Annex F: Disposition for Red Meat Species

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1 Introduction

The following section describes diseases and conditions requiring specific disposition, whether diagnosed by means of organoleptic observation (visual, tactile, olfactory) or by means of laboratory confirmation. It also provides the disposition for diseases that may be seen at slaughter that are subject to mandatory declaration.

Note:
The diseases that are subjected to mandatory declaration are set out in the schedule of the Reportable Diseases Regulations for the purpose of section 2 of the Health of Animals Act, please refer to these regulations for a full list of diseases that are subject to mandatory declaration.

2 Guiding Principles for Disposition and Detailed Disposition for Deviations from Normal Appearance

Before describing detailed disposition for deviations from normal appearance, it is important to speak of general theory and basic principles utilized in conducting meat hygiene disposition.

When assessing the disposition of a carcass or a part, the first step is to identify the pathological process and/or the nature of the condition. This helps in having a good understanding of the potential impacts that a condition could have on safety and suitability of a carcass or parts. In most circumstances, simply identifying a condition is not sufficient grounds to warrant its condemnation.

The next step is determining the distribution (i.e. localized VS systemic) and severity of the deviation. These are key elements in determining whether a meat product is edible or not. The final outcome of the decision process may consist of removing and identifying as inedible:

  • the circumscribed lesion;
  • the lesion and the associated anatomical part (e.g. removal of the rib cage because of adhesions and pneumonia); or
  • the entire carcass and its parts.

It is important to remember to evaluate the effects of the condition on the entire carcass before determining that a whole carcass is inedible. If the carcass is in good body condition and the lesions are localized, whole carcass condemnation is not normally justified. Localized conditions can often be removed by excising the lesion itself or the removal of an affected area, leaving the remainder of the carcass or part to be considered edible. Whole carcass condemnation is rarely warranted in animals that pass ante-mortem inspection. In order to justify such action on a carcass based on a post-mortem evaluation or inspection, the carcass will have to meet specific criteria as detailed in this document.

An evaluator will consider the following in order to determine the distribution and severity of a deviation:

  • The lymph node(s) associated with an area of the body affected by a deviation will be evaluated. Presence of any reactive lymph node indicates an active lesion in the area drained by that lymph node.
  • Chronic deviations tend to be more circumscribed and therefore more readily excisable, whereas active deviations require more investigation to evaluate the extent of their spread.

In situations where more than one pathological process exist, the underlying cause (primary process) that resulted in the carcass to be condemned will be used for declaration purposes.

In situations where there is uncertainty as to the basic pathological process or disposition, an evaluator should,

  • hold the carcass or it's packaged meat products and send samples to a laboratory for a histological diagnosis, and on receiving the histologic diagnosis apply the correct disposition; or
  • as mutually agreed between CFIA and the operator, discard the carcass and parts.

3 Definitions

For the purpose of this document the following definitions apply:

  • "Condemn" means to identify a food animal, its carcass, the parts of its carcass or its blood as inedible following a determination by the CFIA to that effect.
  • "Discard" means to identify a food animal, its carcassthe parts of its carcass or its blood as inedible following a determination by the CFIA that important food safety conditions cannot be ruled out based on the absence of certain information, subsequent to operator's procedures or decision.
  • "Parts" means any meat products or meat by-products originating from a carcass. This would include, without being limited to, organs, blood, tail, head, feet, muscles, hide, etc.
  • "Remove" means to excise or eliminate a defect or an affected part. Unless other treatments are indicated to render it edible, the remainder of the carcass can pass for human consumption after removal of all defects or affected parts.
  • "Reject" means to identify a food animal, its carcass, the parts of its carcass or its blood as inedible following a decision by the Operator to that effect.

4 Detailed Disposition for Selected Pathologies

For the purpose of this document, a carcass is considered to have systemic signs or an animal is severely affected if it shows adverse effect on the general health status of the animal/carcass because of the size, generalization or extensive nature of a lesion or condition. Such signs includes as an example emaciation, septicemia/ toxemia or embolic spread of the disease via either the lymphatic or the blood stream.

Consistent with this definition, reference to generalized lesions indicates situations where lesions/infestations/defects are easily noticeable, because of their numbers in the carcass and/or lesions are extensive and/or they are widely distributed in the carcasses; and where complete removal is likely impractical

  •  ● Usage of a round bullet describes potential clinical signs associated with the pathology or disease.
  • Usage of an arrow type bullet describes disposition option(s) available to the evaluator.
Categorization of Diseases and Conditions – ruminants, equine, and swine
Category List
Generalized Conditions Anemia, Anthrax, Brucellosis, Caseous lymphadenitis, Central nervous system disorders, Clostridial diseases, Edema, Emaciation, Equine infectious anemia, Equine Purpura hemorrhagic, Erysipelas, Granulomatous Lymphadenitis, Icterus / Jaundice, Lymphadenitis, Melanosis, Moribund, Odour, Septicemia / Toxemia, Serous atrophy of fat, Steatitis, Tail biting, Tuberculosis, Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), Uremia, Yellow fat disease.
Chest and Upper Airway Conditions Endocarditis, Pericarditis, Pleuritis, Pneumonia, Strangles.
Abdominal Conditions Enteritis, Gastritis, Hepatitis, Hernia, Hydatid cysts, Mastitis, Metritis, Nephritis, Omphalophlebitis (navel ill), Peritonitis, Prolapse, Pyelonephritis, Splenic torsion, Traumatic reticulitis complex.
Abnormal Growths Abscess, Actinomycosis / Actinobacillosis, Lymphosarcoma, Melanoma, Neoplasia Not Otherwise Specified (NOS), Ocular squamous cell carcinoma, Schwannomas.
Skin Conditions Congenital porphyria, Dermatitis, Diamond skin disease, frost bite, sheep pox, Urine scald.
Muscular and Skeleton Conditions Abnormal bone coloration,  Arthritis, Bruising, Cysticercosis, Dark Firm Dry (DFD), Eosinophilic myositis, Fistulous withers, Fractures, Injection sites, Lipofuscinosis, Porcine Stress Syndrome (Pale, Soft Exudative-PSE), Trichinosis, White muscle disease, Xanthosis.
Processing Conditions Blood splash, Contamination, Inadequate bleed, Loss of identity, Mutilation, Overscald.

5 Summarized list of diseases and conditions

List of diseases and conditions
Category condition Name and code of condition Comments Evaluation
Generalized Conditions

Anemia

910

See section 6.1

Anthrax

102

Ante-mortem
Post-mortem

Because of the human health implications, the suspicion of this disease at the slaughterhouse must trigger emergency measures.

Totally condemn

Brucellosis

102

See section 6.2

Caseous Lymphadenitis

420

See section 6.3

Central nervous system disorders

102

Ante-mortem
Depending on the species and evaluation.

Possible diagnostics:

  • Intoxication;
  • Listeriosis;
  • Pseudorabies;
  • Rabies;
  • TSE

Totally condemn
or treat as suspect

Clostridial diseases

Including
Bacillary hemoglobinuria (Clostridium haemolyticum)

Blackleg (Clostridium chauvoei)

102

Ante-mortem
Post-mortem

Totally condemn

Edema

340

See section 6.4

Emaciation

220

See section 6.5

Equine infectious anemia

102

Ante-mortem
If animal severely affected

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Treat as suspect

Post-mortem
If carcass shows systemic signs

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Remove and condemn affected parts

Equine Purpura Hemorrhagic

102

Ante-mortem
If animal severely affected

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Treat as suspect

Post-mortem
If carcass shows systemic signs

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Remove and condemn affected parts

Erysipelas

435

See section 6.6

Granulomatous lymphadenitis

495

See section 6.14

Icterus/Jaundice

920

See section 6.7

Lymphadenitis

546

See section 6.8

Melanosis

071

See section 6.9

Moribund

See section 6.10

Odour
Atypical
061

Sexual
062

See section 6.11

Septicemia / Toxemia

930

See section 6.12

Serous atrophy of fat

250

See section 6.5

Steatitis
(Yellow fat disease)

102

Post-mortem
If generalized lesion(s)

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Remove and reject affected parts

Note:
If the condition is accompanied by fishy odour, please refer to section 6.11 on Odour

Tail biting
(swine)

See section 6.13

Tuberculosis

490

See section 6.14

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)

102

Includes:

  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
  • Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
  • Scrapie

See Central nervous system disorders

Uremia

350

See section 6.15

Chest and upper airway Conditions

Endocarditis

572

See section 7.1

Pericarditis

571

See section 7.2

Pleuritis

577

See section 7.3

Pneumonia

579

See section 7.4

Strangles

Disease caused by Streptococcus equi

102

Ante mortem
If animal severely affected

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Treat as Suspect

Post mortem
If the carcass shows systemic signs

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Remove and condemn affected parts

Abdominal Conditions

Enteritis

530

See section 8.1

Gastritis

535

See section 8.1

Hepatitis

545

See section 8.2

Hernia
(umbilical, inguinal, diaphragmatic)

095

Ante-mortem
If animal severely affected

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Treat as suspect

Post-mortem
If it meets condemnation criteria for peritonitis or emaciation.

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Remove and condemn affected parts

Hydatid cysts

089

Post-mortem
If systemic lesion(s)

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Remove and condemn affected parts

Note:
Condemn viscera and the head of any affected carcasses.

Mastitis

547

Ante-mortem
If animal severely affected

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Treat as suspect

Post-mortem
If carcass shows systemic signs

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Remove and condemn affected parts

Metritis

548

Ante-mortem
If animal severely affected

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Treat as suspect

Post-mortem
If carcass shows systemic signs

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Remove and condemn affected parts

Nephritis

560

See section 8.3

Omphalophlebitis
(navel ill)

445

Ante-mortem
If animal severely affected

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Treat as suspect

Post-mortem
If carcass shows systemic signs

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Remove and condemn affected parts

Peritonitis

573

See section 8.4

Prolapse

See section 8.5

Pyelonephritis

566

See section 8.3

Splenic Torsion

See section 8.6

Traumatic reticulitis complex
(Hardware disease)

855

See Peritonitis and/or Pericarditis

Abnormal growths

Abscess

001

See section 9.1

Actinobacillosis

401

Actinomycosis
403

Ante-mortem

Treat as suspect depending on extent of the lesions

Post-mortem
If carcass shows systemic signs

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Remove and condemn the head, tongue and other affected parts

Lymphosarcoma
(Malignant lymphoma)

635

See section 9.3

Melanoma

645

See section 9.2

Neoplasm (Not Otherwise Specified NOS)

660

Note:
Lymphosarcoma, Melanoma, Ocular squamous cell carcinoma and Schwannoma have their own sections.

Ante-mortem
depending on presence of specific lesions

Treat as suspect
Totally condemn

Post-mortem
If carcass shows systemic signs or metastasis

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Remove and condemn affected parts

Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma

620

See section 9.4

Schwannoma

670

See section 9.5

Skin Conditions

Congenital porphyria
(Osteohemochromatosis)

130

Post-mortem
If generalized lesion(s)

Totally condemn

If localized lesion(s)

Remove and condemn affected parts

Dermatitis

810

See section 10.1

Diamond skin disease
(Erysipelas)

435

See section 10.2

Frost bite

049

Ante-mortem

Treat as suspect depending on extent of the lesions

Post-mortem
If generalized lesion(s)
or carcass shows systemic signs.

Totally condemn

Red swollen areas on the underside of the skin often extending into the underlying tissues.

Remove and condemn affected parts

Sheep/Goat Pox

102

Ante-mortem
Post-mortem

Totally condemn

Urine scald

Post-mortem

Remove and condemn affected parts

Muscular and skeleton conditions

Abnormal bone coloration caused by tetracycline deposits

See chapter 5 for guidance

Arthropathy/ Arthritis

512

See section 11.1

Bruising

051

Ante-mortem

Treat as suspect

Post-mortem
If generalized lesion(s).

Totally condemn

Otherwise

Remove and condemn affected parts

Cysticercosis

735

See section 11.2

Dark Firm Dry (DFD)

See section 11.3

Eosinophilic myositis

551

See section 11.4

Fistulous withers

Ante-mortem

Treat as suspect

Post-mortem

Remove and condemn affected parts

Fracture

Ante-mortem

Treat as suspect

Post-mortem

Remove and condemn affected parts

Injection sites
(Injection myositis)

265

Antibiotic Residues

065

See section 11.5

Pale Soft Exudative (PSE)

See section 11.6

Trichinosis

101

Post-mortem
If laboratory detection

Totally condemn

White Muscle Disease

211

Post-mortem
If generalized lesion(s)
or carcass shows systemic signs.

Totally reject the carcass

Otherwise

Remove and reject affected parts

Xanthosis

(Lipofuscinosis)

079

Post-mortem
If generalized lesion(s)

Totally reject the carcass

Otherwise

Remove and reject affected parts

Processing conditions

Blood splashing

See section 12.1

Contamination

010

See section 12.2

Inadequate bleeding

096

See section 12.3

Loss of identity

097

See section 12.4

Mutilation

Post-mortem

Remove and reject affected parts

Overscald

046

Burn

045

See section 12.5

6 Generalized Conditions

6.1 Anemia

Ante-mortem:

  • Fever;
  • pallor of the mucous membrane;
  • weakness/depression;
  • poor condition; respiratory distress.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Lighter color of the carcass;
  • blood that does not coagulate properly;
  • splenomegaly;
  • poor body condition.
  • Condemn the carcass when it shows systemic signs or when the carcass is too anemic to produce safe and suitable meat (as shown by severe muscle pallor) and report as "Anemia".
  • Otherwise, pass the carcass.

6.2 Brucellosis

Ante-mortem:

  • Mastititis;
  • orchitis;
  • farm history of abortion;
  • lameness.

It is unlikely that animals affected with brucellosis will be presented to an abattoir except for those animals licensed to be transported directly to an establishment as serological reactors or their contacts.

  • Treat as suspect all animals licensed to be transported directly to an establishment.

Post-mortem:

  • Condemn the carcass when it shows systemic signs and report as "Brucellosis" in the case of an animal licensed to be transported directly to an establishment.
  • Carcasses affected with localized lesions of brucellosis may be passed as edible after the affected parts are removed and condemned. The udder, genital organs and the related lymph nodes of an animal licensed to be transported directly to an establishment, regardless of the presence of lesions, must be condemned.

6.3 Caseous lymphadenitis

Ante-mortem:

  • Lethargy;
  • fever;
  • emaciation;
  • pneumonia/respiratory distress;
  • enlargement of superficial lymph nodes.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Poor body condition;
  • enlarged lymph nodes;
  • abscess lesion(s) with greenish to white-yellow caseous material, which tends to become dry and granular:
    • these lesions are located in lymph nodes and/or organs such as lungs, heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys;
    • in certain species, the abscess lesions may show concentric rings similar to those seen on the cut surface of an onion.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Caseous lymphadenitis" in the following situation:
    • The carcass shows systemic signs.
    • The carcass is thin and exhibits generalized lesions of either the visceral or body lymph nodes.
    • The carcass is well nourished but shows generalized lesions of the visceral and body lymph nodes.
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn affected parts.

6.4 Edema

Ante-mortem:

  • Difficulty breathing;
  • weakness,
  • enlargement (swelling) of the areas underneath the jaw, brisket, belly or lower limbs.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Wet looking tissue that pits under pressure;
  • accumulation of clear to yellow fluid in the affected tissue or free fluid within the chest or abdomen;
  • affected organs appear full and rounded.
  • Condemn the carcass when lesions are generalized and report as "Edema".
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn affected parts.

6.5 Emaciation / Serous Atrophy of Fat

Ante-mortem:

  • Weakness;
  • poor condition;
  • sunken eyes;
  • rough and/or patchy hair coat;
  • prominent bony structures (e.g. spinous processes of the vertebrae, hip bones, ribs, etc.).
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Poor body condition;
    • reduction in the size of the organs, particularly the liver, spleen, and muscular tissue, and
    • reduction in the amount of fat tissue;
  • serous infiltration and degenerative change to visceral and body fat referred to as "Serous atrophy of fat" or "mucoid degeneration":
    • the remaining fat may have a jelly-like appearance, a viscous feel and a yellow colour;
    • this is especially apparent around the base of the heart, around the kidneys and between the spinous processes of the vertebrae;
  • flabby appearance of the muscular tissue;
  • a moist appearance.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Emaciation" when all clinical signs mentioned above are found and no other underlying cause can explain the clinical lesions.
  • Pass the carcass when the carcass has a poor body condition without signs of serous atrophy of fat.
  • In some cases, serous atrophy of fat may be present without any of the other signs of emaciation (e.g. carcasses derived from bulls after completion of a heavy service). In such cases, the carcass should be held in the cooler for up to 48 hours before making a final judgment.
    • Pass the carcass if the fat returns to a normal consistency.
    • Otherwise, condemn the carcass and report as "Serous atrophy of fat".

6.6 Erysipelas

Including "Diamond skin disease".

Ante-mortem:

  • Weakness;
  • fever;
  • lameness;
  • enlarged joints;
  • diamond shaped skin lesions.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Diamond/rhomboid shaped scars or similarly shaped red swollen lesions on the skin;
  • generalized lymph node enlargement;
  • arthritis;
  • endocarditis.
  • Condemn the carcass when the carcass shows:
    • systemic signs and report as "Erysipelas"
    • active skin lesions demonstrated by red areas extending into the tissue under the skin and report as "Erysipelas"; or
    • condemnation criteria for arthritis or endocarditis;
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn the affected parts.

6.7 Icterus / Jaundice

Ante-mortem:

  • Yellow coloured skin in areas of the animal with little or no hair;
  • yellow sclera;
  • weakness.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Generalized yellow discolouration of tissues including the sclera, cartilage, organs arteries and joint surfaces;
  • abnormal colour of the kidney ranging from bright red to dark red and even reddish black;
  • liver lesions or degenerative lesions of the liver; and
  • enlargement or congestion of the spleen.

Feeding practices may influence the colour of fat in animals leading to yellow colouration. The fat tissues of certain breeds can also be yellow in colour. In such cases, normal carcasses can be differentiated from icteric carcasses by the fact their cartilage, connective tissue, sclera and renal pelvis are not affected.

  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Icterus" when the carcass shows:
    • severe discolouration (i.e. carcass and parts have a bright yellow or greenish-yellow colour);
    • discolouration associated with severe liver/kidneys lesions or pronounced affliction of the spleen;
    • lesions associated with systemic signs.
  • Otherwise, in cases of slight discolouration, the carcass can be held in the cooler for up to 24 hours before making a final judgment.
    • Pass the carcass if the condition dissipates.
    • Otherwise, condemn the carcass.

6.8 Lymphadenitis

Ante-mortem:

  • Enlargement of superficial lymph nodes.
  • fever
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Non granulomatous enlargement of lymph nodes.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Lymphadenitis" when the carcass shows systemic signs or generalized lesions.
  • Otherwise, if only localised lymphadenopathy is found, an underlying condition usually exists. Refer to the applicable disposition.

6.9 Melanosis

Post-mortem:

  • Dark pigmentation of normal tissue (e.g. skin, muscle, spinal meninges, etc.).

Clinical signs must be clearly distinguished from melanoma (see section 9.2).

  • Remove and condemn localised lesion(s) of melanosis.
  • Melanotic changes of spinal nerves extending into the meat will be removed. However, melanin colouration of the spinal meninges alone is insignificant and does not need removal. In swine, affected skin is not required to be condemned, but for suitability reasons may need to be removed and rejected.

6.10 Moribund

Ante-mortem:

  • Severe depression and lethargy;
  • fever or hypothermia;
  • recumbancy;
  • dilated pupils;
  • lack of response to external stimuli;
  • convulsions or other involuntary movements.
  • Condemn affected animals.

6.11 Odour

Ante-mortem:

  • Odour related to:
    • a diet (i.e. fish, garlic);
    • a sexual odour;
    • a chemical (e.g. polychlorinated hydrocarbons ),or a medicinal drug (e.g. camphorated products, turpentine); or
    • a pathological condition (e.g. abscess, gangrene, clostridial infection, ketosis, etc.).
  • If the odour is related to a pathological condition, refer to relevant pathology and dispose of accordingly.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Note:
Slaughter of the affected animals may also be delayed if it is believed that such a measure will allow the odour to dissipate.

Post-mortem:

  • Odour, localised or generalized, that may be related to:
    • a diet (i.e. fish, garlic);
    • a sexual odour (musky odour associated to male carcasses);
    • a chemical (e.g. polychlorinated hydrocarbons, ammonia contamination,),or a medicinal drug (e.g. camphorated products, turpentine); or
    • a pathological condition (e.g. abscess, gangrene, a clostridial infection, ketosis, etc.).

Unless the origin of the odour can be clearly determined, the following general principles will apply:

  • Any carcass with a lingering odour is unfit for human consumption. The carcass can be held in the cooler for up to 48 hours before making a final judgment and determine if the odour is still present. Carcass should then be evaluated making a deep incision in the musculature, by placing tissue in a sealed plastic bag and placing it into hot water, or any other effective method.
    • Pass the carcass when odour does not persist and cannot be detected.
    • Otherwise, condemn the carcass and report as "Atypical odour".

Additional or different disposition actions may be implemented when the origin of the odour can be determined:

When it can be determined that the odour is associated to a pathological condition:

  • Refer to the appropriate section for disposition criteria and actions.
  • If guidance allows for removal of affected parts, remaining carcass and parts must no longer carry any lingering odour.
  • In case of ketosis, follow the general principles for odour of an undetermined origin (as mentioned above).

When it can be determined that the odour is associated to chemical or medicinal drugs:

  • For ammonia contamination, the operator will either take measures to mitigate the contamination and return the carcass to an edible status or reject the carcass.
  • For other chemical and medicinal odours, consult section 11.5 on "Injection sites (Injection myositis)" and hold the carcass for chemical/veterinary drug testing as per procedures of Chapter 5 of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures.
    • Should screening/testing turn out to be non-violative or inconclusive but odour still persists after 48 hours after slaughter, condemn the carcass and report as "Atypical odour".

When it can be determined that the odour is associated to the diet:

  • Pass the carcass. Meat products derived from such affected carcasses need to be in compliance with section 4 and 5 of the Food and Drugs Act.

    Note:
    This meat will most likely be "inferior" in term of quality. Accordingly, affected carcasses should be used in processed meat products or, alternatively, rejected.

When it can be determined that the odour is associated to a sexual odour:

  • The use of carcasses with sexual odour is at the discretion of the operator. An operator will develop a program to deal with any affected carcass. Meat products derived from such affected carcasses need to be in compliance with section 4 and 5 of the Food and Drugs Act.

    The following guiding principles can be used to develop an acceptable program:

    • Affected carcasses and their parts may be chilled for up to 48 hours in an attempt to dissipate the odour. If the odour completely dissipates, carcass and parts can be used without restriction.
    • Affected carcasses and parts with a strong persistent sexual odour are rejected.
    • Carcasses and parts affected to a lesser extent are properly identified, controlled, and treated as required.
      • Affected carcasses and their parts may be sold without other treatment provided that meat products derived from them are adequately described and labelled (e.g. "billy goat roast", "boar shoulder"). This ensures that buyers are not being misled as to the quality of the product and preparation needed.
      • Alternatively, these meat products can be used in the fabrication of certain prepared meat products where the odour and peculiar taste will no longer be detectable. In this this case a special mention on the label would not be required (e.g. for a pepperoni, the term "goat" could be listed as an ingredient instead of "billy goat"; "pork" instead of "boar").
    • Usage of quality assessment tools (e.g. using customer tasting boards and sensorial analyses) as well as data demonstrating absence of consumer/trading partner complaint is considered evidence the control program is acceptable.

    Note:
    Swine establishment operators may use "Appendix 1" of this annex as a model to manage swine products in order to control boar taint in meat products derived from intact male pigs.

6.12 Septicemia / Toxemia

Ante-mortem:

  • Varying levels of depression and lethargy;
  • fever or hypothermia.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Multifocal subserous hemorrhages, which often affect several organs (mostly the endocardium and epicardium);
  • submucosal hemorrhages of the trachea;
  • congestion and oedema of various organs, especially those of the lymphatic system (hepatomegaly and splenomegaly are often present);
  • sites of infection of embolic origin in various organs;
  • peripheral vasodilatation.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Septicemia/toxemia".

6.13 Tail Biting in Swine

Ante-mortem:

  • Scab and/or open wound on the tip of the tail stub;
  • enlargement of the sacral spine;
  • enlargement of joints;
  • emaciation;
  • lethargy;
  • lameness.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.
  • Pass for slaughter without restriction animals presenting only scab formation.

Post-mortem:

  • Abscess formation in tail and sacral spine;
  • abscess formation in or near joints;
  • embolic/lymphatic spread to abdominal and/or thoracic organs.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Abscess" when the carcass shows systemic signs or generalized lesions.
  • Remove and condemn affected parts when the carcass has lesions localised to the tail and sacral spine.

6.14 Tuberculosis/Granulomatous Lymphadenitis

Ante-mortem:

  • Lethargy,
  • fever;
  • emaciation;
  • subcutaneous lymph node enlargement.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect. As well, any reactors, animals from herds being depopulated or animals licensed to be transported directly to an establishment because of bovine tuberculosis will be treated as suspect and will be subject to any additional inspection and sampling procedures, for the purposes of epidemiological surveillance, as per Animal Health policy regarding Bovine Tuberculosis.

Post-mortem:

  • Lymphatic enlargement and/or granuloma in the primary sites of infection (primary lesions), namely:
    • the lymph nodes of the head;
    • the lymph nodes of the lungs; and
    • the mesenteric lymph nodes (including the hepatic lymph nodes).
  • Systemic lesions resulting from spread of the infection from the primary site (secondary lesion), namely:
    • bacteremia/septicemia;
    • granuloma found in muscle, intermuscular tissue, bone, joint, abdominal organ (excluding the gastrointestinal tract) or in any lymph node as a result of draining a muscle, bone, joint, or abdominal organ (excluding the gastrointestinal tract);
    • extensive lesions in tissues of either the thoracic or the abdominal cavity;
    • emaciation;
    • multiple, acute, and actively progressive lesions; or
    • lesion that is not indicative of a localized condition because of its character or extent.

When granulomatous lesions are detected in:

  • At least one of the primary sites, in the case of red meat animal other than a swine; OR
  • both mandibular and mesenteric lymph nodes in the case of a swine animal;

the following lymph nodes (if available) will be incised and examined for the presence of granuloma: caudal deep cervical, superficial cervical, hepatic, renal, superficial inguinal (scrotal or mammary), medial iliac, subiliac and deep popliteal.

In the case of routine slaughter:

  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Granulomatous lymphadenitis" in the following situation:
    • the animal was febrile at ante-mortem and either primary or secondary lesions are found post-mortem;
    • the carcass is showing systemic signs and/or generalized lesions resulting from spread of the infection from the primary site.
  • Otherwise, if only primary site lesions are found, remove and condemn the implicated organ(s) or body part(s) (i.e. organ(s) or part(s) whose lymphatics drain into the reactive lymph node).

In case of herds being depopulated because of bovine tuberculosis, reactors or animals licensed to be transported directly to an establishment because of bovine tuberculosis:

  • Condemn the carcass when it either has primary or secondary lesion(s) and report as "Granulomatous lymphadenitis".
  • Otherwise, pass the carcass.

6.15 Uremia

Ante-mortem:

  • Enlarged belly especially the lower belly (waterbelly/uroabdomen);
  • tail twitching;
  • restlessness;
  • frequent attempts to urinate.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Yellowish fluid in the abdomen and/or chest;
  • fluid collection under the skin;
  • urine odour;
  • severely cystic kidneys;
  • kidney or bladder stones;
  • nephritis;
  • previous surgery related to urethral obstruction;
  • ruptured bladder and related peritonitis.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Uremia" when the carcass has:
    • generalized urine odour; or
    • systemic signs.

Note:
In cases where there is localized contamination with urine (e.g. bladder incision during evisceration), remove and condemn affected parts.

7 Chest and upper airway Conditions

7.1 Endocarditis

Ante-mortem:

  • Fever;
  • lameness;
  • emaciation;
  • lethargy.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Vegetative lesion on valve and endocardium;
  • embolic lesions in internal organs, especially the kidneys and lungs.

Presence of embolic lesions in internal organs will trigger an in-depth evaluation of the internal surface of the heart (especially the heart valves).

  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Endocarditis" when the carcass shows valvular lesions with active/acute embolic lesions in other internal organ(s).
  • Remove and condemn affected parts when the carcass shows:
    • no embolic spread; or
    • previous embolic spread but lesions are chronic/resolved

7.2 Pericarditis

Including "Traumatic reticulitis complex".

Ante-mortem:

  • Jugular pulse;
  • enlargement of tissue under the jaw or brisket;
  • shallow rapid breathing,
  • fever,
  • weakness;
  • excitement or depression;
  • emaciation.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Hard or fluid pus covering the outside of the heart;
  • fluid accumulation in the chest or abdomen;
  • edema especially under the jaw, belly and lower limbs;
  • a foreign body protruding from the reticular area through the abdomen into the chest.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Pericarditis" when the carcass shows systemic signs or an acute and extensive infection.
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn the affected parts.

7.3 Pleuritis

Ante-mortem:

  • Increased respiratory rate;
  • shallow breathing;
  • emaciation;
  • wide based stance of the front legs;
  • fever;
  • depression or excitement.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Fluid in the chest cavity;
  • adhesions in the chest cavity;
  • foul smelling clumpy pus in the chest cavity;
  • walled off pockets of pus;
  • redness in the chest cavity;
  • enlargement of lymph nodes associated with the chest cavity.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Pleuritis" when the carcass shows systemic signs or an acute and extensive infection.
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn the affected parts.

7.4 Pneumonia

Ante-mortem:

  • Increased respiratory rate and/or effort;
  • fever;
  • emaciation;
  • lethargy.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • lesions in the lungs and associated lymph nodes;
  • pleural lesions including adhesions and abscessation;
  • emaciation;
  • septicemia.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Pneumonia" when the carcass shows:
    • systemic signs; or
    • acute and extensive lesion(s) with or without pleuritis.
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn affected parts.

8 Abdominal Conditions

8.1 Gastritis/Enteritis

Ante-mortem:

  • loose watery feces with or without bloody stool;
  • voluminous or frequent defaecation;
  • gaunt belly;
  • weakness;
  • sunken eyes;
  • teeth grinding.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Enlarged or reddened areas of the gastro-intestinal tract;
  • enlarged lymph nodes associated with the gastro-intestinal tract;
  • degeneration of areas of the gastro-intestinal tract;
  • peritonitis.
  • Condemn the carcass and, as applicable, report as "Gastritis" or "Enteritis" when the carcass shows:
    • systemic signs;
    • acute and extensive lesion(s); or
    • condemnation criteria for peritonitis (see section 8.4).
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn the affected parts.

8.2 Hepatitis

Ante-mortem:

  • Fever;
  • teeth grinding;
  • yellow exposed skin and sclera;
  • depression or excitement.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Enlarged friable liver with rounded edges;
  • icterus/jaundice;
  • peritonitis;
  • enlarged abdominal lymph nodes.

Rarely is hepatitis a primary cause to warrant full carcass condemnation. Acute viral hepatitis in swine would be an exception.

  • Condemn the carcass when the carcass shows:
    • systemic signs and report as "Hepatitis"; or
    • condemnation criteria for icterus/jaundice (see section 6.7) or peritonitis (see section 8.4).
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn the affected parts.

8.3 Nephritis / Pyelonephritis

Ante-mortem:

  • Red tinged urine,
  • purulent material in the urine or near the sheath/vulva,
  • frequent attempts to urinate,
  • fever;
  • emaciation;
  • lethargy.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Lesions in the kidney(s) such as inflammation, necrosis, abscess, fibrosis;
  • associated lymphadenopathy;
  • urine odour;
  • emaciation;
  • septicemia/toxemia.
  • Condemn the carcass and, as applicable, report as "nephritis" or "Pyelonephritis" when the carcass shows:
    • systemic signs;
    • presence of uremia (see section 6.15); or
    • acute and extensive lesion(s) as a consequence of a vegetative valvular endocarditis (see section 7.1).
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn the affected parts.

8.4 Peritonitis

Including "Traumatic reticulitis complex".

Ante-mortem:

  • Depression or excitation;
  • emaciation;
  • shallow rapid breathing;
  • fever;
  • sunken eyes.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Hard or fluid pus in the belly;
  • reddening of the surface of the abdominal wall and gastro-intestinal tract surfaces;
  • fibrinous to fibrous adhesions on the abdominal wall and gastro-intestinal tract surfaces;
  • enlargement of lymph nodes associated with the abdomen.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "peritonitis" when the carcass shows:
    • systemic signs; or
    • acute and extensive lesion(s) (i.e. extensive areas of reddening, exudate, and enlarged lymph nodes).
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn the affected parts (including adhesions).

8.5 Prolapses

Ante-mortem:

  • extrusion of one of the parts or organs of the body (e.g. rectum, uterus, etc.).

Animals with prolapses may need to be euthanized or sent immediately to slaughter after Ante-mortem examination and inspection.

See "Peritonitis" for disposition (see section 8.4).

8.6 Swine Splenic Torsion

Post-mortem:

  • Enlarged friable spleen;
  • generalized yellow brown coloured carcass with enlarged lymph nodes;
  • generalized petechia (i.e. pinpoint red dots throughout the carcass);
  • smaller and harder than normal spleen often surrounded by fluid and encased by the mesentery;
  • small nodules of normal looking spleen tissue.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Septicemia / Toxemia" when the carcass shows a friable spleen, a generalized yellow brown colour and generalized vasodilation or petechiation in the carcass.
  • For carcasses showing icterus, follow the guidance in section 6.7.
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn the affected parts. Note that this will normally represent the vast majority of the cases.

9 Abnormal growths

9.1 Abscess

Ante-mortem:

  • Lumps or enlargement(s);
  • lameness;
  • fever;
  • emaciation;
  • lethargy.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Walled-off pus;
  • local swelling;
  • reactive lymph nodes.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Abscess" when the carcass shows systemic signs or generalized lesions.
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn the affected parts.

Note:
If one of the following part/organ is affected by a single abscess, that part/organ will be condemned entirely (i.e. the organs cannot be trimmed of): brain, thymus, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, mammary gland, testicle, pizzle, uterus.

9.2 Melanoma

Ante-mortem:

  • Dark pigmented growths
  • Treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Neoplastic tissue growth(s) dark in colour (tar-like appearance);
  • ulcerative tissue growth(s) dark in colour;
  • palpable changes to tissue structure;
  • metastases to local lymph nodes;
  • metastases to internal organs such as the lungs/liver/spleen;
  • emaciation.

When a lesion is suspect, evaluate associated lymph nodes and internal organs.

  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Melanoma" when the carcass shows:
    • metastasis; or
    • systemic signs;
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn the affected parts/areas.

9.3 Malignant Lymphoma (Lymphosarcoma)

This lesion is more common in old cattle resulting from complication of bovine leukemia virus infection and in market age swine. Other species may be affected as well.

Ante-mortem:

  • Enlargement of superficial lymph nodes;
  • emaciation / cachexia;
  • protrusion of the eye (consequence of neoplastic invasion of the eye cavity);
  • diarrhea;
  • bloating;
  • breathing difficulties;
  • edema of the brisket and/or the intermandibular region;
  • skin nodule(s).

Since there are many different manifestations of the disease (i.e. unspecific clinical lesions) which can be mistaken with other conditions, proper ante-mortem diagnosis is always difficult.

  • Condemn animals showing lesions highly suggestive of generalized lymphosarcoma or having history compatible with such conditions.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem

  • Enlargement of one or more lymph nodes;
  • abnormal consistency (clay-like) of the lymph node(s);
  • enlargement of the spleen;
  • neoplastic infiltration of different organs such as the heart, the digestive tract (e.g. abomasum), the uterus and the eyes.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Lymphosarcoma" when the carcass shows a single lesion of lymphosarcoma (regardless of the degree of involvement in the carcass).

Note:
In hogs, the enlargement of a single lymph node is often the only macroscopic lesion of the condition. The mandibular or medial iliac lymph nodes are often involved.

9.4 Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma

This lesion is also called "Epithelioma of the eye". It is more common in cattle. Other species may be affected as well.

Ante-mortem:

  • Neoplastic lesion(s) affecting the eye and/or associated structures (e.g. the orbital region);
  • infection, suppuration or necrosis, with or without a foul odour, of the lesion(s);
  • destruction of the eye and the orbital region;
  • absence of one eye or associated structures;
  • emaciation/cachexia.
  • Condemn when the animal presents:
    • eye and/or associated structures that are destroyed or obscured by neoplastic tissue and that show extensive infection, suppuration, or necrosis, usually accompanied with foul odour; or
    • lesion affecting the eye or the associated structures, regardless of extent, that is accompanied with cachexia.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Note:
Animals with ocular squamous cell carcinoma may need to be euthanized or sent immediately to slaughter after Ante-mortem examination and inspection.

Post-mortem:

  • Neoplastic lesion(s) to the eye and/or the orbital region;
  • neoplastic lesion(s) to one or multiple lymph node(s) (e.g. parotid lymph node) or any other parts or organ (e.g. lungs);
  • absence of one eye or associated structures;
  • the osseous structures of the head with infection, suppuration, and necrosis;
  • emaciation.
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Ocular squamous cell carcinoma" if one of the following three conditions exists;
    • the condition has involved the osseous structures of the head with extensive infection, suppuration, and necrosis;
    • there is metastasis from the eye, or the orbital region, to any lymph node (e.g. parotid lymph node) or any other parts, regardless of the extent of the primary tumor; or
    • the condition, regardless of extent, is associated with emaciation or other secondary systemic disturbances.
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn the affected parts (e.g. the head, including the tongue).

Note:
When an animal exhibits the loss of one eye at the ante-mortem, treat it as suspect and thoroughly evaluate the head and carcass for the presence of metastasis and apply disposition criteria above. Regardless of the presence of lesions, the head and tongue will be removed and condemned.

9.5 Schwannoma

This lesion is also called "Neurofibroma" or "Nerve sheath tumor". It is more common in cattle.

Post-mortem:

  • Multiple nodular enlargements along different nerves of the carcass affecting primarily the following target organs:
    • the heart and the mediastinal fat;
    • the intercostal nerves;
    • the brachial plexus and branching nerves; and
    • the nerves of the hind quarter.
  • neoplastic lesion(s) to the regional lymph nodes;
  • emaciation.

When a lesion is found the following flow chart should be followed:

Figure #3: Schwannoma Flow Chart
Schwannoma Flow Chart. Description follows.
Description for flowchart - Figure #3: Schwannoma Flow Chart

Descriptive text for schwannoma flow chart:

This chart provides details on examination procedures and resulting decisions when a lesion of schwannoma is found.

The first box (level 1) consists of Examining the heart base, mediastinum, and intercostal nerves. Results from this examination are on level 2

  • Level 2:
    • The left side box describes when no other lesions are found during examination of the heart base, mediastinum, and intercostal nerves: release carcass and dispose of affected tissue.

      The right side box describes detection of additional lesions during examination of the heart base, mediastinum, and intercostal nerves: proceed to examine brachial plexus and intercostal nerves. Results from this examination are on level 3.

  • Level 3:
    • The left side box describes the finding of localised lesions: trim plexus and ribs, condemn heart, release carcass.

      The right side box describes the finding of further lesions in plexus: proceed to examine nerves over and under scapula and along thoracic wall. Results from this examination are on level 4.

  • Level 4:
    • The left side box describes when there is no finding of extension to the muscle: trim nerves, release carcass.

      The right side box describes when further lesions are found in the muscle: condemn front quarter +/− thoracic wall and examine sciatic nerve. Results from this examination are on level 5.

  • Level 5
    • The left side box describes when no sciatic nerve lesions are found: pass remnant of carcass.

      The right side box describes when further lesions in nerves of the hind quarter are found: go to level 6.

  • Level 6
    • Describes when there is finding of extension to muscles: condemn hindquarters (total condemnation).
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Schwannoma" when the carcass shows:
    • evidence of metastasis;
    • systemic signs; or
    • generalized lesions (i.e. the evaluator reach the bottom of the decision tree above).
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn the affected parts

Note:
Operator may remove all potential lesion(s) from a carcass at a step downstream (e.g. in the deboning room) provided a program acceptable to the CFIA exists.

10 Skin Conditions

10.1 Dermatitis

Ante-mortem:

  • Discrete raised lesions on the skin surface;
  • patches of raised areas on the skin surface;
  • weeping fluid from raised skin areas;
  • dark coloured crust material on the skin at or near raised areas.
  • Treat as suspect severely affected animals.

Post-mortem:

  • Red, yellow, dark localized areas on the skin surface extending into deeper skin layers;
  • reactive lymph nodes associated with the area of the lesion.
  • Remove and condemn the affected parts (e.g. skin).

10.2 Diamond skin disease

See section 6.6 on "Erysipelas".

11 Muscular and skeleton conditions

11.1 Arthropathy

This section provide guidance on "Arthritis" and "Degenerative Arthropathy"

Ante-mortem:

  • enlargement of one or more joints;
  • lameness/abnormal locomotion;
  • tendency to remain lying on the ground;
  • difficulty rising;
  • reluctance to move or stand;
  • poor body condition (thin, emaciation);
  • fever.
  • Condemn severely affected animals.
  • Otherwise, treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • Swollen joint(s) and obvious asymmetry of the joints.
  • enlargement of the associated lymph node (e.g. medial iliac);
  • abundant fluid in the joint (synovial fluid);
  • cloudy synovial fluid that can contains fibrin/pus/debris/blood;
  • enlargement of the finger-like projections of the joint cavity lining;
  • reddening of joint lining;
  • articular cartilage is ulcerated or eroded;
  • cartilage is dry and slightly grainy in appearance;
  • swelling of tissues surrounding the joint,
  • thick fibrous tissue surrounding the joint(s).
  • Condemn the carcass and report as "Arthritis" or "Arthropathy" when the carcass shows:
    • systemic signs;
    • septic polyarthritis;
    • lesions indicating hematogenous dissemination (e.g., lesions of purulent pneumonia, renal infarction, acute mastitis, acute metritis, vegetative endocarditis); or
    • generalized lesions.
  • Remove and condemn affected parts (including the associated lymph node(s)) when the carcass has localised lesions.

Note:

  • The lymph node(s) draining the area will be examined and incised, as necessary, to help determine which affected parts need to be removed.
    • With degenerative arthropathy, carcasses exhibiting only a slight osteochondrosis (i.e. slight cartilage wear, clear synovial fluid and/or mild hyperemia of the synovial membrane) and no or little enlargement of the regional lymph node may be accepted as is.
    • With mild degenerative arthropathy, hygromas and bursitis of the tarsal/metatarsal joints with no hypertrophy of the medial iliac lymph nodes can be removed in a cooler or in the cutting/boning area of the slaughter establishment that has slaughtered the animal, provided the operator has implemented a program acceptable to CFIA for this procedure, which includes the identification and marking of the affected joints during the dressing procedure and before final carcass inspection.
  • Care must be taken to avoid contamination of the meat products when a joint capsule is opened.

11.2 Cysticercosis

11.2.1 Bovine Cysticercosis

Ante-mortem:

Animals affected with Bovine cysticercosis will not show specific signs at the ante-mortem. However, an animal may be presented to an abattoir from an infested premise. Animals suspected to be infested with Cysticercus Bovis will be licensed to be transported directly to an establishment.

  • Treat as suspect all animals licensed to be transported directly to an establishment.

Note:
All animals received under licence will be subjected to enhanced post-mortem inspection procedures.

Post-mortem:

  • Presence of cyst(s) in predilection sites such as the heart, tongue, masseters, oesophagus and diaphragm and its pillars;
  • presence of cyst(s) in other muscles of the body;

If one or more carcasses in a lot are found to be affected with lesions suggestive of Cysticercus bovis during routine inspection (not sent under license to slaughter), all affected carcasses and their parts shall be held pending laboratory confirmation. As bovine cysticercosis is a reportable disease under the Health of Animals Act, the identity of the owner and the origin of the cattle must be established for follow up actions. However, in the case of affected carcasses originating from an identified infested premises (i.e. animals which are sent for slaughter under license to transport), the disposition criteria below will be applied immediately (i.e. no laboratory confirmation is required).

  • Condemn the carcass when the infestation is extensive and report as "Cysticercosis". An infestation shall be considered extensive where cysts are found:
    • in at least two (2) predilection sites during routine primary inspection; AND
    • in at least two (2) of the sites exposed by incision into the rounds and forelimbs;
  • Otherwise, carcasses considered slightly infested must be trimmed in order to remove and condemn visible cysts and treated with one of the following methods in accordance with the regulations:
    • the meat product is subjected to a heat treatment of at least 60°C;
    • the meat product is subjected to a cold treatment not exceeding −10°C for not less than 10 days; or
    • the meat product is subjected to an alternative treatment approved by the CFIA. In this case, the operator must provide a written protocol including scientific validation proving that the proposed treatment is effective.

Note:
When a cyst-like structure determined to be suggestive of C. bovis is found in a carcass or its parts during routine inspection, the official veterinarian may request the operator to implement additional measures to ensure the food safety and suitability of meat products derived from animals submitted from the same producer/lot. In such a case, additional inspection measures are to be implemented on all carcasses originating from the same producer/lot inspected after the initial case, and up until laboratory confirmation (or disproof). As well, additional measures by the operator may be deemed appropriate, and requested, for all carcasses and parts originating from the same producer/lot that were inspected prior to the initial case on that day of production. Such a request may therefore result in the implementation of the following measures:

  • Exposing any subsequent animals/lots related to the index case to enhanced inspection procedures.
  • If available, incising hearts and cheeks (in line with the enhanced inspection procedures) from carcasses identified as part of the affected lot/producer that have already passed inspection prior to the finding of the index case.
  • Closely observing the cut surfaces of muscles exposed during the dressing operation or making additional incisions into the diaphragm, the rounds or forelimbs.

11.2.2 Swine Cysticercosis

Swine cysticercosis is a reportable disease under the Health of Animals Act. Canada is currently considered free of swine cysticercosis.

Post-mortem:

  • Presence of cyst(s) in the heart, tongue, masseters and diaphragm;
  • presence of cyst(s) in other muscles of the body, especially the shoulder and thigh;
  • presence of cyst(s) in fat and viscera.

Lesions suggestive of Cysticercus cellulosae must be sent for laboratory confirmation.

  • Condemn the carcass when the infestation is generalized and report as "Cysticercosis".
  • Otherwise, carcasses considered slightly infested must be trimmed in order to remove and condemn visible cysts and exposed to a treatment approved by the CFIA. In this case, the operator must provide a written protocol including scientific validation proving that the proposed treatment is effective.

Note:
When a cyst-like structure determined to be suggestive of C. cellulosae is found in a carcass or its parts during routine inspection, the official veterinarian will request the operator to implement additional measures to ensure the food safety and suitability of meat products derived from animals submitted from the same producer/lot. In such a case, additional inspection measures are to be implemented on all carcasses originating from the same producer/lot inspected after the initial case, and up until laboratory confirmation (or disproof). As well, additional measures by the operator may be deemed appropriate, and required, for all carcasses and parts originating from the same producer/lot that were inspected prior to the initial case on that day of production. Such a request may therefore result in the implementation of the following measures:

  • Exposing any subsequent animals/lots related to the index case to enhanced inspection procedures.
  • If available, examining and incising hearts, cheeks and tongues from carcasses identified as part of the affected lot/producer that have already passed inspection prior to the finding of the initial case.
  • Closely observing the cut surfaces of muscles exposed during the dressing operation or making additional incisions into the diaphragm, neck and thigh muscles.

11.2.3 Cysticercosis in ovine

Post-mortem:

  • Presence of cyst(s) in the heart, oesophagus, tongue, masseters and diaphragm;
  • presence of cyst(s) in other muscles of the body;
  • cysts are usually calcified.
  • Condemn the carcass when it shows generalized lesions and report as "Cysticercosis".
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn affected parts.

Cysticercus ovis is not a food safety concern; accordingly no additional treatment is required.

11.3 Dark firm dry (DFD), also known as dark cutting beef

Ante-mortem:

  • Stress;
  • exhaustion.
  • Pass for slaughter without restriction affected animals deemed fit for slaughter.

Post-mortem:

  • dark, purplish red to almost black color of the muscles;
  • dry, often-sticky surface of the muscles.
  • The use of carcasses afflicted with DFD is at the discretion of the operator.
    • Affected parts/carcasses should only be used in processed meat products or, alternatively, lesions are removed and rejected. The operator will develop a program ensuring that affected meat parts/carcasses are controlled and final derived meat products are in compliance with section 4 and 5 of the Food and Drugs Act.
    • As applicable, operator may reject the whole carcass when it shows generalized lesions.

11.4 Eosinophilic myositis

Including "Sarcocystosis/Sarcosporidiosis".

Post-mortem:

  • Presence of small irregularly distributed yellowish-green or yellowish spindle-shaped lesions that vary in size from pinhead to several millimetres in length;
  • lesions detected in the muscles of the heart, oesophagus, tongue, masseters and/or diaphragm;
  • lesions in other muscles of the body;
  • in the case of chronic lesions, there may be an accumulation of connective tissue replacing degenerated muscle fibres.
  • Condemn the carcass when it shows generalized lesions and report as "Eosinophilic myositis".
  • Otherwise, remove and condemn affected parts.

11.5 Injection sites (Injection myositis)

Including "Antibiotic Residues".

Ante-mortem:

  • Signs of pre-existing disease; and
  • localized bulging enlargement under the skin (e.g. abscess).
  • Treat as suspect.

Post-mortem:

  • An area of blanched tissue often with a red line penetrating the muscular tissue as well as a red circle at the periphery;
  • local bruising in the affected area;
  • localised abscess;
  • a medicinal odour.

Hold the carcass for chemical/veterinary drug testing as per procedures of Chapter 5 of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures.

When the initial carcass chemical residue screening test is negative:

  • remove and condemn affected parts.

When the initial carcass chemical residue screening test is positive:

  • discard the carcass if the operator declines the confirmation testing to evaluate the presence of violative level of veterinary drug residues;

When the operator agrees to the confirmation testing:

  • condemn the carcass when it shows presence of violative level of veterinary drug residues/chemicals after laboratory confirmation and report under "Residues – Antibiotics" or "Residues - Others chemical residues" depending on the chemical compound;
  • when there is absence of violative level of veterinary drug residues after laboratory confirmation (i.e. result shows the absence of residue or a value below the applicable limit for that residue), remove and condemn the affected parts.

11.6 Pale Soft Exudative Pork (PSE)

Ante-mortem:

  • reluctance to move;
  • panting;
  • frothing;
  • inability to rise.
  • Pass for slaughter without restriction affected animals deemed fit for slaughter.

Post-mortem:

  • Local or regional muscle pallor.
  • The use of carcasses afflicted with PSE is at the discretion of the operator.
    • Affected parts/carcasses should only be used in processed meat products or, alternatively, lesions are removed and rejected. The operator will develop a program ensuring that affected meat parts/carcasses are controlled and final derived meat products are in compliance with section 4 and 5 of the Food and Drugs Act.
    • As applicable, operator may reject the whole carcass when it shows generalized lesions.

12 Processing conditions

12.1 Blood splash

Post-mortem:

  • red spots throughout the carcass or in local areas; and
  • spinal fracture with associated bleeding and localized carcass red spotting when electric stunning is used.
  • The use of the affected parts/carcasses is at the discretion of the operator:
    • Mildly affected carcasses may be passed without restriction.
    • For carcasses with moderate lesions, the operator will:
      • develop a program ensuring that affected meat parts/carcasses are controlled and final derived meat products are in compliance with section 4 and 5 of the Food and Drugs Act. Such program will consider the impact of using such products in the shelf life of the final derived meat products; or
      • reject the whole carcass/parts.
    • For carcasses with severe lesions, the operator will reject the carcass or the severely affected parts/areas.

12.2 Contamination

Post-mortem:

A carcass may show:

  • evidence of being dropped (floor material adhered to the carcass);
  • evidence of extensive contamination with gastro-intestinal tract or abscess content as a result of the slaughter process;
  • evidence of extensive carcass degeneration:
    • due to having fallen off the line and not returned to the line in a timely manner;
    • due to not being processed in a timely manner due to mechanical failure;
    • due to failure to process in a timely manner for another reason.

The operator is responsible to remove any contamination/defect on a carcass or parts:

  • Reject the carcass when it cannot be restored to edible standards or it shows generalized lesions.
  • Otherwise, remove and reject affected parts.

12.3 Inadequate bleeding

Post-mortem:

  • Increased blood retention in the abdominal organs;
  • increased blood retention in the carcass vasculature;
  • increased blood retention and redness of muscular tissue;
  • no or narrow or short stick wound;
  • stick wound not directed at the great vessels;
  • areas of the skin or subcutaneous tissues with deeply reddened patches.

The operator will implement the following:

  • Mildly affected carcasses may be passed without restriction.
  • For carcasses with moderate lesions, the operator will:
    • develop a program ensuring that affected meat parts/carcasses are controlled and final derived meat products are in compliance with section 4 and 5 of the Food and Drugs Act. Such program will consider the impact of using such products in the shelf life of the final derived meat products; or
    • reject the whole carcass/parts.
  • For carcasses with severe lesions, the operator will reject the carcass or the severely affected parts/areas

12.4 Loss of identity

Post-mortem:

Where viscera, head and/or carcass:

  • cannot be correlated;
  • are not presented to the official veterinarian for further evaluation.
  • Discard the carcass when, based on the judgement of the official veterinarian, a reasonable chance exists that a condemnable condition might be present and part(s) necessary for veterinary evaluation is(are) not available for inspection.
  • Otherwise, pass the carcass.

12.5 Overscald/Burn

Post-mortem:

A carcass may show:

  • breaks in the skin;
  • charred skin;
  • muscle pallor;
  • cooked appearance of the meat.

The operator is responsible to remove any defect on a carcass or part:

  • Reject the carcass when it cannot be restored to edible standards or it shows generalized lesions.
  • Otherwise, remove and reject the affected parts.

Appendix 1

Control of boar taint in meat products derived from intact male pigs

Definitions:

For the purpose of this appendix the following definitions apply:

  • "Boar" means a male hog that has at least one external testicle.
  • "Stag" means a male hog that has been recently castrated prior to slaughter. These animals are treated in the same manner as boars.
  • "Ridgling" means a male hog that has at least one undescended testicle. These animals are treated in the same manner as boars.
  • "Market Weight" means the weight of a dressed carcass including its head and its skin of a hog that is slaughtered as a juvenile finished hog of approximately five to seven months of age.

Introduction

Hog operators need to develop, implement and maintain a validated program where carcasses potentially affected with a sexual odour (i.e. all boars, ridglings, and stags) are detected, identified, controlled, evaluated and segregated according to their expected market.

The CFIA created this document as a guideline to help hog operators developing a program to comply with the section 6.11 of the document entitled "Red Meat Disposition".

Note:
Operators are encouraged to consult importing country's requirements to ensure compliance.

Component of the program

The operator will examine the carcass of every boar, stag and ridgling at the time of dressing for the presence of sexual odour.

Note:
The organoleptic detection of sexual odour is subjective and there is a large variation in individual ability to detect sexual odour. Accordingly, operator will select appropriate individuals who have the ability to detect such odours for the purpose of this examination.

1. Light Boar

Carcasses derived from boar, stag and ridgling at market weight or under, with no detectable odour will be stamped with a letter, as an example "L", on the hams, bellies, loins and shoulders. These carcasses are referred to as "light boar" carcasses.

Meat products derived from dressed light boar carcasses can be sold domestically without further identification (i.e. the labelling of these meat products as "BOAR" is not necessary). As certain export restrictions may apply, these meat products must however still be controlled. The identification system used for these meat products will provide adequate control against accidental shipping to countries where such products is not permitted.

2. Heavy Boar

Any carcasses derived from boar, stag and ridgling above market weight OR with an odour shall be stamped with a different letter, as an example "B", on the hams, bellies, loins and shoulders. These carcasses are referred to as "heavy boar" carcasses.

In any case (presence or absence of odour), the appropriate use of dressed heavy boar carcasses (i.e. marked with the letter B) and their parts is determined by the operator. These carcasses and their parts may be sold as is provided the label describes the product adequately (e.g. "boar meat").

If odour is detected, affected carcasses and their parts may be chilled for up to 48 hours in an attempt to dissipate the odour. Further testing may be done by the operator after cooling to evaluate the intensity of the sexual odour. Examples of such testing include:

  • Boiling or frying representative samples of tissues;
  • Applying heated irons in the scrotum, loin and jowl areas; or
  • Placing two small pieces of dorsal fat and leaf lard, weighing not more than 50 g, into a plastic bag. This sealed bag is then placed in boiling water or microwave oven until the fat starts melting. The top of the bag is then cut open and the content is tested for odours.

If odour is still present, the operator may:

  • choose to identify the carcass and its parts as inedible;
  • use the derived meat products in the fabrication of prepared meat products in a manner that the odour is no longer detectable. Once included into a prepared meat product in a manner where the odour and peculiar taste are no longer detectable, a special labelling is not required (e.g.: in a pepperoni, the term "pork" may be used in the list of ingredients instead of "boar"); or
  • sell the derived meat products without other treatment provided that the odour is not strong/ persistent and meat products derived from them are adequately described and labelled (e.g. "boneless boar shoulder"). This informs buyers regarding the quality of such products when this is required for their good preparation.

Component of the program in case of Immunocastration

Health Canada registered specific veterinary prescription products that are safe and effective alternative to surgical castration (e.g. IMPROVEST™ injection). These are indicated for the temporary suppression of testicular function and reduction of boar taint in intact male pigs intended for slaughter.

Market weight intact male pigs, including ridglings, treated with any immunocastration product as per supplier's established protocols are considered as barrows when presented for slaughter. Every shipment of treated animals will be accompanied by a statement on an Animal Information Document or a completed and signed Farm Declaration (contact the veterinary product supplier for a copy of such document) stipulating that intact males, including the ridglings, in the shipment have been effectively treated with the immunocastration products in accordance with the established protocol. As per the established protocol, producers will identify every treated pig with a specific slap tattoo character in order to positively identify treated animals. The description of the specific tattoo must be communicated to CFIA for awareness.

Unless an odour is detected, any meat products derived from intact male pigs, no matter their weight, that have been effectively treated with immunocastration product will simply be identified as pork. This means that carcasses and parts derived from immunocastrated animals can be sold domestically without further identification. Since immunocastrated animals are considered as barrows they are not theoretically exposed to specific restrictions imposed by foreign countries on boars. Operators are however encouraged to consult importing country requirements to ensure compliance.

If meat products derived from intact male pigs that have been treated with immunocastration product exhibit an odour, the carcasses will have to be considered "heavy boar" carcasses, and subjected to the same criteria mentioned for heavy boar as presented in this document.

A program regarding immunocastration should consider at least the following elements:

  • Accept only immunocastrated pigs from certified farms.
  • Accept only immunocastrated pigs accompanied by the Farm Declaration document or an Animal Information document (containing an equivalent statement).
  • Accept only immunocastrated pigs exhibiting specific slap tattoo character, as communicated/described by the supplier of the immunocastration product.
  • Maintain a current customer complaint record relating to pork off-odours.
  • Investigate and take appropriate corrective and preventative measures on customer complaints.
  • Contact the supplier of the immunocastration product in cases where boar taint related to pigs which have been treated with such product is detected.
  • Any pig, whether boar or barrow, exhibiting boar taint will be considered a boar and current CFIA policy relating to boars will apply.
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