Annex C: HACCP Based Slaughter Inspection Program (HIP) for Swine
10.0 Performance Tests – Finished Product

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10.1 Introduction to Finished Product Standards Testing

It is critical in slaughter production environments to be able to perform periodic product evaluations on the finished product in order to validate hygienic manufacturing performance.

Finished Product Standards (FPS) testing is designed to verify that the procedures used in preparing and approving a dressed food animal carcass are in control and a product is produced that is in conformance with minimum Canadian regulatory standards. FPS tests are performed on selected sample sets of carcasses randomly chosen throughout the production shift to validate the operator's performance in meeting prescribed performance standards.

Accredited plant personnel are responsible for performing FPS tests as well as taking the appropriate action in response to the FPS test results. Certified CFIA inspectors are responsible for monitoring the establishment's tests, actions and records; as well as performing correlation tests and periodic independent tests (as deemed necessary by the VIC) to verify the company's performance.

FPS testing is meant to detect the incidence of carcass dressing defects classified under three categories. FPS Food Safety I (FPS-FS I), FPS Food Safety II (FPS-FS II) and FPS Other Carcass defects (FPS-OC). FPS-FS I and FPS-FS II are carcass defects that have the potential to create a food safety risk. These defects are listed as part of Table 10.1. FPS-FS I defects result from gastro-intestinal or milk spillage. FPS-FS II defects result from the presence of various types and degrees of untrimmed pathological conditions. FPS-OC defects are generally the result of untrimmed, food wholesomeness defects and/or conditions that are required to be removed by regulation as part of the dressing procedure. When selecting a carcass sample set for FPS testing, the operator shall provide adequate facilities to isolate all selected carcasses off-line prior to the final carcass wash cabinet.

In establishments where swine are slaughtered at line speeds of less than 200 cph, the operator may choose to perform the carcass FPS tests on line immediately prior to the final carcass wash cabinet. This is only acceptable if the operator can demonstrate an ability to effectively examine and refurbish all carcasses examined in a sample set prior to the final carcass wash.

From the time that a new operator commences product testing under the HIP program, he shall be allowed a period of two months (60 consecutive calendar days) to meet the national performance standard for FPS-FS I defect removal. Refer to Appendix G. If the operator is not able to meet this standard after the allotted trial period the VIC shall notify and consult with the National Program Officer and the Regional Veterinary Officer.

FPS-FS I defects shall be evaluated on the basis of colour, texture and consistency. They must be clearly identifiable before being scored as such. Generally defects that are less than 3.0 mm in their greatest dimension can be difficult to characterize with certainty when using only the naked eye. If the observer is not able to clearly identify a defect as being of gastrointestinal origin or milk, it shall be classified as extraneous or foreign material, removed and scored under the FPS-OC defects category.

10.2 Finished Product Standards – Food Safety Category I (FPS-FS I) Defect Testing

Normal mode is the starting mode when HIP is first introduced in an establishment. Scheduled random sampling for FPS-FS testing is performed by the operator and monitored by the CFIA. The randomly selected carcass sample set is evaluated for the presence of FS I defects. Sample size is determined according to ISO Sampling Plan 2859-1, using Inspection level FS-1 and a nationally determined AQL. See Appendix G and Module E 5 for additional information.

In establishments where the sample set is examined off-line, all carcass samples shall be selected consecutively from the moving rail using a standard random selection technique described in the operator's written program.

In establishments where the sample set is examined on-line, the first carcass should be selected using a standard random selection technique and each subsequently sampled carcass shall be chosen at regular intervals (e.g., every 10th carcass). The sampling procedure shall be fully described in the company's written program and must be approved by the VIC.

All individual carcasses found to have pathological defects that do not pose a contamination concern by being subject to carcass washing may be identified and segregated on a designated rail in the carcass cooler for subsequent reconditioning.

Any FPS-FS I defect encountered during the examination of the carcasses in the sample set scores as zero tolerance and results in the failure of that sample set. All carcasses shall be examined in a sample set even if the sample set fails due to the examination of the initial carcasses in the set. All defects shall be removed in a sanitary manner before the sample set is released.

FPS-FS I test results shall be recorded on form CFIA HIP 005: ISO HIP Finished Product Standards Test – Food Safety Defects and resultant actions are indicated in Appendix C: Decision Tree for HIP FPS-FS Defect Testing.

Table 10.1 FPS-FS Category I and Category II Defects:

Non-exhaustive list of carcass GDAC of concern from a food safety risk perspectiveFootnote 6 (under review)

  • Abscess
  • Anemia
  • Arthritis/arthrosis
  • Ascites
  • Cachexia
  • Cyanosis/congestion/edema
  • Emaciation
  • Fecal contamination (FS I)
  • Gangrene
  • Hydrothorax
  • Hypothermia/hyperthermia
  • Icterus/jaundice
  • Ingesta contamination (FS I)
  • Injection site
  • Lymphadenitis and lymphadenopathy
  • Milk (FS I)
  • Multifocal cutaneous macules
  • Polyserositis
  • Pustular dermatitis
  • Serous atrophy of fat
  • Multiple GDAC

The presence of GDAC (except fecal, ingesta contamination) needs to be confirmed by the CFIA veterinarian at the slaughter establishment.

GDAC = Generalized Disease Abnormalities and Conditions

10.2.1 Finished Product Standards – Food Safety Category II (FPS-FS II) Defect Testing

Scheduled random sampling for FPS-FS II pathology defects shall be performed by the operator and monitored by the CFIA. The test shall be performed for the purposes of data gathering only until further notice.

Any FS II pathology defect noted while conducting the FPS-FS I or FPS-OC test is to be recorded in the allocated section of one of the forms noted below. Ensure double recording does not occur where the same FS II defect is noted on a carcass common to both tests. Carcasses shall be examined, re-conditioned as required and test results recorded on HIP Form 005 or HIP Form 006, as applicable.

10.2.2 FPS-FS I Test Modes

There is zero tolerance for any FPS FS-FS I defect; therefore, the sample set and associated lot fails as a result of detection of any FPS FS-FS I defect. The operator shall immediately identify and hold the production lot associated with the test failure for rework procedures. The CFIA shall be notified. All carcasses in the sample set must be examined and all classes of defects (FS I, FS II, OC) must be sanitarily removed before the sample set carcasses are released.

Normal Mode

Observation of one or more food safety defects will fail the sample set and alter the classification of Normal test mode. The CFIA shall be notified whenever there is a failure to maintain Normal mode status.

There shall be an increase in the test frequency for FPS-FS I defects any time the Evisceration Performance Test fails and enters Tightened mode. These tests shall be performed as part of corrective action initiative to validate control of the failure. Immediately following each of the initial two Tightened mode Evisceration Performance tests, an FPS-FS I test shall also be performed. Provided the Tightened Mode tests are both successful, FPS-FS I may then return to random testing frequency. Any continued failures of the Evisceration test would require continued increased FPS-FS I testing frequency while in Normal mode.

Small establishments that are testing at a Normal frequency and have a failure must have an additional test in half an hour to verify performance. A failure of this additional test will cause a change of mode to Tightened. An accepted score will result in a return to normal test frequency.

Tightened Mode

Upon entering tightened mode from the Normal mode, the operator shall immediately identify and hold only the production lot associated with the test failure for rework procedures. The CFIA shall be notified.

Tightened mode is maintained until the operator has passed five consecutive satisfactory tests performed at 15 minute intervals. In each carcass sample set the carcasses shall be examined for food safety defects only and all carcasses in the set shall be examined regardless of how many food safety defects are noted. After five consecutive satisfactory tests, the operator may return to Normal Mode.

Reduced Mode (Elective)

Reduced mode is achieved after 10 consecutive satisfactory tests in Normal mode (the operator may elect to remain in Normal mode). If a food safety defect is found on any carcass in a sample set while in Reduced mode, the test shall fail and the operator shall return to Normal mode. The associated lot shall be identified for rework procedures. All carcasses in the sample set shall be examined for food safety defects.

Additionally, small establishments that are testing at a reduced frequency and have a failure must shift to Normal mode and have an additional test in half an hour before returning to the usual testing frequency of once per half shift.

Note

If while in FPS Reduced mode there is an Evisceration Performance test failure with a subsequent mode change from Reduced to Normal mode or Normal to Tightened mode, the FPS-FS I test frequency shall change as described under section 5.2.4. There is no change to FPS-FS I test mode status unless there is a subsequent test failure (See Appendix C).

10.2.3 FPS-FS II Test Modes

The test for FS category II defects shall be performed concurrently on the same carcasses as those selected for the FPS-FS I and FPS-OC test. Therefore, all carcasses sampled for FPS evaluation shall also be evaluated for the presence of any FS category II defects.

There is a zero acceptance for the presence of any FS category II defect. Any defects, regarless of their type, shall be sanitarily removed before the carcass sample set is released. Normally, only the sample set shall be refurbished and no rework of the associated lot shall occur.

Should the veterinarian determine that more than just the sample set may be affected by the presence of an FS II defect s/he may instruct the operator to conduct a full rework on the associated lot of carcasses.

10.2.4 Corrective Actions for Food Safety I (FS I) Defects

Refer to Appendix C: Decision Tree for Food Safety Category I Defects. For details on lot rework, refer to section 11.

Normal Mode

In Normal mode a lot failure occurs upon any FS 1 failures. The production lot associated with the failed test shall be detained and identified for rework procedures. Carcasses in the failed sample set shall be re-conditioned to edible standards prior to being released. The operator shall suspend random sampling and notify the CFIA of the failure.

Tightened Mode

In Tightened mode random testing is suspended and the first test shall occur within 15 minutes of the previous failed Normal mode test. Testing shall continue every 15 minutes until five consecutive successful tests have been performed. Lot size changes to 15 minutes of production while in Tightened mode. While in Tightened mode all failed tests shall require that the associated lot be identified for rework. Carcasses in the failed sample set shall be satisfactorily re-conditioned prior to being released. The CFIA shall be notified of each test failure.

Reduced Mode (Elective)

In Reduced mode, a production lot failure occurs upon the first failed test of a carcass sample set and the associated lot is subject to rework procedures. The carcass sample set shall be sanitarily refurbished prior to being released. A reduction in status to Normal Mode occurs.

FPS Test Failure Associated With Evisceration Test

Any FPS-FS I test failure that occurs in association with the ISO Evisceration test shall be treated in accordance with the ISO switching rules for the particular mode in which FPS was operating at the time of the test failure.

10.2.5 Corrective Actions for Food Safety II Defects

Normally, only the sample set shall be refurbished and no rework shall occur.

Should the veterinarian determine that more than just the sample set may be affected by the presence of an FS II defects/he may instruct the operator to conduct a full rework on the associated lot of carcasses. All FPS-FS II and any coincidental FS I or OC defect must be removed from the carcass sample set prior to being released.

Corrective actions may include but are not limited to:

  • increased frequency of testing;
  • placing an additional trimmer on line until the normal test index (yet to be established) is restored;
  • review of ante-mortem screening procedures; and
  • employee counselling/re-training.

10.3 Finished Product Standards – Other Carcass (FPS-OC) Defects Testing

FPS-OC defects are conditions that are regarded as unsuitable for public consumption and/or fail to meet regulatory requirements. FPS-OC defects may be conditions of farm origin (such as old fractures, scar tissue, skin irritations or minor or major bruising) or they may occur as a result of transportation, live animal handling, stunning, and/or dressing procedure failures.

The operator shall perform carcass tests for FPS-OC defects on each production lot during each production shift. These tests shall be performed on a random basis and may be conducted at the same time and include the same sample set that is being used to conduct the FS I and FS II defect test. FPS-OC testing shall be performed off-line or online according to the line speed criteria noted in section 10.1. FPS-OC test results are to be recorded on form CFIA HIP 006. A reduction in testing frequencies may occur in this category based upon operator performance.

All defects shall be removed in a sanitary manner before the sample set it released.

10.3.1 FPS-OC Defect Scoring

The scoring criteria for FPS-OC defects are provided in Table 10.2.

Dry adhesions, localized skin conditions and resolved scar tissue less than 5.0 cm in the greatest dimension (GD), healed fractures, small bone fragments, and fractures created during dressing procedures are disregarded and not scored as FPS-OC defects. These lesions do not normally require trimming unless they are associated with unsuitable haemorrhage, bruising, etc. The hair that may be around the leg near where the shackle was shall not be scored.

Each major defect scores 10 and each minor defect scores 2 except for applicable organ remnants, toenails, interdigital space, skin conditions and mammary tissue which score 5. Organ remnant is defined as any abdominal or thoracic viscera including the aorta and the pizzle.

Table 10.2 Scoring Criteria for FPS-OC Defects
Non Conformance Minor Defect Description Major Defect
Stains (e.g. bile, oil, rust) ≤ 4 cm GD > 4 cm GD
Blood clots > 4 cm to ≤ 15 cm GD > 15 cm GD
Bruising > 2.5 cm, ≤ 6 cm GD & ≤ 2.5 cm deep > 6 cm GD & > 2.5 cm deep
Extraneous material ≤ 10 cm2 area of smear of dust or ≤ 15 specks in an area of 50 cm2. Insects (flies, mosquitoes, etc.) = 1 minor each > 10 cm2 of smear of dust; or > 15 specks in an area of 50 cm2
Hair (scalded carcass) 5-10 strands in a 50 cm2 area > 10 strands in a 50 cm2 area
Hide (dehided carcass) ≤ 5 cm GD >5 cm GD
Mutilation
(complete break in skin)
≥ 5 cm to ≤ 7.5 cm GD > 7.5 cm GD
Scar tissue/adhesions ≥ 5 cm to ≤ 7.5 cm GD > 7.5 cm GD
Organ remnant Table Note 4 ≥ 5 cm to ≤ 7.5 cm GD > 7.5 cm GD
Toenails or interdigital spaces Table Note 4 1 > 1
Skin conditions Table Note 4 (unmarked) seedy belly, urine burn, etc. ≥ 5 cm to ≤ 10 cm GD > 10 cm GD
Mammary tissue Table Note 4 non-lactating ≤ 20 cm GD > 20 cm GD
Fractures N/A Any fresh fracture not removed
Stick wounds N/A Any untrimmed stick wound

Table Notes

Table note 4

Minor except mammary tissue, organ remnants, skin conditions, interdigital spaces & nails are multiplied by 5.

Return to table note 4  referrer

  • Multiply each minor nonconformance by 2 except as noted in Footnote 5 below.
  • Multiply each major nonconformance by 10.
  • Add major and minor nonconformance.
  • Acceptance and Rejection Numbers are provided in Table 10.3.
  • If what is found is less than the minimum minor size or count listed, do not score.
  • A maximum of 10 points (a major) is to be counted per category fo each carcass.

GD = greatest dimension

10.3.2 FPS-OC Acceptance and Rejection Numbers

The Acceptance and Rejection numbers for FPS-OC defects tests are provided in Table 10.3.

The lot associated with the sample set is accepted when the score or the test is equal to or less than the Acceptance Number.

The lot associated with the sample set is rejected when the score or the test is equal to greater than the Rejection Number. A rejected lot is also referred to as a failed lot.

Upon failing a FPS-OC test, whether in Regular or Relaxed mode, the operator shall immediately identify and only hold the production lot associated with the test failure for rework. The CFIA shall be notified. If the operator was in Relaxed mode, he shall return to Regular testing mode. The affected lot shall be reworked for the FPS-OC defect(s) that were identified in the failed test score.

Table 10.3 Acceptance and Rejection Numbers for FPS-OC Defect Tests
Operator Lot Size FPS-OC Sample Size Acceptance Number (lot is accepted with this score or less) Rejection Number (lot is rejected with this score or more)
< 200 2 11 12
200 to 299 3 17 18
300 to 399 4 23 24
400 to 499 5 29 30
500 or more 6 35 36

10.3.3 FPS-OC Defect Testing Modes and Corrective Actions

HIP Finished Product Standards Testing – Other Carcass Defects and resultant process actions are indicated in Appendix D: Decision Tree for HIP FPS-OC Defect Testing. For details on lot rework, refer to section 11.0.

Regular Mode

In Regular mode, the operator continues to randomly test each lot, (see table 4.1, or table 4.1a as applicable and table 10.3 for sample sizes and test frequencies), unless eligible to move to Relaxed mode. A test failure in Regular mode requires that the operator identify the associated lot and designate it for rework. Corrective actions shall be initiated by the operator. The CFIA shall be notified of the failure.

Relaxed Mode (Elective)

After 10 consecutive successful test scores in Regular mode, the operator may elect to move into Relaxed mode. The same number of carcasses shall be tested, but the testing frequency is reduced in accordance with Table 4.1 (note: the relaxed mode is not applicable to establishments processing 100 cph or less). A test failure in Relaxed mode requires that the operator identify only the current associated production lot for rework. The CFIA shall be notified of the failure.

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