PI-010 – Eradication Protocol for Propagation Nurseries Confirmed with Phytophthora ramorum

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3rd Revision

Table of Contents

Contact

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)

Review

This eradication protocol will be updated as required. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Distribution List

The most up to date version of this document will be maintained on the CFIA Internet.

Endorsement


Chief Plant Health Officer

Date

1.0 Introduction

Phytophthora ramorum is a quarantine pest included on the List of Pest Regulated by Canada. Many countries regulate commodities to prevent the entry or movement of P. ramorum.

The nursery trade is an acknowledged pathway for P. ramorum. Detections of the pathogen in new areas have necessitated eradication actions by regulatory agencies. The eradication principles employed in this protocol are similar to those employed by the United States and the European Union. This document outlines Canadian regulatory actions to eradicate P. ramorum incursions at commercial nurseries.

2.0 References

CFIA directive D-01-01: Phytosanitary Requirements to Prevent the Entry of Phytophthora ramorum.

RSPM 5: North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO) Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms (Revised).

List of Pests Regulated by Canada.

ISPM #5: Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms. IPPC, Rome.

Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

3.0 Definitions

  • Block: A block is a contiguous group of host plants. The edge of the block is delineated by a 2m boundary within which no host plants are present.
  • Drip line: The outermost circumference of a plant canopy where the water drips from and onto the ground.
  • High risk host: Plants of the following genera Rhododendron spp., Camellia spp., Viburnum spp., Pieris spp. and Kalmia spp.
  • Host plants: all plant taxa as listed in Appendix 1 of policy directive D-01-01: "Phytosanitary Requirements to Prevent the Entry and Spread of Phytophthora ramorum".
  • Low risk host: All plant taxa identified in appendix 1 of D-01-01 excluding those identified as High Risk Hosts.
  • Propagation: an increase of plants by sexual or asexual reproduction.
  • Propagation nursery: any place where propagation of host plants of P. ramorum is conducted.
  • Site-wide quarantine: The initial Notice of Quarantine issued upon detection of P. ramorum which includes all host plants in the nursery.

4.0 Goal

The goal of this protocol is the effective eradication of P. ramorum in propagation nurseries. Any interpretation contrary to this goal is a misinterpretation of this protocol.

This protocol is based on average nursery production conditions to guide CFIA inspectors to achieve successful eradication of P. ramorum. Occasionally there will be circumstances where the average nursery model will not be adequate and CFIA may vary from this protocol in the interest of successful eradication. Early detection and reporting of P. ramorum is critical to ensure that any infestation is contained and spread minimized.

5.0 When to Use this Protocol

This protocol is implemented when the presence of P. ramorum has been confirmed in a nursery. Confirmation will be based on official analysis using a methodology approved by the CFIA at a laboratory approved by the CFIA.

A summary of the measures and activities in this protocol are found in Appendix 9.

6.0 Securing the Nursery

Upon detection of P. ramorum at a propagation nursery CFIA staff will:

  • Contact the nursery and record details related to its operations on the checklist provided in Appendix 6.
  • Issue a site-wide quarantine on all host plants within the nursery.
  • Order the biosecurity measures specified in Appendix 3 as an attachment to the Notice of Quarantine.

During the eradication, the nursery will be permitted to carry out nursery operations to maintain the health of plants provided such actions are not in contravention of the measures established by this protocol or on notices prescribed by a CFIA inspector or in opposition to the biosecurity measures prescribed in Appendix 3. Any host plants entering the nursery during the eradication will be automatically added to the site-wide quarantine.

Destruction areas will be identified and destruction of plants associated with confirmed P. ramorum detections conducted as per Section 7.0 of this protocol. Quarantines will be established and disposals ordered using the appropriate notice as specified in Appendix 5. Plant destruction may commence prior to receiving all delimitation sample results.

Once delimitation surveys are complete and the extent of the infestation is determined, additional destruction and quarantine areas may be identified as per Sections 7.0 and 8.0 of this protocol. Notices to Dispose and Notices of Quarantine will be issued for these areas as described below.

When delimitation is complete and any additional destruction and quarantine areas have been identified, the site-wide quarantine may be removed, however, disposal, treatment and 90 day quarantine areas as identified in Sections 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0 will remain under quarantine until all required testing is completed with no further detections of P. ramorum.

7.0 Disposal of Infested Material

A single P. ramorum detection triggers the identification of a destruction area. No further sampling in the identified destruction area is required.

Destruction orders shall be provided to the propagation nursery using a Notice to Dispose. All material ordered disposed must be destroyed according to the specifications in Appendix 2 and disposal must be carried out under CFIA supervision.

A destruction area consisting of the block of host plants from which P. ramorum detection originated shall be identified based on the criteria established in Sections 7.1 and 7.2. The extent of the destruction area is dependant on the risk status of the infested plants.

All measurements for destruction and quarantine areas in this protocol will be taken from drip line to drip line. For plants with a drip line that does not extend beyond the edge of the pot, the exterior edge of the pot shall be considered the drip line.

Plant debris associated with the destruction area must be collected by raking in from the outer edge in towards the infested plants from a distance of three metres outside the perimeter of the destruction area. Debris must be double-bagged and disposed of with the infested plants according to the requirements in Appendix 2.

If P. ramorum is detected within a cull pile or if the cull pile is within 2m of an infested block, the cull pile shall be ordered destroyed as detailed in Appendix 2.

A Notice of Quarantine will be issued for any non-host plants that are present in the destruction area. These plants may be either held in place, or moved under CFIA supervision to a safeguarded area with a non-porous surface. These plants will be held under the same conditions as the associated 90 day quarantine area. These plants may be released from quarantine if soil samples are negative.

7.1 Destruction of Infested High Risk Host Plants

When the infested sample was obtained from high risk host plants, the destruction area will include all host plants located in the block from which the infested sample originated.

7.2 Destruction of Infested Low Risk Host Plants

When the infested sample was obtained from a low risk host plant, a destruction area shall be established and include all host plants located within 2m of the infested plant.

8.0 90 Day Quarantine Areas

Per the definition of "block", the boundary of the destruction area is delineated by a 2m boundary within which no host plants are present.

In the next 10m surrounding the 2m boundary, all host plants will be placed under Notice of Quarantine for a minimum of 90 days following the date of both: 1) the completion of the both disposal of host plants, and 2) the completion of soil sampling in the associated destruction area (Appendix 1). The quarantine period may be extended to ensure that there is at least 90 days of environmental conditions conducive to disease expression.

When the daily maximum temperature drops to below 4ºC for a period of 7 consecutive days or more, inspection staff should contact CFIA pathology lab to determine whether sampling and testing can occur.

During the quarantine period:

  • Plants under quarantine will only be moved with authorization of a CFIA Inspector.
  • Host plants within the quarantine area shall be inspected and sampled at least twice during environmental conditions conducive to expression of the disease. Inspection and sampling should occur at about halfway through the quarantine period and once again near the end of quarantine. Final removal of the 90 day quarantine will be issued upon receipt of sample results from the final round of sampling with no further detections of P. ramorum
  • If a 90 day quarantine plant sample tests positive for P. ramorum, the destruction area(s) shall be defined as per Section 7.0 above including establishment of a 90 quarantine area, as applicable. If the nursery has multiple areas under 90 day quarantine, the quarantine period is restarted in any existing quarantine area(s) that overlap the newly established 90 day quarantine area.
  • If a soil sample is found to be positive, any plants (host and/or non-host) in the block with the infested soil which are not already on the existing 90 day Notice of Quarantine will be added to the appropriate Notice of Quarantine, sampled and tested.

9.0 Surveys and Sampling

Instructions for sample handling and submission can be found in Appendices 7 and 8.

9.1 Delimitation Survey

CFIA shall inspect all host plants within the place of production focusing particular attention on high risk hosts plants.

Any plants showing symptoms consistent with diseases caused by P. ramorum, may be sampled and the samples submitted as detailed in Appendix 8.

Sampling of High Risk Blocks

A high-risk block is any block containing any high risk host in addition to any other host plant. A sample from a high-risk block is composed of 7 to10 symptomatic plant parts (leaves or stems), made up of 1 or 2 plant parts per plant.

Each sample must contain only 1 genus (in the case of high-risk genera) or species (in the case of low-risk species), collected from 1 sample block. There may be more than 1 sample per block of a target genus or species, depending on the amount and diversity of symptoms observed.

Sampling of Low Risk Blocks

A low-risk sample block is a block of P. ramorum host taxa that does not include any ofthe high-risk genera. In low-risk host blocks, symptomatic plants are to be sampled individually (up to 5 leaves per plant).

9.2 Soil and Growing Media Sampling

If infested host plants are situated on soil, or on a permeable surface covering soil, or soil areas are downhill from infested plants, following completion of destruction activities, inspectors will sample these soil areas to determine if the infestation has contaminated these soils.

Inspectors shall also determine the content, origin (composition), storage and handling of soil or growing media used in the facility. If infestation arising from contaminated growing media is suspected (e.g. composted material and/or bark is added to the potting mix, or cross contamination of media from other sources of infestation), inspectors may also sample growing media in the pots of host plants in the 90 day zone. Appendix 7 outlines soil sampling methods.

9.3 Water Sampling

The source of water used at the facility to irrigate plants will be determined. Water sampling is not required for:

  • Water from municipal sources,
  • Water from deep wells, or
  • Treated surface water (as per Appendix 2)

Drainage of water flows, type of irrigation system(s), chemical(s) added to the irrigation water, areas of standing water and any safeguards against water back-flow shall also be identified. If irrigation water is untreated, re-circulated, and/or it is obtained from surface water at risk of contamination by P. ramorum, the irrigation water will be sampled according to the procedures outlined in Appendix 7.

9.4 Perimeter Survey

A perimeter survey will be conducted of all high risk host plants located within 10 metres of the nursery. The purpose of the perimeter survey is to ensure that P. ramorum has not spread from the infested nursery, and to determine if the source of infestation in the infested nursery may have originated from the surrounding environment. This survey will be conducted during a period conducive to the occurrence of symptoms associated with P. ramorum and during the period when the nursery has been placed under quarantine as specified in Section 6.0.

10.0 Trace Out Activities

The nursery will provide information which identifies all shipments of host plants distributed within the 12 months prior to the first detection of P. ramorum. Trace-forward activities will focus on plant movement to places of production and places of plant distribution. Tracing shipments to landscape and retail locations may also be performed.

The facility will provide information which permits the CFIA Inspectors to trace back to the suppliers of plants implicated in the infested blocks.

Trace back and trace forward information which extends beyond the local area will be communicated to the applicable CFIA specialist.

11.0 Treatment of Infested Soil and Water

Where water or soil at the facility has been found to be positive for P. ramorum, treatment is required in accordance with the specifications in Appendix 2.

Water sources that are found to be infested with P. ramorum may not be used for irrigation. If the infested water has previously been used for irrigation purposes, all plants and growing media in the irrigated area shall be placed under quarantine until testing is completed and P. ramorum is not detected.

The soil treatment block will include the sample block from which the positive sample was collected as well as a 2m buffer surrounding this positive sample block.

12.0 Release of the Nursery from Quarantine

There are two options for release from regulatory control:

12.1 Optional Release Prior to the Completion of 90 day Quarantine

The plants under quarantine may be released prior to the completion of the 90 day quarantine when the following conditions have been met:

  1. All delimitation, water, soil and perimeter surveys are complete and results are received, and
  2. All ordered disposal and treatment activities are completed;
  3. The nursery may elect to dispose of all host plants remaining under Notice of Quarantine in a manner approved by CFIA.

Once disposal of host plants under 90 day quarantine is complete CFIA may release the plants from quarantine.

or

12.2 Release upon Completion of 90 day Quarantine

The plants under quarantine may be released upon completion of the 90 day quarantine when the following conditions have been met:

  1. All delimitation, water, soil and perimeter surveys are completed and results are received, and
  2. All disposal and treatment actions are completed, and
  3. The quarantine periods are completed in accordance with Section 9.0 with no further detection of P. ramorum.

13.0 Post Eradication Monitoring

Nurseries that have been infested with P. ramorum will continue to be monitored for two years following release from quarantine. Sampling will take place during a season in which there are optimal conditions for the growth and development of P. ramorum symptoms. These nurseries are not subject to quarantine or regulatory action, unless P. ramorum is subsequently detected.

Appendix 1 - Schematic of Destruction and Quarantine Areas

This diagram shows how the destruction block and associated quarantine areas are delimitated at a propagation nursery.

Figure 1: Schematic of Destruction and Quarantine Areas
Figure 1. Description follows.
Description for Figure 1

This diagram shows how the destruction block and associated quarantine areas are delimitated at a propagation nursery. The diagram shows typical nursery blocks of hosts and non-hosts for P. ramorum. In the centre of the diagram, a block of positive host plants, Azalea japonica, is highlighted. The diagram also shows how the destruction block is delineated by a 2 metre boundary within which no host plants are present. In the next 10 metres surrounding the 2 metre boundary, a second boundary is drawn and indicates the area under which host plants are place under a 90-day quarantine period.

Appendix 2 - Disposal, Disinfection and Treatment

The following may be ordered by CFIA in the event of detection of P. ramorum in plants, soil, media or water. All actions must be carried out under CFIA supervision and in a CFIA-approved manner. Alternative methods may be proposed to CFIA and may be utilized if approved by the CFIA in writing.

Disposal

Inspectors will communicate specific procedures for disposal of infected plants and associated material to affected parties.

Note: Host material, including leaf litter, must not be placed in compost piles or be removed from the facility as trash or in debris removal. Infested plants, associated growing media, associated containers, and all leaf debris within 3 metres of the destruction block must be double-bagged using heavy-duty plastic bags or sealed in a tarp-lined bin. The tarp should be sealed as tightly as possible and a second tarp should be placed over top of the bin to prevent escape of material during transport. The tarps must be disposed of. Host material will then be incinerated or deep buried in a site approved by CFIA as per below.

  • Disposal Option 1 - Incineration (burning to ash): Infested plants, associated growing media, associated containers (i.e. pots and trays), and all leaf debris inside the destruction block and within 3m of the destruction block must be double-bagged using plastic bags of 2 mil thickness or greater or double-tarped as per above. The material may be disposed of by incineration off-site at a CFIA-approved facility or on-site if permitted within provincial and municipal statutes or regulations and acceptable to CFIA. Off-nursery movement must be properly safeguarded and supervised by CFIA. Every effort to prevent plant debris or soil from being dislodged from the plants prior to incineration will be taken. Burning may be through open burning or in an incinerator.
  • Disposal Option 2 - Deep burial: Infested plants, associated growing media, associated containers (i.e. pots and trays), all leaf debris in and around the area where plants were stored must be double-bagged using plastic bags of 2 mil thickness or greater and buried to a depth of no less than two metres. The material must be buried at a CFIA approved site. Plant debris and soil must be adequately contained from source to final disposition.

Disinfection

Non-Porous Surfaces

After disposal is complete, both equipment used during disposal, including vehicles used to transport destruction material, and any non-porous surfaces (i.e. pavement, concrete, greenhouse walls, etc.) that infested plants were sitting on or nearby, will be disinfected. Most disinfectants are not labelled for use in soil or organic materials and are only useful for nonporous materials such as concrete floors, nursery pots, and plastic sheeting. A number of disinfectants are registered for use on nonporous surfaces that may effectively reduce populations of Phytophthora species. Tools that can be properly sanitized, such as knives, pruners, water breakers, water wands and other implements used during the disposal of infested plants will be sanitized. If disinfection of tools is not possible, they shall be disposed of by the same methods as infested plants. If tools and other implements must be moved from quarantined areas, then regular disinfection, using an appropriate disinfectant for the control of P. ramorum, is required prior to removal. Any porous surfaces (soil-like) will require sampling as described in Appendix 7 and if found positive will require treatment as described below.

Treatments

Biosecurity must be observed during treatment of infested water and/or porous substrate (e.g. soil, bark mulch, etc.). Treatment actions shall be ordered on a Notice of Requirement to Treat or Process as per Appendix 5. CFIA will work with regulated parties to ensure an acceptable treatment method is selected. Approved treatment options are listed below; alternative treatments (e.g. chemical treatment or paving of infested soil) may be proposed and used if approved by CFIA.

Water

Water will be treated with a method approved by the CFIA, e.g. enough chlorine that will result in 2mg/litre of active chlorine or greater in samples taken at the emitters/sprinklers. The treatment must be approved by the CFIA, and must be properly monitored and documented. If the treated water will be used for irrigation, two rounds of post-treatment sampling as per Appendix 7 must be conducted and both found negative for the nursery to be eligible for release from quarantine. If the treated water will not be used for irrigation, no post-treatment sampling is necessary.

Soil and Growing media

  • Growing media: Growing media must be heated such that the temperature in the centre of the load reaches at least 82 degrees C for 30 minutes. Treatment must be conducted in the presence of an inspector. Two rounds of post-treatment sampling as per Appendix 7 must be conducted and both found negative for the treatment to be considered to be considered eligible for release from quarantine.
  • Soil: Soil must be heated such that the temperature in the centre of the load or throughout the soil, to a depth of at least 10cm, reaches at least 82°C for 30 minutes. Treatment must be conducted in the presence of an inspector. Two rounds of post-treatment sampling as per Appendix 6 must be conducted and both found negative for the treatment to be considered to be considered eligible for release from quarantine.

Appendix 3 – Mandatory Biosecurity Measures for Nurseries Under Regulatory Control

The following conditions will be included in the Notice of Quarantine:

  1. Marking of restricted areas

    Destruction and quarantine areas will be clearly delineated. Examples of acceptable methods of delineation include the use of physical barriers such as barricade tape, temporary fences, hanging tarps, and the use of additional signage identifying an area as restricted.

  2. Control of access to restricted areas

    Access to quarantine and infested areas will be limited to officials and authorized employees.

  3. Disinfection of personnel and equipment upon leaving restricted areas

    Anyone exiting the restricted areas will disinfect their footwear before leaving; alternatively, disposable boot covers may be worn while working in restricted areas.

    Tools such as knives, pruners, water breakers, water wands and other implements used in a quarantined area should only be used in that area. Otherwise, all tools and equipment must be cleaned and disinfected before leaving the restricted area.

  4. All nursery personnel must be aware of and follow the above conditions

Appendix 4 - Recommended biosecurity measures for nurseries under regulatory control

The following measures are recommended for CFIA employees conducting P. ramorum eradication activities. CFIA staff should also be aware of any official biosecurity requirements implemented by the nursery. These measures may also be used as the basis of a biosecurity program for nurseries undergoing P. ramorum eradication.

Sanitation Practices

Appropriate biosecurity measures must be taken to ensure that P. ramorum is not transferred from the destruction and treatment area(s) to non-infested areas of the nursery. Work should be scheduled to enable employees to progress from low risk areas to the higher risk areas over the course of the work day. Inspectors and nursery employees should disinfect their footwear or use disposal boot covers in between different areas of the nursery (i.e. different host blocks, different destruction blocks, etc.). If possible, inspectors and employees should not work in the destruction area and in the rest of the facility for delimitation surveys on the same day.

Vehicles

If possible, vehicles should be parked on paved, concrete or gravel areas away from the immediate inspection area. The tires (or other parts in contact with the soil) of vehicles must be cleaned of soil before leaving the infested facility. A portion of the vehicle must be designated as a "clean area" and another area such as the trunk or a specified enclosed area should be designated as a "dirty area" to hold double-bagged clothes, equipment or material for disposal.

Clothing

Coveralls (cloth or disposable) should be worn for inspection activities at an infested nursery and by nursery employees working in destruction and/or quarantine areas. At the completion of the inspection or prior to working in other areas of the nursery, coveralls must be double-bagged for disposal/cleaning and stowed in a designated "dirty area" of the vehicle.

Footwear

Footwear should be cleaned/ disinfested on arrival to mitigate any quarantine pest risks and to provide confidence to the facility operator that CFIA is taking appropriate biosecurity measures. A disinfectant foot bath should be placed and used by personnel entering and exiting any quarantined area at the infested facility, where the movement of soil or plant debris on footwear is likely. The foot bath must be filled with fresh disinfectant on a daily basis. Disposable shoe covers may be used in lieu of a footbath. Upon completion of the inspection, footwear must be cleaned of soil and disinfested, and disposable boot covers must be double-bagged prior to placing into the designated "dirty area" of the vehicle.

Hands

Those working with, or in contact with suspected infested material (including plants), must wash hands using soap or disinfectant immediately after completion of task. In addition, hands should be thoroughly washed with soap and water (rubbing hands together with soapy water for a minimum of 20 seconds) before entering and after leaving the inspection site. If a hand wash station is not available, antiseptic rubs/gels/rinses must be used (with a minimum of 70% ethyl alcohol). Disposable gloves may be used, and must be double-bagged for disposal.

Equipment

Where practical, equipment should be disinfested as frequently as possible at each work site. If equipment and/or vehicles must leave work site for disinfection, permission must be received from CFIA, disinfection must occur under CFIA supervision.

Appendix 5 - General Recommendations on the Use of Regulatory Forms

Table 1: General Recommendations on the Use of Regulatory Forms
Table description

The following table outlines the general recommendations on the uses of regulatory forms in relation to different situations involving the detection of P. ramorum. The recommended regulatory forms and wording contained in the table below are meant as general recommendations only, and should not be interpreted as strict guidelines necessarily applicable in all situations. The circumstances presented in each situation should guide the most appropriate course of action in the achievement of effective eradication.

Process/Steps Instructions/Requirements Recommended Forms
(including information on wording in relation to certain templates)
1. Upon detection of P. ramorum at a propagation nursery
  1. Quarantine and hold (i) all host plants (site-wide quarantine), and (ii) all non-host plants within the block(s) of plants in which the infested plant(s) are found (separate notice), until completion of delimitation/sampling and destruction/treatment.
  2. Permit nursery to carry out nursery operations to maintain health of plants, in accordance with standards established in the protocol or on CFIA notices and with management practices (Appendix 3).
  3. As applicable, secure cull pile(s) and potentially infested soil(s) or water used for irrigation, until all testing complete.

1. Notice of Quarantine, CFIA/ACIA 0106 (2003/04):

Ending On (date): Until a notice of release is issued

Description of thing(s): All host plants, host plant parts and associated soil and growing media at the positive nursery. Host plants are those regulated plants identified in Appendix 1 of the CFIA Policy Directive D-01-01 (attach to Notice). As applicable, add as things cull pile(s), soil(s) and/or water used for irrigation.

Conditions of quarantine: Activities may be carried out for the purpose of maintaining the health of plants, provided such activities are not in contravention of the standards and biosecurity measures contained in Appendix 3.

2. Upon detection of P. ramorum in a leaf sample
  1. Identification of destruction area(s), in accordance with protocol (7.0, 7.1, 7.2).
  2. Order the destruction of the plants within the area(s) identified, to be completed in accordance with specifications in Appendix 2.
  3. Require collection, double bagging and disposal of plant debris in accordance with the protocol including Appendix 2.

2. Notice to Dispose, CFIA/ACIA 0107 (2004/07):

Manner of disposition: Refer to disposal methods contained in Appendix 2. Identify that the things are to be disposed of in a manner that prevents the entry, introduction or spread of pests into Canada by incineration or deep burial to a depth of no less than 2 metres in an area where the substrate will not be disturbed following burial. The non-compliant materials must be immediately covered. In addition, mention should be made that plant debris in the destruction area must be collected by raking in from the outer edge in towards the infested plants from a distance of three metres outside the perimeter of the destruction area. Debris must be double-bagged and disposed of with the infested plants according to the requirements.

Place of disposition: Refer to disposal methods contained in Appendix 2. The description shall be in accordance with the disposal method used. For example, if disposal by deep burial, the location of the sanitary land fill shall be noted. In this case, a Movement Certificate would also be necessary, which is usually used in conjunction with a Notice to Dispose.

Description of thing(s): Describe the plants within the applicable destruction area based on whether the infested plants are high or low risk host plants and on corresponding criteria (7.1 and 7.2). Attach detailed plant lilsts and/or maps showing the location of plants to be disposed of.

Movement Certificate, CFIA/ACIA 0108 (2002/09):

Description of the thing(s): Precisely describe the thing(s) to be moved. CFIA must be able to verify that the material being shipped is identifiable at destination.

Conditions of movement: Refer to safeguards illustrated in Appendix 2 and as applicable. Recommended conditions of movement include: must move directly from nursery to disposal facility; must remain sealed during transport, bin must be disinfected after load is dumped and CFIA must supervise transport and disposal.

3. Upon extent of the infestation being known, and detection of P. ramorum from water, soil, growing media or cull pile sampling.
  1. Order treatment and/or disposal in accordance one or more of the techniques and specifications in Appendix 2.
  2. If infested water was used for irrigation, quarantine the plants and associated material found in the irrigation area and not already found on an existing Notice of Quarantine.

3a. Notice of Requirement to Treat or Process, CFIA/ACIA 0112 (2008/02), as applicable:

Description of the place or thing(s): Describe thing(s) in question and place (i.e. attach maps) where the positive P. ramorum sample was found in accordance to the particular circumstance.

Treatment or process: Refer to treatments contained in Appendix 2 in accordance to the particular circumstance.

Manner of treatment or process: Refer to treatment methods contained in Appendix 2 in accordance to the particular circumstance.
- AND/OR -

Notice to Dispose, CFIA/ACIA 0107 (2004/07), as applicable:

Manner of disposition: Refer to disposal methods contained in Appendix 2. Identify that the things are to be disposed of in a manner that prevents the entry, introduction or spread of pests into Canada by incineration or deep burial to a depth of no less than 2 metres in an area where the soil will not be disturbed following burial. The non-compliant materials must be immediately covered.

Place of disposition: Refer to disposal methods contained in Appendix 2. The description shall be in accordance with the disposal method used. For example, if disposal by deep burial, the location of the sanitary land fill shall be noted. In this case, a Movement Certificate would also be necessary, which is usually used in conjunction with a Notice to Dispose.

Description of thing(s): Describe thing(s) in question; attach detailed plant lists and or maps showing the location of plants to be disposed of.

Movement Certificate, CFIA/ACIA 0108 (2002/09):

Description of the thing(s): Precisely describe the thing(s) to be moved. CFIA must be able to verify that the material being shipped is identifiable at destination.

Conditions of movement: Refer to safeguards illustrated in Appendix 2. Recommended conditions of movement include but are not limited to: must move directly from nursery to disposal facility; must remain sealed during transport; bin must be disinfected after load is dumped and CFIA must supervise transport and disposal.

3b. Notice of Quarantine, CFIA/ACIA 0106 (2003/04):

Ending On (date): Until a notice of release is issued

Description of thing(s): Describe plants and associated material found in the irrigation area.

Conditions of quarantine: Activities may be carried out for the sole purpose of maintaining the health of plants, provided such activities are not in contravention of the standards and biosecurity measures contained Appendix 3

4. Upon receipt of all delimitation results (leaf, soil and water) and completion of the destruction and/or treatments in accordance with order(s)
  1. Remove "site-wide quarantine"
  2. Quarantine 10 m around identified destruction areas, holding all host plants within this area for a minimum of 90 days following the date of the plant disposal ("90 day quarantine").
  3. If a plant sample tests positive during "90 day quarantine", redefine destruction area(s) and area(s) under quarantine and re-establish quarantine period (as per point 2 above and protocol Section 9.0).
  4. As applicable, if a soil or growing media sample is found to be positive, quarantine any plants in the block until sampled and tested.

4a. Notice of Release from Quarantine, CFIA/ACIA 0109 (2004/01):

Description of thing(s): Include all things indicated on the corresponding Notice of Quarantine.

4b/c. Notice of Quarantine, CFIA/ACIA 0106 (2003/04):

Ending On (date): 'indefinite' (Until a notice of release is issued)

Description of thing(s): All host plants, host plant parts and associated soil and growing media within an area starting from the infested plant(s) up to 10 metres around the identified destruction area(s). Host plants are those regulated plants identified in Appendix 1 of the CFIA Policy Directive D-01-01.

Conditions of quarantine: Activities may be carried out for the sole purpose of maintaining the health of plants, provided such activities are not in contravention of the standards and biosecurity measures contained in Appendix 3.

4d. Notice of Quarantine, CFIA/ACIA 0106 (2003/04), as applicable:

Ending On (date): Until a notice of release is issued.

Description of thing(s): All plants, plant parts and associated soil and growing media within the area in which the infested soil or growing media is found.

Conditions of quarantine: Activities may be carried out for the sole purpose of maintaining the health of plants, provided such activities are not in contravention of the standards and biosecurity measures contained in Appendix 3.

5. Upon completion of "90 quarantine" period
  1. Remove "90 day quarantine", if conditions are satisfied (10.2) Table note 1

5a. Notice of Release from Quarantine, CFIA/ACIA 0109 (2004/01):

Description of thing(s): Include all things indicated on the corresponding Notice of Quarantine.

Table Notes

Table Note 1

Under certain circumstances (10.1), removal from quarantine may occur prior to the end of the 90 day quarantine period.

Return to table note 1 referrer

The table above outlines the general recommendations on the uses of regulatory forms in relation to different situations involving the detection of P. ramorum. It has three columns and five main rows. The columns are: "Process/Steps", "Instructions/Requirements", and "Recommended Forms (including information on wording in relation to certain templates)". Within the "Process/Steps" column it discusses the steps involved in the detection and eradication of P. ramorum – these steps are: "1. Upon detection of P. ramorum at a propagation nursery", "2. Upon detection of P. ramorum in a leaf sample", "3. Upon extent of the infestation being known, and detection of P. ramorum from water, soil, growing media or cull pile sampling", "4. Upon receipt of all delimitation results (leaf, soil and water) and completion of the destruction and/or treatments in accordance with order(s)", and "5. Upon completion of "90 quarantine" period". The "Instructions/Requirements" section provides the instructions for each process/step in an alphabetized list, and the "Recommended Forms" provides a numerical list outlining the potential forms that can be used in the specific process/step.

Appendix 6 – Inspector's Checklist and Record

The following form is intended for use by an inspector. It requires information about the overall business as well as sections for the inspector to answer questions relating to: site information, chemical use, the condition of plants, and the trace back activities that were performed.

Name of Business:


Manager Name:


Owner Name:


Site Address:


Mailing Address:


Contact Phone Number:


Contact Fax Number:


Type of Facility:

Retail Nursery checkbox

Propagation Nursery checkbox

Retail Greenhouse checkbox

Propagation Greenhouse checkbox

Other:


GPS Coordinates:


Size of Site:


Table 2: Inspector's Checklist and Record
Table description

The following form is intended for use by an inspector. It requires information about the overall business as well as sections for the inspector to answer questions relating to: site information, chemical use, the condition of plants, and the trace back activities that were performed.

Site Information Comment/Description
What is the water source?
Is the water re-used/re-circulated? If yes, explain system.
Is there treatment of the water (detail treatment if applicable)?
Are there established biosecurity measures in place to deal with equipment use and personnel? Explain
Is soil/media sourced off site? If yes, what is the source?
Is composted material or bark added to the soil mix? If, yes, what is the source of this material?
List the locations of cull piles and debris piles on the site:

Attach a sketched map of the facility (include shipping areas)

Chemical Use Comment/Description
Are fungicides used on the facility?
When were plants that have tested positive last treated with fungicides?
What product was used, when and at what application rate?
Condition of plants Comment/Description
Have the suspect plants been trimmed or pruned?
How are the trimmings disposed of?
Did the plant material come in pots?
Were pots disposed of or re-used?
If re-used, how were they handled?
Has the producer noticed any problems with plants on the property? If yes describe.
Has the producer moved any plants to a different location?
What types/varieties were moved?
How long ago?
What is the location of the moved plants?
Trace Back Activities Comment/Description
What is the origin (to the point of propagation) of the infested material?
Plants were propagated
Plant types
Plant numbers

Obtain invoices, packing slips and other relevant documentation for the past 12 months.

Appendix 7 - Soil and Water Sampling

1.0 Soil and Growing Media Sampling

Infested soil or growing media will look exactly the same as un-infested soil or growing media. Therefore all soil and media must be handled carefully. Remember that growing media sampling is only necessary if there is reason to suspect the media is the source of infestation (i.e. the nursery adds host plant material to the potting mix). All tools used to collect soil or media samples must be disinfested with 10% bleach solution, quaternary ammonium solution or flame-sterilized with a propane torch between each sample and between blocks. All soil and organic material shall be removed from the tools prior to disinfection. Care shall also be taken not to transfer soil or growing media from one block to the next on shoes or clothing. All sampling equipment shall be cleaned and disinfested prior to entering a new nursery block. Care must be taken to ensure that un-infested soil or growing media is not contaminated by infested soil or growing media. If the areas of soil /media infestation are known or suspected sample these areas last. In other words, begin soil and potting medium sampling at outer edges of sampling block and work toward the higher-risk area(s).

1.1 Preparing for sampling

During delimitation sampling take soil samples throughout the destruction block and any nearby areas at risk of infection (i.e. down hill from destruction block). During post-treatment sampling, take samples from the entire treatment block (positive block plus 2m buffer). Soil and growing media samples shall be collected as composite samples. Composite samples of growing media shall be kept separate from soil samples. A composite sample consists of a mixture of sub-samples. Sub-samples (see Figure 1) are small amounts of soil (or media) removed from the ground (or pot) and added together to form a composite sample. The use of sub-sampling increases the chances of finding P. ramorum if it is present. Samples shall contain a maximum of 500-ml (volume) of soil and/or growing media (1/2 of a quart-size Ziploc bag). The number of composite samples collected will depend upon the size of the nursery block being sampled (see Table 1). There shall be at least one sample, one for growing media and/or one for soil, unless the plants are not on soil (e.g. on concrete or asphalt). If the surface of soil is covered with gravel take sub-samples from the soil beneath the gravel. If water permeable weed block is present, either covered with gravel or under gravel, the weed block shall be removed prior to soil sampling.

Table 3: Number of Samples Collected Based on Nursery Block Size
Table description

The following table demonstrates the number of samples collected based on the nursery block size during an inspection. It discusses sample measurements based on the size of the block (measured in hectares), per square metre, and the number of soil and growing media samples collected.

Size of Block (hectares) Sq Metre No. of Soil (and Growing Media) Samples Collected
0.00<n≤0.1 0 < N ≤ 1012 5 (10)
0.1<n<0.2 1012<n<2023 10 (20)
0.2<n<0.4 2023<n<4046 20 (40)
n>0.4 n>4046 30 (60)

Each composite sample will consist of at least five sub-samples collected from soil or growing media within the targeted area. While five is a minimum, it is preferable to take 24 sub-samples of soil or growing media for each sample, provided the area is large enough (for soil samples) and enough plants are present (for growing media samples). Sub-samples shall be collected according the pattern in the diagram below (Figure 1). Alternatively, if fallen leaves or other debris from the infested plants are present; sub-sampling may be targeted towards those areas. Care should be taken not to include leaves and debris in the soil samples collected in these high-risk areas. The location of each composite sample shall be maintained (preferably by GPS but at least by flagging and/or mapping) in case follow-up treatment of the soil or growing media for P. ramorum is required. Composite samples may also be collected from neighbouring blocks of un-infested plants (90 day quarantine zone) using the same steps. If you are collecting from the 90 day quarantine zone, collect the composite soil/growing media samples from these blocks first to minimize the risk of contaminating un-infested soil/growing media.

Figure 2: Recommended Pattern for Collection of Sub-Samples for Composite Soil and/or Growing Media Samples.
Figure 2. Description follows.
Description for Figure 2

This image demonstrates the recommended pattern for collection of sub-samples for composite soil and/or growing media samples. It demonstrates this through the use of three vertical zigzag lines, each having eight dots, one on each point.

2.0 Water Samples

Water Sampling for Filtration

  • Water samples shall be collected in a sterile wide-mouth bottle and kept at 5 to 10 C.
  • Water samples shall be taken from the surface to increase the likelihood of obtaining zoospores of Phytophthora.
  • Sample size shall be approximately 1000ml. Number of samples is determined by the size of the nursery pond to be sampled (Table 2).
  • Sample shall be processed within 48 hours of collection. Samples shall be submitted according to the protocols established in Appendix 6.
Table 4: Number of Composite Samples Collected Based on Pond Size
Table description

The following table demonstrates the number of samples collected based on the pond size during an inspection. It discusses sample measurements based on the size of the pond (measured in acres), per square metre, and the number of water samples collected (measured in litres).

Size of pond (acres) Sq Metre No. of water samples collected (litres)
0.00<n≤0.25 0<n≤1012 1
0.25<n≤0.50 1012<n≤2023 2
0.50<n≤1.0 2023<n≤4047 4
1.0<n≤2.50 4047<n≤10,117 8
n>2.50 n>10,117 12

Appendix 8 - Sample Handling and Laboratory Submission

Samples collected shall be submitted to:

Attn: Plant Pathology
Ontario Plant Laboratories (Fallowfield)
Floor 2
3851 Fallowfield road
PO Box 11300
Ottawa, ON
K2H 8P9

Critical Instructions for Sample Submission:

  • At the end of each sampling day, samples must be stored in a cold room or refrigerator at 4°C - 2°C prior to shipping.
  • Complete a Laboratory Sample Tracking System (LSTS) submission form.
  • Submitters shall give an estimate to the appropriate lab of how many samples will be sent and when in advance of shipment.
  • Each sample must be separately bagged (in the case of water sample bottles, place these inside a bag).
  • On each sample bag record, in permanent marker: the nursery name, the sampling location (unique identifier such as block/area name), plant genus, species and variety (where possible), pot size, sampler initials, sampling date, LSTS system ID #.
  • Place all of the individual sample bags into a large plastic bag for shipping.
  • Ship all samples by express, overnight courier in Styrofoam coolers containing ice packs. Samples shall not directly contact the ice packs.
  • Separate sample bags with layers of newspaper or other insulation.
  • Be sure to include a copy of all LSTS submission reports inside the box. Indicate P. ramorum on the outside of the sample box.
  • Include samples from only one type of SOD activity in a submission to the appropriate lab. For example, SOD National Survey samples would be submitted under a separate submission form from those sent for a delimitation survey, or trace forward activity.

Use the following survey codes in the LSTS submission:

  • SOD-NAT - national survey
  • SOD-REF - referral (such as B.C. Landscape Nursery Association (BCLNA) referrals)
  • SOD-PE1 - first year post eradication
  • SOD-PE2 - second year post eradication
  • SOD-DEL - delimitation survey
  • SOD-INV - investigation
  • SOD-TF - trace forward
  • SOD-TB - trace back
  • SOD-ZO1 - 1st sampling (day 1) of 90 day zone
  • SOD-ZO2 - 2nd sampling (day 45) of 90 day zone
  • SOD-ZO3 - 3rd sampling (day 80) of 90 day zone
  • SOD-BUF - buffer zone around a positive nursery
  • SOD-OTH - Other

Submitters shall send follow-up email to the appropriate lab(s) after samples entered into LSTS are submitted to the lab and give submission numbers and corresponding sample numbers and expected arrival date.

Appendix 9 - Summary of Eradication Activities

Table 5: Eradication Activities
Table description

The following table is a consolidation of eradication activities in the case of a detection of P. ramorum at a propagation nursery, for the convenience of CFIA staff. In the case of any discrepancies, refer to the details in the body of the document.

Eradication Activities Detection of P. ramorum at a Propagation Nursery
Trigger Positive host plant.
Quarantine Action Resulting From Trigger

All host plants at the facility, blocks with infested plants, and non-hosts in the infested blocks are held pending sampling and testing. This site-wide quarantine may be removed once areas of infestation have been delimited and destruction actions have been completed.

A quarantine area of 10m. surrounding the destruction area is held until released (see below).

Eradication Action Resulting from Trigger

Where an infested high risk host plant is identified, all host plants in a block of plants are destroyed until a 2m boundary of no host plants is present, or

Where a low risk host plant is identified as infested, all hosts within 2m of the infested plant are destroyed.

Surveillance Action Resulting From Trigger

All symptomatic plants, particularly high risk hosts are sampled.

Soil/water also sampled and tested.

In 10m perimeter outside the nursery, high risk hosts are sampled and tested.

Trace-out Activities

All shipments of related host plants are identified and tracked.

Origin of infested plants is tracked

Subsequent Surveillance Required for Release From Quarantine

Option 1: Completion of destruction of hosts in eradication block and surrounding quarantine or

Option 2: Completion of destruction of hosts in destruction area and testing of plants after 90 days quarantine.

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