Food Safety Enhancement Program Manual
Glossary of Terms

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Acceptable level of a food safety hazard - The level at which the finished product will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or consumed according to its intended use.

Codex Alimentarius Commission - A subsidiary body of the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization of the United Nations.

Control measures - Any action and activity that can be used to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.

Critical Control Point (CCP) - A point or a step at which a control measure can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level.

Critical limit - A criterion that separates acceptability from unacceptability.

Deviation - A failure to meet required critical limits for a critical control point, or a failure to meet a standard identified in a prerequisite program or a process control.

Deviation procedure - A documented set of corrective actions that are implemented when a deviation occurs.

Establishment - A CFIA-registered company, plant or manufacturer that processes agri-food products (meat and poultry, dairy, processed fruits and vegetables, shell eggs, processed eggs, honey, and maple). Hatcheries are considered establishments.

Finished product - Product that will undergo no further processing or transformation by the establishment.
Note: A product that undergoes further processing or transformation by another establishment is a finished product, in the context of the first establishment and a raw material or an ingredient in the context of the second establishment.

Food additive  - (Excerpt from Food and Drug Regulations, B.01.001) Any substance the use of which results, or may reasonably be expected to result, in it or its by-products becoming a part of or affecting the characteristics of a food, but does not include:
(a) any nutritive material that is used, recognized or commonly sold as an article or ingredient of food;
(b) vitamins, mineral nutrients and amino acids, other than those listed in the tables to Division 16,
(c) spices, seasonings, flavouring preparations, essential oils, oleoresins and natural extractives;
(d) agricultural chemicals, other than those listed in the tables to Division 16,
(e) food packaging materials and components thereof; and
(f) drugs recommended for administration to animals that may be consumed as food.

Food processing aid  - A food processing aid is a substance that is used for a technical effect in food processing or manufacture, the use of which does not affect the intrinsic characteristics of the food and results in no or negligible residues of the substance or its by-products in or on the finished food.

Food Safety Enhancement Program (FSEP) - A CFIA program that specifies the minimum requirements for an effective food safety management system based on HACCP principles and encourages its development, implementation and maintenance in all federally registered establishments, excluding federally registered fish establishments.

Food safety - is a concept that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use.

Food safety recall - A food recall is an action by a manufacturer, to remove unsafe food products from the market to help protect the public.

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) - A systematic approach to identifying and assessing hazards and risks associated with a food operation and defining the means of their control.

HACCP plan - A written document designed in order to control hazards associated with specific processes and/or products within an establishment.

HACCP system - A system that includes prerequisite programs, one or more HACCP plan(s), validation documentation of control measures that have an immediate impact on food safety as well as maintenance and reassessment procedures as defined by the Food Safety Enhancement Program (FSEP).

Hazard - An entity, a condition or a circumstance that has the potential to cause harm. Hazards can be biological, chemical or physical.

Incompatible operations - In respect of activities taking place in a food establishment - activities that cannot take place at the same time in the same area because it creates a potential risk of food products being contaminated.

Monitoring - The act, by company personnel of conducting a planned sequence of observations, tests or measurements to assess whether a CCP, a process control and/or a prerequisite program is under control. This includes recording the results of those observations.

Nutrients - Vitamins, minerals and amino acids listed in Part D of the Food and Drug Regulations.

Operational Prerequisite Program  - Food Safety related procedures essential in order to control the likelihood of introducing food safety hazards to and/or the contamination or proliferation of food safety hazards in the product(s) or in the processing environment.

Prerequisite Program (PP) - [Food safety] basic conditions and activities that are necessary to maintain a hygienic environment and good manufacturing practices throughout the establishment.

Preventative measure - A corrective action resulting from an investigation to determine the root cause of a deviation. A preventative measure includes subsequent steps required to prevent reoccurrence of the deviation.

Process Control (PC) - Where more than one step in an overall process may contribute to the reduction of a particular hazard, process controls are developed for the early steps of the process where the hazard cannot be fully controlled, but a subsequent step will result in the elimination or reduction of this particular hazard to an acceptable level. This final step would be determined to be a CCP.

Regulatory requirements - All pertinent acts, regulations and directives.

Responsible inspector - A CFIA-designated inspector who is responsible for inspecting a federally registered establishment.

Risk - An estimate of the likely occurrence of a hazard and the severity of possible adverse health effect.

Senior management - Management at the establishment with authority to ensure adherence to responsibilities outlined in section 2.2.1 of the FSEP Manual.

Standard - Criteria or specifications that can be judged or evaluated and that define the limit of acceptability associated with prerequisite programs and process controls.

Task - Operational activities that are carried out by designated employees to prevent a food safety hazard. For example, the equipment maintenance program describes the tasks to be performed by the maintenance staff at a pre-determined frequency.

Validation - Obtaining evidence that a control measure, if properly implemented, is capable of controlling the hazard to a specified outcome.

Verification - A company's use of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring, to determine its conformance to and the effectiveness of its HACCP system.

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