit to Import under section 43, of the Plant Protection Regulations for research purposes only. Any proposed research material originating in generally or partially infested provinces of Canada will require a CFIA issued Movement Certificate for research purposes only. The applicant must also submit a detailed research plan. The research must take place in a CFIA accredited level 2 or higher plant containment facility. Any required certificate or Permit to Import will be issued by the CFIA in consultation with the affected province.

4.0 Firewood

Within this policy directive firewood is regulated as non-propagative material and may be subject to additional requirements as per directive D-01-12, Phytosanitary requirements for the importation and domestic movement of firewood.

5.0 Inspection Procedures and Reference Information

Phytosanitary and Movement Certificate(s) must be verified. Material with Dutch elm disease vectors or symptoms of Dutch elm disease will be refused entry, destroyed or returned to origin at importer's expense. Material must be free of all quarantine pests and substantially free of other injurious pests. Forestry products are subject to verification for freedom from bark.

Dutch elm disease signs and symptoms are extremely difficult to detect on logs, firewood and young branchless nursery stock. Below is a generic description of Dutch elm disease symptoms in live trees with leaves and associated sampling procedures.

Infected elm trees show symptoms as early as mid June such as wilting leaves that turn yellow, then curl and turn brown. Symptoms usually appear in the crown of the tree and can be seen until fall colours appear. Sometimes the curls, brown leaves will remain on the tree throughout winter. Trees that become infected later in the summer can cause tree leaves to turn yellow and fall prematurely much like normal fall colouration.

If the presence of Dutch elm disease is suspected collect samples from the branch showing symptoms, peel back the bark and look for brown staining in the sap wood. If brown staining is found, remove another section of the branch, try to get a sample that is smooth and straight, lacking any cankers, and is not dried out or dead. Cut this branch into 5 pieces that are 10-15 mm long and 2 cm in diameter. Do not remove the bark but remove the leaves and twigs. These samples can be submitted for lab analysis to confirm the presence of Dutch elm disease.

6.0 Non-Compliance

Shipments not meeting the import and domestic movement requirements of this directive will be refused entry, returned to origin or destroyed at owner's expense.

7.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: Summary of Import and Domestic Movement Requirements for Elm Products

From the U.S. to Generally infested provinces of Canada (PE, NS, NB, QC, ON and MB) (Section 2.2.1)
CommodityPermitPhytosanitary CertificateAdditional Import RequirementsComments
Non-propagative material with bark attached or isolated bark No No Proof of destination
Propagative material Yes Yes A Phytosanitary Certificate must accompany the shipment. No other requirements unless specified in D-94-14 Permit to import requirements for plant material from the continental U.S.
From the U.S. to partially infested provinces of Canada (SK) (Section 2.2.2)
CommodityPermitPhytosanitary CertificateAdditional Import RequirementsComments
Non-propagative material with bark attached or isolated bark Yes No The shipment must be destined to Dutch elm disease infested areas within the partially infested province.
Propagative material Yes Yes AD: Ulmus spp. and/or Zelkova spp. material was visually inspected and found to be free of signs and symptoms of Dutch elm disease, Ophiostomia ulmi (Buisman) Nannf. and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier.
  • All material must be transported within the time period of November 1 to April 30, the low risk period.
  • Plants must be branchless and 2 metres (79 inches) in height or less and 1.27 cm (½ inch) in diameter or less.
  • All material is destined to Dutch elm disease infested areas within the partially infested province(s) as per the map in appendix 2 of D-97-07
From the U.S. to non-infested provinces and non-infested areas of partially infested provinces of Canada (NF, AB and BC) (Section 2.2.3)
CommodityPermitPhytosanitary CertificateAdditional Import RequirementsComments
Non-propagative material with bark attached or isolated bark Prohibited Prohibited
Propagative material Prohibited Prohibited

Domestic Movement

From generally infested provinces (PE, NS, NB, QC, ON and MB) to generally infested provinces of Canada (Section 2.3.1)
CommodityMovement CertificateMovement Import RequirementsComments
Non-propagative material with bark attached or isolated bark No No requirements All non-propagative material is subject to provincial legislation where it exists.
Propagative material No No requirements All propagative material is subject to provincial legislation where it exists.
From generally infested provinces (PE, NS, NB, QC, ON and MB) to partially infested provinces (SK) of Canada (Section 2.3.2)
CommodityMovement CertificateMovement Import RequirementsComments
Non-propagative material with bark attached or isolated bark Yes The shipment must be destined to Dutch elm disease infested areas within the partially infested province.
Propagative material Yes

Declaration of the following additional conditions must appear on the Movement Certificate: Ulmus spp. and/or Zelkova spp. material was visually inspected and found to be free of signs and symptoms of Dutch elm disease, Ophiostomia ulmi (Buisman) Nannf. and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier.

  • All material must be transported within the time period of November 1 to April 30, the low risk period.
  • Plants must be branchless and 2 metres (79 inches) in height or less and 1.27 cm (½ inch) in diameter or less.
  • All material is destined to Dutch elm disease infested areas within the partially infested province(s) as per the map in appendix 2 of D-97-07
From generally infested provinces (PE, NS, NB, QC, ON and MB) to non-infested provinces (NF, AB and BC) (Section 2.3.3)
CommodityMovement CertificateMovement Import RequirementsComments
Non-propagative material with bark attached or isolated bark Prohibited
Propagative material Prohibited
From partially infested provinces (SK) to generally infested provinces (PE, NS, NB, QC, ON and MB) (Section 2.3.4)
CommodityMovement CertificateMovement Import RequirementsComments
Non-propagative material with bark attached or isolated bark No No requirements All non-propagative material is subject to provincial legislation where it exists.
Propagative material No No requirements All non-propagative material is subject to provincial legislation where it exists.
From partially-infested provinces (SK) to non-infested provinces (NF, AB and BC) (Section 2.3.5)
CommodityMovement CertificateMovement Import RequirementsComments
Non-propagative material with bark attached or isolated bark Prohibited
Propagative material Prohibited
From non-infested provinces (NF, AB and BC) to all provinces of Canada (Section 2.3.6)
CommodityMovement CertificateMovement Import RequirementsComments
Non-propagative material with bark attached or isolated bark No No requirements All non-propagative material is subject to provincial legislation where it exists.
Propagative material No No requirements All non-propagative material is subject to provincial legislation where it exists.

Appendix 2: 2017 Areas of Known Dutch Elm Disease Infestations within a Partially Infested Province

Map: 2017 Known Extent of Dutch Elm Disease in Saskatchewan

Note: The data presented in this link is based on information provided by the Government of Saskatchewan at the time of the current revision.

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