PI-010: Regulatory Response Protocol for Nurseries Confirmed with Phytophthora ramorum

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Inspection Procedure PI-010
4th Revision

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Contact

The contact for the review of this document is the National Manager of the Horticulture and Grains Section, Policy and Programs Branch, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

The local CFIA office should be contacted for details regarding the implementation of this response protocol.

Review

This response protocol will be reviewed and updated as required. The contact for the review of this document is listed above.

Endorsement

Approved by:

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Chief Plant Health Officer

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(date)

Distribution

The most up to date version of this document will be maintained on the CFIA internet.

1.0 Introduction

Phytophthora ramorum is a plant pathogen on the List of Pests Regulated by Canada. Because of its wide host range, limited geographic distribution and potentially harmful effects, many other countries also regulate P. ramorum host plants to prevent the entry and spread of this pathogen. The principles employed in this protocol are similar to those employed by the United States and the European Union.

Trade in nursery plants is an acknowledged pathway for the introduction and spread of P. ramorum. When an infected plant enters a nursery, the disease may establish on the nursery site and spread from plant to plant within the nursery. Many nurseries have optimum microclimates for the infection, reproduction and persistence of P. ramorum. Large volumes of closely spaced host plants that are regularly watered by overhead irrigation systems will generally provide higher humidity and cooler conditions, which are favourable to the growth and expression of P. ramorum.

Nurseries that propagate their stock from infected plants or grow or redistribute infected plants may facilitate widespread dispersal of the pathogen. Planting infected host plants in urban and rural settings may serve as a pathway for the survival, establishment and spread of P. ramorum into susceptible host populations in the natural environment. The area with the highest risk of establishment in Canada is south coastal British Columbia. This area has a coastal forest ecosystem characterized by a suitable cool and wet maritime climate with moderated temperatures and an abundance of common native tree and plant species that are P. ramorum hosts. The climate in other regions of Canada is not considered favorable for the establishment of this plant pathogen and the risk of establishment of this pathogen is considered low to negligible outside of south coastal B.C.

Phytophthora ramorum Compensation Regulations were in place to provide compensation for growers subject to eradication activities that were ordered on notices issued between January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2010. There is currently no compensation available for growers required to undertake eradication activities.

2.0 References

Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22
Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
D-01-01: Phytosanitary Requirements to Prevent the Entry of Phytophthora ramorum.
List of Pests Regulated by Canada.

3.0 Definitions

In addition to the terms listed below, definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

Drip line:

the outermost circumference of a plant canopy where the water drips from and onto the ground.

High risk host:

plants of the following genera: Rhododendron spp., Camellia spp., Viburnum spp., Pieris spp. and Kalmia spp.

Host plants:

all plant taxa listed in Appendix 1 of policy directive D-01-01: Phytosanitary Requirements to Prevent the Entry and Spread of Phytophthora ramorum.

Low risk host:

all plant taxa listed in Appendix 1 of D-01-01 excluding those defined as high risk hosts.

Propagation nursery:

any place of production where host plants of P. ramorum are multiplied.

Retail nursery:

any facility where plants are obtained from other places of production for the purpose of direct sale to the public.

Site-wide quarantine:

a quarantine that is created when a Notice of Quarantine is issued upon detection of P. ramorum and officially holds all host plants at the nursery.

Wholesale nursery:

any place of production where nursery stock is grown, stored, sold or distributed to other wholesale or retail nurseries or landscapers.

4.0 Scope

This inspection procedure has been developed for use by CFIA inspectors that are designated by the Minister under the Plant Protection Act.

This inspection procedure outlines the regulatory actions that the CFIA will implement when P. ramorum is detected at a nursery. It includes information on: biosecurity measures that must be implemented when conducting activities at the nursery, securing the nursery to prevent further spread of the pathogen, delimiting the extent of the infestation, establishing destruction and quarantine areas, conducting disposal and/or treatment of P. ramorum-infested articles from the nursery and completing trace forward and trace back investigations.

The CFIA may modify its response to specific situations to achieve successful eradication of P. ramorum from a regulated nursery.

5.0 When to use this protocol

This protocol describes the regulatory response activities that will be implemented when the CFIA has confirmed the presence of P. ramorum in a nursery in Canada. A flowchart that illustrates the process is shown in Appendix 1. Confirmation of the presence of P. ramorum will be based on official sampling and analyses completed by the CFIA. Official samples include but are not restricted to those collected during national surveys, trace forward or trace back surveys, referrals from the nursery industry and import inspections.

6.0 Biosecurity measures

Inspectors must implement rigorous biosecurity measures when conducting activities at a nursery with a detection of P. ramorum. The objective of these measures is to prevent the movement of inoculum from an infested area to non-infested areas, both within and outside the nursery. In addition to the measures described below, inspectors must respect any other biosecurity measures implemented by the nursery.

When arriving at the nursery, whenever possible, vehicles should be parked on paved, concrete or gravel areas away from the immediate inspection area. Footwear must be cleaned and disinfected upon arrival to mitigate quarantine pest risk and to provide confidence to nursery management that appropriate biosecurity measures are being taken. Approved disinfectants for non-porous surfaces are listed in Appendix 2.

The following protective clothing is required when conducting delimitation surveys and when conducting inspection activities in areas defined for destruction and quarantine: disposable coveralls, rubber boots or footwear that can be readily disinfected and disposable gloves. Disposable boot covers may also be worn to limit accumulation of organic debris but do not replace the requirement to disinfect footwear.

Activities should start in lower risk areas of the nursery and progress to higher risk areas over the course of a day. At the completion of an inspection activity and in situations where the inspector is required to subsequently conduct activities in a lower risk area of the nursery, disposable protective attire must be double-bagged for disposal before leaving the higher risk area. Similarly, potentially contaminated tools or equipment must be disinfected or double-bagged for disposal. Rubber boots must be cleaned free of soil and debris then disinfected.

Prior to leaving the nursery, vehicle tires must be treated with a disinfectant. Rubber boots must be cleaned to be free of soil and debris, treated with a disinfectant and stored in a plastic bag to prolong the wet contact time.

7.0 Notifying and securing the nursery

Upon learning of a confirmed detection of P. ramorum at a nursery, CFIA inspectors will:

  • notify nursery management of the detection and identify the locations of the positive plants
  • provide a copy of this protocol and request the cooperation of nursery management in carrying out the requirements of this protocol
  • issue a site-wide Notice of Quarantine for all host plants within the nursery

A Notice of Quarantine is an official written notice issued by an inspector under the authority of the Plant Protection Act, to the owner or person having the possession, care or control of a thing, to hold the described thing(s) in quarantine at the specified location under the specified conditions.

A site-wide Notice of Quarantine will be issued, as per Appendix 3, Section 1.0, to hold all host plants at the nursery until a delimitation survey can be conducted and the full extent of the infestation determined. Any host plants that enter the nursery following the issuance of the Notice of Quarantine will also be subject to the site-wide quarantine.

The nursery will be permitted to carry out operations to maintain the health of the plants that are under quarantine, provided such actions are not in contravention of the measures established by this protocol or by Notices issued by a CFIA inspector. Equipment used at the nursery must not be moved from the nursery site unless it has been cleaned and disinfected under CFIA oversight. The nursery is not permitted to apply fungicides to any plants under quarantine as they could impede identification of infested plants.

Inspectors will collect and record general information on nursery operations (as per Appendix 4), such as the source of the water used for irrigation, biosecurity measures in place at the nursery, the source and composition of growing media, the location of the cull piles, and history of fungicide use. Inspectors will request a map from the nursery identifying locations of high risk host plants to assist with the delimitation of the infestation.

7.1 Destruction area

Inspectors will clearly demarcate the destruction area and inventory all of the plants within the destruction area (i.e. types and quantities of plants, pot sizes, etc.). All plants, plant debris, pots, associated growing media and underlying soil and related matter within 2 metres of a P. ramorum detection will be included in the destruction area and placed under a Notice of Quarantine, as per Appendix 3, Section 2.0. All measurements used to delineate the destruction area will be taken from the drip line of the infected plants, except for plants with a drip line that does not extend beyond the edge of the pot, in which case the exterior edge of the pot will be used.

The inspector will issue a Notice to Dispose for all host plants, plant debris and associated growing media within the destruction area, as per Appendix 3, Section 4.0. The pots associated with host plants and any other non-porous surfaces within the destruction area must either be ordered destroyed under the Notice to Dispose, or be ordered treated by a Notice of Requirement to Treat or Process, in accordance with Appendix 2.

Any non-host plants in the destruction area must remain in place, or if approved in advance by an inspector, may be moved to a safeguarded area on a non-porous surface. Leaf debris from the surface of pots of non-host plants will be ordered destroyed.

Nursery staff must be prohibited from accessing destruction areas until the nursery is prepared to conduct disposal and treatment activities and an inspector is prepared to provide oversight (see sections 10.0 and 11.0).

7.2 90-day quarantine area

All host plants within a defined area surrounding a destruction area will be placed under a Notice of Quarantine for a minimum of 90 days (as per Appendix 3, Section 2.0) to provide adequate time to determine if P. ramorum has spread beyond the destruction area.

The size of the 90-day quarantine area depends on the type of nursery (retail or wholesale/propagation) and the type of host in which P. ramorum was detected (high risk or low risk). A schematic for destruction and 90-day quarantine areas is provided in Appendix 5.

For a retail facility, and for a detection of P. ramorum in a low risk host at a wholesale or propagation nursery, the 90-day quarantine area will include all host plants within 2 metres of the demarcated destruction area.

For a detection of P. ramorum in a high risk host at a wholesale or propagation nursery, the 90-day quarantine area will include all host plants within 10 metres of the demarcated destruction area.

Plant debris within the quarantine area must be collected for disposal under CFIA oversight in accordance with Appendix 2.

The 90-day quarantine period will start after the delimitation survey has been conducted and the disposal of host plants, plant debris and associated material has been completed.

Host plants within a quarantine area will be inspected and sampled as part of the delimitation survey and then at least twice during the 90-day quarantine period.

The first surveillance inspection will occur approximately halfway through the quarantine period and the second near the end of the quarantine period to allow time for laboratory results to be finalized by the end of the quarantine period. If P. ramorum is detected during surveillance inspections, new destruction and quarantine areas will be established. If the nursery has multiple areas under 90-day quarantine, the quarantine period will be restarted for any existing quarantine area(s) that overlap the newly established 90-day quarantine area.

The quarantine period may be extended beyond 90 days if environmental conditions are not conducive to the expression of disease symptoms. If the daily maximum temperature remains below 4°C for a period of 7 consecutive days or more, the quarantine period should be extended.

8.0 Delimitation survey

Once host plants have been secured under a site-wide Notice of Quarantine, and preferably after the boundaries of the 90-day quarantine areas have been identified, a thorough delimitation survey will be conducted to determine the extent of the infestation at the nursery.

Delimitation will involve a visual survey of the entire nursery and any host plants surrounding the perimeter of the nursery, with a focus on high risk hosts and areas considered high risk (e.g. areas of standing water, low lying topography, blocks of plants with low vigour). Samples will be collected from symptomatic plants, from soil and related matter in the destruction area, and from irrigation water (depending on the source as per Section 8.3). All samples will be sent to the CFIA Plant Pathology Laboratory for testing. If P. ramorum is confirmed from samples taken during the delimitation survey, additional destruction and quarantine areas may be defined, additional soil samples collected and additional disposal/treatment activities ordered.

8.1 Host plants

Inspectors will survey host plants within the nursery, including 90-day quarantine areas, with a particular focus on high risk hosts. Plants showing symptoms consistent with P. ramorum, will be sampled and submitted for laboratory analyses at the CFIA Pathology Laboratory. Surveys must be conducted when environmental conditions are favorable for the growth of P. ramorum. The optimum temperature for detection is 20°C, but sampling may be carried out if the temperature remains between 3°C and 28°C and there is available moisture. Typically, the most favorable times to sample for P. ramorum are from April to mid-June and from September to November.

Refer to the Phytophthora ramorum Nursery Survey Protocol for sampling methodology. For the delimitation survey, the next increment in the detection survey protocol sampling table should be used as the guideline for the maximum number of samples to take based on the number of host plants at the nursery. For example, if a maximum of 40 samples were identified for a National Survey or Post-Eradication Monitoring Survey, then the next increment is a maximum of 80 samples for the delimitation survey. If during the delimitation survey the inspectors determine that more plants require sampling, the Plant Pathology Laboratory should be contacted to confirm that there is available capacity to conduct the analyses.

As some host plants, such as Pieris spp. and Camellia spp., will drop their leaves when infected with P. ramorum, fallen symptomatic leaves may be collected from the surface of plant pots. Up to 10% of the total plant material samples collected may be comprised of fallen leaves from the pots of symptomatic host plants. Leaf material from a plant pot, or from up to 5 adjacent plant pots, may be collected as a sample. Fallen leaf debris on the surface of pots must be kept as a separate sample from foliage collected from a plant and identified as 'pot leaf debris' samples.

Following completion of the delimitation survey, host plants that are free from disease symptoms, and not sampled during the delimitation survey may, at the discretion of an inspector, be released from site-wide quarantine provided they are located a sufficient distance away from any destruction area and from any plant for which results are pending.

8.2 Soil and related matter and growing media

If infested host plants in a destruction area are situated on soil and related matter, or on a permeable surface covering soil and related matter, after disposal activities have been completed, inspectors will sample the soil and related matter in the destruction area to determine if it is contaminated with P. ramorum.

In addition, inspectors must determine the content, origin (composition), storage and handling of soil or growing media used at the nursery. If the inspector has reason to suspect that the infestation is a result of using contaminated growing media (e.g. composted material or bark is a component of the potting mix, or cross contamination of media is suspected), inspectors may sample the growing media in the pots of host plants in the 90-day quarantine area or from the bulk growing media. Samples of growing media must be kept separate from samples of soil and related matter.

Appendix 6 outlines soil and related matter and growing media sampling methods.

8.3 Water

The source of water used at the nursery to irrigate plants must be determined. Water sampling is not required for irrigation water sourced from either deep wells or municipal facilities.

If irrigation water is untreated, re-circulated, or obtained from surface water at risk of contamination by P. ramorum, the water should be sampled according to the procedures outlined in Appendix 6. The type of irrigation system(s) used at the nursery, any chemical(s) or other treatment added to the irrigation water, general drainage and water flow, areas of standing water and any safeguards against water back-flow should be identified and recorded as nursery operations information (as per Appendix 4).

A water source that is found to be infested with P. ramorum must not be used for irrigation until it has been treated and post-treatment testing completed in accordance with Appendix 2.

8.4 Cull pile

Cull pile(s) may be inspected and sampled if there is host material present that shows symptoms consistent with P. ramorum. If P. ramorum is detected within a cull pile, inspectors should seek clarification through established channels on how to effectively mitigate the risk.

8.5 Perimeter

A perimeter survey must be conducted of all host plants located within 10 metres of the nursery with a focus on high risk host plants. The purpose of the perimeter survey is to ensure that P. ramorum has not spread outside of the infested nursery, and to determine if the source of infestation in the nursery may have originated from the surrounding environment. Samples should be collected as per the Phytophthora ramorum Nursery Survey Protocol. Plants sampled in the perimeter survey will not be placed under regulatory hold while samples are being tested.

9.0 Trace forward and trace back investigations

The nursery will be requested to provide all information which identifies shipments of host plants distributed within the 6 months prior to the first detection of P. ramorum for trace forward and trace back investigations. Trace forward activities will focus on the movement of potentially infected plants to other nurseries and retail facilities, as these sites represent the greatest risk of pathogen spread.

Shipping invoices may be used in conducting trace forward activities to assist with more efficiently locating and inspecting any potentially infested plants that may have been received by a nursery. Shipments containing a species (and variety if known) in which P. ramorum was detected, and any high risk hosts in the same shipment, should be inspected and symptomatic material sampled for laboratory analyses.

A trace back investigation will be conducted to determine if the infected plants were obtained from another nursery. If possible, trace back should continue to the original propagation source. The nursery must provide information which permits inspectors to trace back an infestation to the origin of the plants.

Trace back and trace forward information which extends beyond the local office's area of responsibility should be communicated to a Regional Program Officer for inspection or other follow up activities as necessary. Trace back and trace forward information which extends outside Canada should be communicated to the Horticulture and Grain Section, Policy and Programs Branch through established channels.

10.0 Disposal of infested materials

The delimitation survey of the nursery may be conducted concurrently with disposal of plants in a destruction area. Disposal of infested material may commence prior to receiving all delimitation sample results.

All plants and associated materials ordered disposed must be destroyed in accordance with one of the approved methods in Appendix 2 and destruction must be carried out under CFIA oversight. Alternative methods of disposal may be proposed to CFIA for consideration and may be approved on a case-by-case basis. Prior approval must be provided in writing.

11.0 Treatment of infested materials

Where water, soil or non-porous materials (e.g. plant pots, vehicles, greenhouse benches, concrete floors, tools and other implements) at the nursery have been exposed to P. ramorum or are found to be positive for P. ramorum, treatment will be ordered in accordance with the specifications in Appendix 2.

12.0 Release from quarantine

The CFIA may issue a number of Notices of Quarantine in response to P. ramorum detection(s). A Notice of Release from Quarantine will be issued by an inspector for each respective Notice of Quarantine as conditions are met to obtain release from quarantine.

12.1 Site-wide quarantine

The site-wide quarantine may be removed with issuance of a Notice of Release from Quarantine when: 1) the delimitation survey has been completed and all laboratory results have been received, 2) all destruction areas have been identified, and 3) all 90-day quarantine areas have been demarcated and implemented.

12.2 Host plants in destruction areas

A Notice of Release from Quarantine may be issued after the disposal of all host plants, plant debris and associated materials has been completed as ordered under a Notice to Dispose.

12.3 Non-host plants in destruction areas

Non-host plants in a destruction area may be released from quarantine upon confirmation that P. ramorum is not detected in the underlying soil and related matter in the destruction area and the disposal of plant debris from the surface of pots has been completed. If P. ramorum is detected in the soil of a destruction area, any non-host plants from the destruction area will be placed under the Notice of Quarantine for the associated 90-day quarantine area and be subjected to inspection and sampling at the middle and end of the quarantine period along with host plants. Alternatively, non-hosts plants may be released from regulatory control if the nursery elects to dispose of the non-host plants in an approved manner as per Appendix 2.

12.4 90-day quarantine area

Plants under 90-day quarantine may be released from regulatory control after all laboratory analyses have been completed (plant material at halfway and end of quarantine period, soil and related matter in the destruction area, water source if required) and all ordered treatments and disposals have been completed. A Notice of Release from Quarantine will be issued upon receipt of the laboratory results from the final inspection and sampling of plant material at the end of the 90-day quarantine period showing no further detections of P. ramorum.

Alternatively, plants under 90-day quarantine may be released from regulatory control prior to the completion of the 90-day quarantine period if the nursery elects to dispose of all the host plants, plant parts and associated materials under Notice of Quarantine, in an approved manner as per Appendix 2. With this option, the plants may be released from quarantine once all delimitation results have been received with no new detections of P. ramorum, and all disposal and treatment activities have been completed, including disposal of host plants in the 90-day quarantine area(s).

13.0 Post-eradication surveys

Nurseries will continue to be monitored annually for two years following release from quarantine. Post-eradication surveys will take place during a time when the environmental conditions for the growth and development of P. ramorum are optimal.

Appendix 1 - Simplified summary of regulatory response activities

Picture - Simplified summary of regulatory response activities. Description follows.
Description for photo - Simplified summary of regulatory response activities

A simplified chart showing the flow of regulatory activities conducted when Phytophthora ramorum is detected at a nursery and the regulatory notices that are issued with each activity.

The first activity is to notify and secure the nursery. A Notice of Quarantine will be issued to hold all hosts site-wide.

The next activities will occur in parallel: One process is to identify destruction and 90-day quarantine areas. These areas will be delineated and the plants in these areas will be inventoried. A Notice of Quarantine will be issued to hold: 1) host plants in a destruction area, 2) non-hosts in a destruction area, and 3) host plants in a 90-day quarantine area. The next step is to dispose of infested material and, if required, to treat soil, water and non-porous surfaces. Regulatory notices that may be issued include: Notice to Dispose, Movement Certificate and Notice of Requirement to Treat or Process. The other process is to collect information on general nursery operations and to conduct a delimitation survey. The delimitation survey includes host plants, soil, growing media, water, cull piles and the perimeter of the nursery. If there is a detection of Phytophthora ramorum during the delimitation survey, then the process begins again to identify destruction and 90-day quarantine areas and issue regulatory notices. Trace forward and trace back investigations will be conducted for the infested plants. If there is no further detection of Phytophthora ramorum, a Notice of Release from Quarantine can be issued for the site-wide hold and for non-hosts in destruction areas.

90-day quarantine areas will be inspected and sampled midway and at the end of the quarantine period OR the nursery may elect to dispose of the plants. Once one of these options is completed, a Notice of Release from Quarantine can be issued for the plants under 90-day hold.

Lastly, the nursery will be monitored for 2 years post-eradication.

Appendix 2 - Disposal and treatment

The following may be ordered by the CFIA in the event of detection of P. ramorum in plants, growing media, soil or water. All actions must be carried out under CFIA oversight and in a CFIA-approved manner. Alternative methods may be proposed to CFIA for consideration. They may only be utilized if approved in advance by the CFIA in writing.

Disposal

A Notice to Dispose will be issued to order infested plants, plant debris and associated materials to be disposed in accordance with this appendix. Inspectors will review specific procedures for disposal activities with affected parties.

Note that in all cases:

  • a Movement Certificate issued by a CFIA inspector is required before material under quarantine may be moved from the location where it has been quarantined
  • material must be adequately contained from source to final disposition in one of the following manners:
    • double-bagged using heavy-duty plastic bags of at least 2 mil thickness or
    • sealed in a tarp-lined bin as tightly as possible with a second tarp covering the bin
      • the tarps and bags must be disposed with the infested plants, growing media, plant debris and associated containers

Approved disposal options:

Option 1 - Incineration (burning to ash): Material may be disposed of by incineration off-site at a CFIA-approved facility or on-site if permitted within provincial and municipal statutes or regulations and acceptable to the CFIA. Every effort must be taken to prevent plant debris or soil/growing media from being dislodged from the plants prior to incineration. Burning may be through open burning or in an incinerator.

Option 2 - Deep burial: Material must be buried to a depth of no less than two metres at a CFIA approved site and immediately covered.

Option 3 - Commercial composting: In British Columbia, plant material may be composted by a commercial facility that operates under the British Columbia Organic Matter Recycling Regulation (OMRR), has a valid OMRR permit and meets one of the pathogen reduction processes to produce Class A compost as stipulated in Schedule 1 of the OMRR: static aerated pile or closed vessel method to achieve a temperature of not less than 55° Celsius maintained throughout the load for at least 3 consecutive days, or by windrow to achieve a temperature of not less than 55°C maintained for at least 15 days.

Treatment

Disinfection is considered to be a treatment action and will be ordered on a Notice of Requirement to Treat or Process as per Appendix 3. The CFIA will work with regulated parties to identify the most appropriate treatment method. Approved treatment options are listed below. Alternative treatments (e.g. chemical treatment or paving over a substrate) may be proposed. Proposals will be considered on a case by case basis and may be used if approved in advance by the CFIA.

  • Non-porous surfaces

    Non-porous materials (e.g. plant pots, vehicles, tools, greenhouse benches, concrete floors, tool and other implements) that may have come in contact with infested P. ramorum material must be disinfected or disposed in accordance with this appendix. A number of disinfectants are registered for use on non-porous surfaces that may effectively reduce populations of Phytophthora species. Most disinfectants are not labelled for use on soil or organic materials. Non-porous materials must be cleaned free of soil and organic matter before treatment.

    After disposal activities are complete, all equipment used during disposal, including vehicles used to transport destruction material, and any non-porous surfaces (e.g. pavement, concrete floors, greenhouse walls, etc.) that infested plants were sitting on must be disinfected.

    Pots from infested plants may be disposed with the infested plants, disposed in another manner approved by the CFIA, or they may be treated in a manner approved by the CFIA. If the nursery elects to disinfect the pots, they must first be cleaned free of organic debris and then disinfected with an acceptable disinfectant for an appropriate wet contact time to achieve disinfection.

    Acceptable disinfectants include a 1:9 solution of chlorine bleach:water (v/v) or a labelled rate of quaternary ammonium. Wet contact time in a bleach solution is 10-15 min. For a quaternary ammonium product, follow the manufacturer's label.

    Tools that can be properly disinfected, such as knives, pruners, water breakers, water wands and other implements used during the disposal of infested plants must be disinfected. If disinfection of tools or other implements is not possible, they must be disposed of by the same methods as infested plants. If tools and other implements must be moved from quarantined areas, then disinfection is required prior to movement.

  • Water

    Water must be treated by a method approved in advance by the CFIA and must be properly monitored and documented. Adding chlorine sufficient to result in 2 mg/litre (2 ppm) of active chlorine or greater in samples taken at the emitters/sprinklers is an approved option. If the treated water will be used for irrigation, two rounds of post-treatment water sampling as per Appendix 6 must be conducted with P. ramorum not detected in laboratory analyses before it may be used for irrigation.

  • Growing media

    Growing media must be steam treated such that the temperature in the centre of the load reaches at least 82°C for 30 minutes. Treatment must be conducted with inspector oversight. Two rounds of post-treatment sampling as per Appendix 6 must be conducted with P. ramorum not detected for the treatment to be considered effective.

  • Soil

    The treatment area for soil and related matter will include the destruction area (i.e. defined area within 2 metres of the infected plant or plants) plus an additional 2 metre buffer surrounding the destruction area.

    The soil may be heated such that the temperature throughout the soil, to a depth of at least 10 cm, reaches at least 82°C for 30 minutes or may be treated with a registered soil fumigant, applied according to the manufacturer's label. Treatment must be conducted with inspector oversight. Two rounds of post-treatment sampling as per Appendix 6 must be conducted with P. ramorum not detected in laboratory analyses for the soil to be considered eligible for release from quarantine.

Appendix 3 - Use of regulatory forms

The following are options and recommendations on the use of regulatory forms. Considerations for content within fields of the form are offered for typical scenarios where an inspector orders containment and eradication activities in response to the detection of P. ramorum at a nursery.

1.0 Notice of Quarantine – site-wide

Ending on (date): handwrite 'until a Notice of Release is issued' or 'indefinite'

Description of thing(s): 'All host plants, plant debris and associated growing media within the nursery site-wide. Host plants are those identified in the attached List of Plants Regulated for Phytophthora ramorum (Appendix 1 of CFIA Policy Directive D-01-01).'

Conditions of quarantine: 'Plants must not be handled, pruned or treated and must not be moved. Plants must be made inaccessible to the public. Plants are to remain preserved and safeguarded.'

As applicable, add regulatory controls on cull pile(s), potentially infested soil(s) or water used for irrigation (until all testing is complete).

2.0 Notice of Quarantine - quarantine area (destruction and 90-day quarantine)

Ending on (date): handwrite 'until a Notice of Release is issued' or 'indefinite'

Description of thing(s): '1) All plants, plant debris, pots, growing media and underlying soil and related matter within 2 metres of the infected plant(s) [this is the destruction area] and 2) all host plants, plant debris, pots and growing media within 2 metres [or 10 metres] from the identified destruction area [this is the 90-day quarantine area]. Host plants are those identified in the attached List of Plants Regulated for Phytophthora ramorum (Appendix 1 of CFIA Policy Directive D-01-01).'

Conditions of quarantine: 'See attachment'

'Attachment to Notice of Quarantine No.: space

Conditions of quarantine:

  • Destruction and quarantine areas demarcated by CFIA must be maintained
  • Plants must remain safeguarded, inaccessible to the public and not be moved
  • Access to the area under quarantine must be limited to authorized nursery personnel to maintain the health of plants and to remove plant debris
  • Plant debris must be collected from the destruction area, including from pots of non-host plants within the destruction area, and from within the quarantine area for disposal under CFIA oversight in accordance with Appendix 2
  • Footwear must be treated with a disinfectant prior to leaving the quarantine area
  • Tools such as knives, pruners, water breakers, water wands and other implements used in the quarantine area must only be used in the quarantine area or must be cleaned and disinfected before leaving the quarantine area
  • Fungicidal sprays must not be used in the quarantine area
  • All nursery personnel must be made aware and follow the above conditions'

3.0 Notice of Release from Quarantine

Enter the serial number and the date of issue of the corresponding Notice of Quarantine.

Description of thing(s): Include all things described on the corresponding Notice of Quarantine

4.0 Notice to Dispose

Manner of disposition: Refer to approved disposal options contained in Appendix 2. Identify that the things are to be disposed in a manner that prevents the entry, introduction or spread of pests into Canada by incineration, deep burial to a depth of no less than 2 metres with immediate cover and will not be disturbed following burial, or commercial composting by a facility operating under the British Columbia Organic Matter Recycling Regulation.

For general wording, consider: 'All host plants, plant debris, pots, growing media and related articles must be disposed by incineration, deep burial or commercial composting in accordance with Appendix 2 (attached) under CFIA oversight.'

Place of disposition: 'In accordance with the disposal method selected and as approved by CFIA.'

If disposal is by deep burial, identify the location of the sanitary landfill. A Movement Certificate must be used in conjunction with a Notice to Dispose if material is moving off-site.

Description of thing(s): Describe the plants within the applicable destruction area. Attach detailed plant lists with scientific names, quantities of plants and pot sizes or caliper sizes. Maps showing the location of plants to be disposed may be attached if it adds clarity.

5.0 Movement Certificate

Description of the thing(s): Precisely describe the thing(s) to be moved. CFIA must be able to verify that the material being shipped is identifiable at destination.

Conditions of movement: Refer to safeguards in Appendix 2 as applicable.

Recommended conditions of movement include but are not limited to: 'Plants, plant debris, pots and associated growing media must move in a sealed, tarp-lined bin directly to [name of disposal facility] for deep burial under CFIA supervision. The bin must be disinfected after disposal.'

6.0 Notice of Requirement to Treat or Process - general

Description of the place or thing(s): Describe the thing(s) and/or the location as necessary

Treatment or process: Specify the approved treatment method

Manner of treatment or process: Order the manner of treatment in accordance with Appendix 2 depending on the particular circumstance

7.0 Notice of Requirement to Treat or Process – plant pots

Description of the place or thing(s): List the quantity of pots, include the source location of plant pots as necessary. For example, 100 pots from plants in destruction areas 1, 2 and 3.

Treatment or process: 'Plant pots must be cleaned free of soil, growing media and organic debris prior to using a disinfectant effective on a nonporous surface.'

Manner of treatment or process: 'Material from pots must be collected and disposed with other material that has been ordered destroyed. Acceptable disinfectants include a 1:9 solution of chlorine bleach:water (v/v) or a labelled rate of quaternary ammonium. Wet contact time for disinfection in a bleach solution is 10-15 minutes.'

Appendix 4 - Nursery operations information

The following form is intended for use by an inspector to obtain information about site information, nursery operations, and to assist with trace forward and trace back investigations.

Name of business: space

Manager name: space

Owner name: space

Site address: space

Mailing address: space

Contact phone number: space

Contact email address: space

Type of Nursery: space

checkbox retail nursery

checkbox wholesale/propagation nursery

checkbox other: space

GPS coordinates:space  size of site: space

checkbox obtain a map of the nursery and identify where high risk host plants are located

Site Information
Question Comment/Description
What is the source of water used for irrigation?
Is the water re-used/re-circulated? If yes, explain system.
Is the water treated? If yes, provide details.
Are there biosecurity measures in place for personnel and for equipment use? Provide details.
Is growing media sourced off- site? If yes, what is the source?
Is composted material or bark added to the growing media mix? If, yes, what is the source of this material?
Where are all of the cull piles and debris piles located on the site?
Chemical Use
Question Comment/Description
Are fungicides used at the nursery? If yes:

Have all re-entry intervals been met to allow safe access to plants?

When were the infected plants last treated with fungicide?

What products were used, when, and at what application rate?

Condition of plants
Question Comment/Description
Have the infested plants been trimmed or pruned? If yes:

When and how were the trimmings disposed?

Have the infested plants been potted or re-potted since arriving at the nursery? If yes:

Were pots disposed of or re-used? If re-used, were they cleaned or disinfected? Describe how.

Has the nursery noticed any disease problems with host plants on the property? If yes, describe.
Has the nursery moved any high risk host plants to an off-site location?

What types/varieties were moved?

How long ago?

What is the current location of these plants?

Trace Back Activities
Question Comment/Description
What is the origin(s) of the infested material?

checkbox  obtain invoices/packing slips for the past 6 months to identify the potential suppliers of the infected plants

Trace Forward Activities
Question Comment/Description
Were infected plants mother plants used in propagation? If so, what plants were propagated and how many?

checkbox  obtain invoices/packing slips for the past 6 months to identify where plants were distributed

Appendix 5 - Schematic of destruction and quarantine areas

Picture - Schematic of destruction and quarantine areas. Description follows.
Description for photo - Schematic of destruction and quarantine areas

The size of destruction and quarantine areas can be illustrated using concentric circles.

When Phytophthora ramorum is detected in a plant at a retail facility, or when detected in a low risk host at a wholesale or propagation nursery, the destruction area will include a circular area 2 metres from the drip line of the infested plant. The quarantine area will include a circular band that will start from the outer boundary of the destruction area and will extend another 2 metres.

When Phytophthora ramorum is detected in a high risk host plant at a wholesale or propagation nursery, the destruction area will include a circular area 2 metres from the drip line of the infested plant. The quarantine area will include a circular band that will start from the outer boundary of the destruction area and will extend another 10 metres.

Appendix 6 - Soil and related matter, growing media and water sampling

Soil and related matter and growing media sampling

All tools used to collect soil and related matter or growing media samples must be new or disinfected with a solution of 10% bleach, or quaternary ammonium at the labelled rate, between collecting each sample and between sampling each destruction area. As organic matter interferes with the action of disinfectants, all soil and organic material must be cleaned from the surfaces of tools and rubber boots prior to disinfection.

All references to soil in this appendix should be taken to mean soil and related matter. For delimitation sampling, soil samples should be collected throughout the destruction area. Any nearby areas that may be considered a high risk of infestation (e.g. downhill from a destruction area) may also be sampled. For post-treatment sampling, soil samples should be taken from the entire treatment area (destruction area plus an additional 2 metre buffer). Soil and growing media samples should be collected as composite samples and be kept separately. Growing media only need to be sampled if there is reason to suspect the growing media is infested. A composite sample consists of a mixture of sub-samples. Sub-samples of soil (or growing media) should be collected in small amounts and added together in a new zipper top plastic bag to form a composite sample. The use of sub-sampling increases the chances of finding P. ramorum if it is present. Samples should contain a maximum of 500 mL of soil and/or growing media (approximately 1/2 of a quart-size zipper top freezer bag). One soil sample should be collected from a standard 2 metre destruction area, unless the infested plants were situated on an impervious substrate (e.g. on concrete or asphalt). Two soil samples should be collected from a standard post-treatment area (2 metre destruction plus 2 metre buffer). If the surface of soil is covered with gravel, sub-samples should be taken from the soil beneath the gravel. If water permeable weed block is present, either covered with gravel or under gravel, the weed block must be removed prior to soil sampling.

Each composite sample will consist of at least ten sub-samples, and preferably more, collected from the targeted area. Sub-samples should be collected in a manner similar to the zigzag the pattern in the diagram below (Figure 1). Alternatively, if fallen leaves or other debris from infested plants are present, sub-sampling may be targeted towards those areas. Care should be taken not to include leaves and debris in the soil samples. Composite samples may also be collected from areas that may be considered high risk (e.g. downhill from the destruction area in a 90-day quarantine area). Samples should be collected from these blocks first to minimize the risk of contamination.

Figure 1: Recommended pattern for collection of soil and/or growing media samples

Picture - Figure 1: Recommended pattern for collection of soil and/or growing media samples. Description follows.
Description for photo - Figure 1: Recommended pattern for collection of soil and/or growing media samples

The recommended pattern for collecting soil and/or growing media from a target area is to use zigzag lines to collect small amounts of a subsample at each point of a zigzag within a targeted area. For a circular area, three evenly spaced zigzag transects can cover the entire area to collect subsamples at each of the points to form a representative composite sample.

Water sampling

Water samples should be collected in a sterile wide mouth bottle and kept at 5°C to 10°C. Water samples should be taken from the surface to increase the likelihood of obtaining zoospores of Phytophthora. Sample size should be approximately 1L. The number of samples is determined by the size of the irrigation reservoir to be sampled (see Table 1).

Water samples must be processed within 48 hours of collection and be submitted to the Pathology Laboratory in accordance with Appendix 7.

Table 1. Number of water samples to collect based on reservoir size
Size of reservoir
(Square Metres)
Number of water samples to collect
(1 Litre)
0 < n ≤ 1000
1000 < n ≤ 2000
2000 < n ≤ 4000
4000 < n ≤ 10,000
n > 10,000
1
2
4
8
12

Appendix 7 - Sample handling and laboratory submission

At the end of each sampling day, samples must be stored in a cold room or refrigerator at 2°C - 4°C prior to shipping.

Samples must be entered into the Laboratory Sample Tracking System (LSTS). Each sample must be separately bagged. In the case of water, place sample bottles inside a zipper top bag. On each sample bag record, in permanent marker: the nursery name, the sampling location (unique identifier such as block/area name), plant genus, species and variety (where possible), pot size, sampler initials, sampling date, LSTS system ID #. Include samples from only one type of sampling activity in a laboratory submission. For example, national survey samples would be submitted under a separate submission report from those sent for a delimitation survey, or trace forward activity.

Use the following survey codes in the LSTS submission:

  • SOD-NAT - national survey
  • SOD-REF - referral (such as B.C. Landscape Nursery Association [BCLNA] referrals)
  • SOD-PE1 - first year post eradication
  • SOD-PE2 - second year post eradication
  • SOD-DEL - delimitation survey
  • SOD-TF - trace forward
  • SOD-TB - trace back
  • SOD-ZO1 - 1st sampling (day 1) of 90-day quarantine area
  • SOD-ZO2 - 2nd sampling (day 45) of 90-day quarantine area
  • SOD-ZO3 - 3rd sampling (day 80) of 90-day quarantine area
  • SOD-BUF - buffer zone around a positive nursery

Place all of the individual sample bags into a large plastic bag for shipping. Ship all samples by express, overnight courier in Styrofoam coolers containing ice packs. Samples must not contact the ice packs directly. Layers of newspaper or other insulation may be used to keep ice packs from contact with samples. Include a copy of all LSTS submission reports inside the box. Indicate 'SOD' on the outside of the box.

The submitters should send an email to Plant Pathology (cfia.plantpathology-phytopathologie.acia@canada.ca) to advise the lab of the number of samples shipped and the expected date/time of arrival date. Provide the LSTS system IDs for submitted samples.

Submit collected samples to:

Attention: Plant Pathology
Ontario Plant Laboratories (Fallowfield)
3851 Fallowfield Road, Floor 2
PO Box 11300
Ottawa ON K2H 8P9

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