Annex B: High Line Speed Inspection System (HLIS) - Beef
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Table of Contents
- 1.0 - Introduction
- 2.0 - Personnel Requirements
- 3.0 - Facility Requirements
- 4.0 - General Inspection Procedures
- 5.0 - Statistical Process Controls
- 6.0 - Presentation Standards
- 7.0 - Finished Product Standards for Carcasses
- Appendix A - Decision Tree for Shewhart Control Chart
- Appendix B - Decision Tree for Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Other Carcass Defects (OCD)
- Appendix C - Decision Tree for Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Food Safety I (FS-I) Defects
- Appendix D - Decision Tree for Presentation
- Appendix E - Decision Tree for Carcass Rework
- HLIS 001 - Shewhart Control Chart
- HLIS 002 - Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Other Carcass Defects (OCD)
- HLIS 003 - Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Food Safety (FS) Defects
- HLIS 004A - ISO SPC Test - Beef Heads Presentation
- HLIS 004B - ISO SPC Test - Beef Viscera Presentation
- HLIS 004C - ISO SPC Test - Beef Carcass Presentation
- HLIS 005 - HLIS Beef Program - Facility Assessment (For CFIA use only)
- Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)
- A percentage value assigned to the level of undetected defects that are present in a production lot based on a statistical method of analysis. (Niveau de qualité acceptable [NQA])
- Carcass line speed
- The continuous movement of carcass locations to ensure empty locations are counted along the main carcass rail is stated as the gross uninterrupted speed calculated over a 60 minutes period past a fixed point and shall not be calculated on the net number of carcasses dressed per hour. (Vitesse de chaîne pour les carcasses)
- Control chart
- A statistical quality assurance tool for evaluating and controlling one or more process steps during the manufacturing procedure. (Carte de contrôle)
- Corrective action
- A course of action(s) which identifies and corrects non conformities at one or more locations in the slaughter process such that the product(s), process(es), procedure(s) or condition(s) are returned to minimum standards of compliance. (Action corrective)
- Correlation testing
- Simultaneous product performance testing conducted jointly but independently by the CFIA and the plant operator to determine if results are being scored and recorded with similar interpretation. These may be randomly scheduled or non scheduled tests initiated by the CFIA. (Tests de corrélation)
- A defined set of food safety and other carcass defects conditions which occur on the carcass or its parts as a result of manufacturing conditions or practices during the live handling, slaughtering, and/or dressing operations or occurs as a disease process in the live animal. Refer to form HLIS 002 - Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Other Carcass Defects (OCD) and form HLIS 003 - Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Food Safety (FS) Defects. (Défaut/attribut)
- HLIS certified CFIA Inspector (VIC or EG) who performs duties and takes action on behalf of the Veterinarian in Charge (VIC) in accordance with his/her instructions. (Représentant)
- Final carcass approval area
- That area, between the CFIA final carcass inspector and the main rail return switch, where all carcasses receive final approval/rework and are released to the main line as approved carcasses. (Zone d'approbation finale des carcasses)
- Finished Product Standards (FPS)
- A defined set of food safety and other carcass defects including manufacturing and/or pathological defects that a carcass or its parts shall conform to in order to comply with the standard. (Normes relatives aux produits finis [NPF])
- Food Safety Defects: Category I (FS I)
- Any visible spillage of gastro-intestinal contents or milk onto the exposed surfaces of the carcass. (Défauts liés à la salubrité des aliments : catégorie I [SA-I])
- Food Safety Defects: Category II (FS II)
- Any visible condition on a carcass that is associated with a pathological disease condition. (Défauts liés à la salubrité des aliments : catégorie II [SA-II])
- Refers to the International Organization for Standardization and its associated Quality Assurance rules, standards and sampling plans. (ISO)
- A defined period of product manufacturing of 0.5 hrs. or 1.0 hr. (Lot)
- Other Carcass Defects (OCDs)
- Those defects that may appear on a carcass that do not pose an immediate or direct food safety risk to the consumer but do fail to meet criteria for food wholesomeness or regulatory standards. (Autres défauts de la carcasse [ADC])
- Additional test(s) conducted as directed by HLIS decision trees to determine the effectiveness of corrective action(s). (Test supplémentaire)
- Reprocessing of an identified product lot/sample set to correct the condition(s) causing the non-conformance(s) such that all affected product conforms to prescribed minimum Finished product standards (FPS) criteria for the particular defect(s). (Retravail)
- Sample set
- A statistically determined number of units that are randomly selected from a defined population and used to represent the overall performance characteristics of that group. (Sous-groupe)
- Sampling plan (ISO 2859-1)
- A standardized table prescribing specific sample sizes or sets that may be used to statistically evaluate product performance over a defined period of manufacturing activity.(Plan d'échantillonnage [ISO 2859-1])
- Shewhart control chart
- A control chart based on statistical principles of performance associated with a population of normally distributed attributes. (Carte de contrôle de Shewhart)
- Statistical Process Controls (SPC)
- A statistical tool used to validate the performance of a particular process step. (Contrôle statistique du processus)
- Trimmable Pathological Condition (TPC)
- An unacceptable defect that may result from transportation, handling, dressing procedures or a disease process and does not necessarily affect the disposition of the entire carcass. (Défaut pathologique parable [DPP])
- Zero tolerance defect
- An unacceptable pathological or manufacturing defect for which there is no prescribed tolerance. (Défaut assujetti à une tolérance zéro)
Technological advances in both building design and the equipment used in modern slaughter and processing facilities has provided new opportunities for establishment operators to function at much higher production volumes. Efficiency in plant monitoring methods has also changed dramatically through the application of science based quality assurance and food safety programs such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System. These changes to plant operating methods also make it necessary to adjust and modernize the current method and approach to food inspection systems by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) in a modern slaughter facility in order that the Agency may continue to deliver reliable scientifically based methods of food safety inspection at these higher volumes.
The High Line Speed Inspection System (HLIS) is one such system that allows beef slaughter facilities to operate at enhanced line speeds. This system can be implemented in federal establishments that slaughter animals used for the production of beef provided the facility operator agrees to certain facility and equipment modifications as well as specific process controls to ensure that the integrity of the product is maintained when it is produced under these high volume conditions. Before the HLIS is adopted in any slaughter facility it is imperative that clear dialogue occurs between the CFIA and the facility operator regarding the resource impact of plant monitoring responsibilities, training needs, financial and human resource commitments.
The HLIS incorporates modifications to the traditional post-mortem inspection procedures and inspection station configurations by establishing presentation standards (PS) for the heads, viscera, and carcasses prior to inspection and finished product standards (FPS) for carcasses.
The HLIS provides an opportunity for the establishment to adjust to assuming a greater responsibility for managing the quality and safety of their product through an initial one time CFIA certified training program for their plant personnel. The CFIA provides this initial training for any starting facility so an initial block of trained plant personnel may be established. Further training is then assumed by the establishment. This format provides a co-operative and shared inspection approach to the slaughter and carcass dressing procedures. Significant inspection station reductions are realized at higher line speeds due to efficiencies gained through minimized product handling and a shift toward greater responsibility on the part of the company to present and manage its own product.
Under this program the operator will be responsible for the identification and removal of defects that result during live handling, humane stunning, or dressing operations collectively referred to as "manufacturing defects". The operator will also assume responsibility for the removal of certain minor specified trimmable pathological conditions (TPCs). Removal of these defects will be accomplished by plant personnel that have undergone a training and accreditation program to become designated accredited trimmers, presenters, monitors and detectors. The establishment employee training program is to be established in writing and approved by the VIC.
1.1 Product Testing
Under HLIS procedures, the VIC or delegate has the final authority to stop the line or reduce its speed if it is evident that the operator's efforts are failing to manage the problem. Due to the high volume and rapid line speeds that these plants operate at, all alternative corrective actions to manage the problem should be thoroughly considered before the decision to stop or reduce line speed is taken. If it is apparent from performance data that an operator cannot consistently perform at an Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) for any of the process control steps in HLIS, the line speed maximums shall be re-assessed by the VIC and the facility operator. See also note below.
Only designated trained industry personnel shall perform the tests described in the program. The test results are recorded in company logs/record sheets. It is normally the QC monitor's responsibility to review the entries made in the records for timeliness and accuracy and to assure that appropriate action is taken when the standards are not met. The QC monitor (or designated equivalent) will also conduct independent tests and compare the results of these with those of production personnel if applicable. In turn, CFIA personnel will periodically monitor the operator's quality control program by monitoring production activities, reviewing company records and by comparing and correlating the results of their own tests with those conducted by Production and/or QC personnel.
Unless otherwise stated in this policy, the CFIA will perform on a random basis correlation tests where the industry designated trained employee conducts the test immediately upstream of a CFIA inspector who verifies if industry is effectively conducting the test. Correlation testing applies to Shewhart Control Chart, Presentation, and carcass FPS testing. At the discretion of the VIC or delegate, additional correlation tests may be performed during a production shift if it is determined that product performance or test results are being affected or influenced by unusual or extraordinary circumstances or poor operator performance.
Note: Subject to CFIA approval, under specific circumstances the operator may request that correlation testing for a specific test be replaced by independent testing. When such a request is approved, independent tests will be conducted by CFIA in lieu of the specific correlation test. The objective in this case is to determine if the process is in compliance, rather than correlate the operators findings. Accordingly, results of a failed independent test will be officially recorded, the QC monitor will be notified and implementation of corrective actions will be required.
The VIC shall have discretion in initiating corrective action through consultation with the operator if it is determined that unsatisfactory or poor product/employee performance is occurring during non testing intervals or there is a general difficulty in achieving consistent satisfactory test score results. Repetitive occurrences shall be documented on the appropriate record and corrective action shall be undertaken by the operator or at the direction of the VIC or delegate.
If it becomes apparent from historical performance data (5 consecutive shifts or more) that an operator cannot perform consistentlyFootnote 1 at an established AQL for any of the process control steps in the HLIS program and previous corrective action undertakings by the operator have not provided long term resolution to the problem, then the line speed maximums for the process step(s) involved shall be re-assessed by the VIC and the operator and reset to a lower maximum level, using an initial increment reduction of 10%.
If the initial line speed reduction does not provide satisfactory improvements within the first operating half a shift a further reduction(s) shall be imposed until the accepted AQL for the affected process step(s) has been re-established. From the time a satisfactory line speed and associated AQL is established it shall remain in place for a minimum of 5 consecutive working shifts.
If during this reduced line speed period the operator can clearly demonstrate that the initial cause of the original under performance was due to a discrete and specific operational issue that has subsequently been fully corrected the operator may then request that the VIC immediately commence to restore line speeds to their original values in the same increments that they were reduced.
Once restored, should the same or similar under performance issues again arise within a 5 consecutive shift period the line speed shall be immediately reduced to it's former level and shall remain at this or a lesser line speed until 5 consecutive shifts have been completed. At that point, the operator and the VIC shall consult and agree as to whether or not it is appropriate from records of performance for the past 5 shifts to restore line speeds to their original values.
If the CFIA's correlation test result fails to correlate with that of the monitor an immediate retest shall be performed (with the exception of the detection of an FPS FS I defect found during an FPS FS I test) and QC will be notified. Two consecutive non matching correlation tests between the operator and the CFIA will require that corrective actions be initiated by the operator (if applicable) based on the results of the second CFIA test which shall be taken as the correct score.
In the case of FPS FS I correlation testing, any detection of an FPS FS I defect shall be officially recorded, QC notified and appropriate corrective actions shall be initiated by the operator. The CFIA will monitor all Plant Production and QC corrective action activities to ensure program requirements are met. The discrepancy in scoring results shall be investigated and reconciled in consultation with the VIC after all required corrective actions have been implemented.
If the operator is not in agreement with the CFIA results, the operator may elect to have the VIC (or delegate) examine the defect. The results of the VIC decision shall be officially recorded and if this result confirms that the noted observation is a defect, appropriate corrective actions shall be initiated by the operator.
For all AQLs (or equivalent) assigned to a process control step in the HLIS program a participating operator shall be expected to achieve at least the 80th percentile of performance on average when results from the CFIA and the operator are jointly examined over a period of 5 consecutive working shifts or longer.
1.2 General Responsibilities
Once an operator has had its application for HLIS inspection staff resources approved within the Region it will then be subject to a review process to confirm that it can provide adequate resources, materials and facilities to meet the requirements of the HLIS policy on an ongoing basis. In addition, those process steps that will be subject to a performance standard under the HLIS policy shall first have their existing performance level assessed. This shall be done by gathering sets of baseline data prior to implementing any process controls at these locations under the HLIS policy.
The HLIS policy introduces the application of process controls at certain critical locations along the processing line. When an operator initiates operations under the HLIS format he may elect to use the national performance standards when those exist or alternately gather and use their own in-plant data to establish their process control performance level. For the latter, in order to fairly assess these control points, it is important to know what level the operator was performing at prior to entering the HLIS program and to also know at what level it is able to maintain itself. Therefore performance data based on a minimum of 50 sample sets taken at each designated process step gathered over a minimum of 10 working days will be required before the operator may begin to apply the HLIS process controls at these locations. Following this, the operator will be allowed 2 months to adjust its operations to meet the declared national performance standards for SPC testing, dehiding performance through Shewhart testing and FPS food safety and FPS other carcass defects. A maximum of 6 months will be allowed for an operator to meet the national AQLs for presentation of carcasses and their parts.
Facility and resource requirements
Under the HLIS Program, Plant Management shall agree to provide an approved facility that meets the CFIA HLIS and Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures (MOP) construction standards. Before a facility can be approved for HLIS operations it shall undergo a facility review by an Area Operation Specialist and the RVO along with the VIC to validate that all HLIS facility standards are in compliance with the policy requirements. Once the facility review is satisfactorily completed a signed letter of commitment from a responsible company officer shall be forwarded to the VIC. This letter addresses the following items:
- The operator agrees to maintain a facility that meets the criteria referenced in the HLIS policy and the MOP once the HLIS program application is approved.
- The operator agrees to provide sufficient material(s), financial and human resources, to carry out the various functions and responsibilities designated to him under the HLIS Program.
- The operator agrees to carry out all functions and responsibilities assigned to him under the HLIS program and to take all necessary actions as indicated therein during the operation of the HLIS program.
- Should the operator decide to withdraw from the HLIS program, the CFIA shall be provided with written notification of the operator's decision ten working days prior to the final scheduled day of HLIS operations. After 6 months of continuous absence from the HLIS program the operator shall lose its certification as an approved HLIS facility.
- While certified as HLIS, all slaughter operations shall be performed in accordance with the HLIS program.
The letter of commitment shall be renewed at least annually or upon departure of the responsible signing official.
The application of this HLIS policy manual must at all times remain in compliance with the Meat Inspection Act, Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990, Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures as well as the Food Safety Enhancement Program. Unresolved differences in the interpretation of the application of the HLIS policy between CFIA personnel and the operator may be referred to the appropriate CFIA Operational guidance and expertise specialists for written clarification. During this interim period the decision of the VIC/RVO shall prevail.
1.3 Alternate Procedures/Approaches
Operators can propose alternate procedures/approaches to the different elements presented in this policy. Alternate procedures/approaches must meet or exceed the procedures, standards and outcomes as the procedure it is intended to replace. Alternate procedures must be submitted by the operator to the Veterinarian in-Charge, who will consult with the Operational guidance and expertise specialists. The alternate approach will be evaluated in collaboration with National Program Specialists. The alternate procedure cannot be used prior to a no objection by the CFIA. Operators should be advised that issuance of an opinion will depend on the quality and completeness of the information submitted to the CFIA. Additionally, note that evaluation of any new procedure may take some time as it may have significant impact on trade and require specific CFIA Operational adjustment (e.g. training of local inspection staff).
2. Personnel Requirements
2.1.1 Training Protocol for Accredited Plant Employees
An important part of the success of HLIS is the training and accreditation of key plant personnel. The positions for which accreditation is required are the following: presenters, detectors, trimmers, and monitors. Training and accreditation for the initial group of plant employees will be done by CFIA certified staff using the CFIA National Training Program. Accreditation requires successful completion of both a theoretical classroom session as well as a practical evaluation. All subsequent training of new staff will be performed by accredited plant personnel through the operator's HLIS training program. Thereafter, CFIA accredited personnel under the supervision of the VIC will only monitor the training of plant personnel as well as the plant's written program to ensure sufficient training standards are being maintained. The VIC or delegate is responsible for approving the operator's HLIS training program. At least once a year the VIC shall ensure that it is current and complete, including records of all accredited employees.
Should 6 or more consecutive calendar months lapse in which any accredited plant employee is not exposed to the application and/or practices of the HLIS program any such affected employee will be required to undergo a refresher training course and satisfactorily demonstrate their knowledge and application of the HLIS program before being re-accredited. The QC department shall be responsible for monitoring and maintaining the accredited status of their employees. The VIC has the right to decertify any accredited plant employee by having their name removed from the company eligibility roster. There must be demonstrable factual information to show that the individual is not able to meet the required standards. A protocol describing the process of deaccreditation and retraining must be included in the operator's HLIS written program.
22.214.171.124 Plant Employee Accreditation
- Trimmers (see also section 4.3.1 - Duties of Trained/Accredited Plant Personnel)
In order to accredit an employee as a "trimmer" the operator shall demonstrate that the following conditions are met:
- The accredited trimmers are employees who are trained and accredited as proficient in the detection and sanitary removal of dressing non conformances and trimmable pathological conditions (TPCs) within the Other Carcass Defects (OCD) category.
- The operator takes full responsibility for the training/re-training of accredited trimmers as well as for testing for proficiency as per the CFIA HLIS training program criteria.
- A current written training program signed off by a responsible plant officer, which outlines the operator's training and evaluation procedures is maintained on file and approved by the VIC and shall be made available upon request.
- Maintenance of a current roster of employees who have passed the plant accreditation process is maintained on file and a current copy of the roster shall be submitted to the VIC at least quarterly and be available on demand should the need to consult the roster arise during the intervening period.
- Detectors (see also section 4.3.1 - Duties of Trained/Accredited Plant Personnel)
See section section 126.96.36.199 a) Trimmers
- Presenters (head, viscera and carcass)
- The accredited presenters are proficient in preparing/orienting the appropriate carcass parts in a manner that conforms to minimum performance standards. Items ii - iv under section 188.8.131.52 a) Trimmers are applicable.
- Process control monitors (Shewhart control chart, Presentation, FPS for FS and other carcass defects [including Rework]).
- The process control monitors shall be proficient in their knowledge, understanding and application of the respective detection, scoring, recording and corrective action activities associated with the described positions for which they assume responsibility. Items ii - iv under section 184.108.40.206 a) Trimmers are applicable.
When an accredited plant employee is required to perform more than one task, be it another accredited task or non accredited task relating to that person's job, that employee shall not be distracted by additional responsibilities that would prevent him/her from otherwise satisfactorily performing the accredited functions of the position as if it were his/her sole responsibility. For example, the detector/trimmer function is often assigned as a joint responsibility. This may only occur if the above conditions can be met and there is an auditable means available for assessing detection and trimming performance.
220.127.116.11 CFIA Employees
- Indeterminate Employees
CFIA employees are initially trained and certified through the CFIA National Certification Program. Should a lapse of 6 consecutive calendar months or more occur where a certified CFIA inspector has not been exposed to the principles and applications of the HLIS program they shall be required to undergo a refresher training course in accordance with the HLIS training program. Under the direction of the VIC or delegate, the candidate shall satisfactorily demonstrate their knowledge and application of the program through a written and practical test process.
- Seasonal/Temporary Employees
CFIA employees in this category will be trained for limited participation in the HLIS program. They shall be trained to understand and perform the necessary post-mortem functions (see the relevant CFIA training modules) but shall not be responsible for floor monitoring activities. They shall be responsible for understanding and reporting on the activities of those plant employees who are improperly preparing carcasses and their parts for post-mortem inspection. Any such employee who works in this capacity for greater than 6 continuous calendar months (183 continuous calendar days) shall receive full HLIS certification training.
2.2 Plant Operations
2.2.1 Plant Production
Plant Production designated staff shall assume the following responsibilities:
- Use qualified and trained personnel to carry out the assigned functions under the HLIS program.
- Train and assign plant employees in the proper presentation of heads, viscera and carcasses for inspection.
- Use accredited personnel for detecting/trimming dressing non-conformances and trimmable pathological conditions.
- Make available to CFIA inspection staff all test results from PS, FPS food safety (FS) and other carcass defects (OCD), Control Charts and QC checks, if applicable.
2.2.2 Plant Quality Control
Quality Control designated staff shall assume the following responsibilities:
- Use accredited personnel to carry out the assigned functions under Presentation testing, Finished Product testing (food safety and non food safety), Control Chart testing, QC monitoring and implement corrective measures as required.
- Make available to the CFIA inspection staff all test results from PS, FPS food safety and non food safety, Control Charts and QC checks, if applicable.
- Design, implement and maintain a HLIS Employee Accreditation Program for presenters, detectors, trimmers and process control monitors. The program shall be written and shall be reviewed and approved by the VIC.
2.2.3 CFIA Inspection Staff
The CFIA inspection staff shall assume the following responsibilities:
- Make available sufficient certified CFIA HLIS inspectors to perform all required duties at designated CFIA inspection stations including monitoring and correlation testing of Presentation Standards, Shewhart Control Chart Performance Standards, Finished Product Standards and QC and Plant Production test monitoring program in accordance with the Inspection Stations and Staffing Requirements outlined in in section 4.1.1. The CFIA floor monitoring function will be fulfilled as part of the CFIA inspection station rotation.
3. Facility Requirements
In addition to inspection facilities required under the Meat Inspection Act, Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 and Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures, the following additional facilities and equipments are required for the implementation of the HLIS program:
Each carcass inspection station shall be equipped with one or more distortion free mirror(s) of sufficient size to provide a clear unobstructed view of the entire dorsal surfaces of the largest carcasses processed and provide a horizontal width at least equivalent to that of the CFIA inspection station(s) (2 metres × 2 metres is a recommended size/station). The mirror system can be a one piece tiltable mirror or a two-piece vertical (to view the dorsal surface of the carcass) canted (to view the posterior surface of the carcass) system. In either case the mirror system shall be placed far enough from the vertical plane of the carcass to allow the carcass to be turned without contacting the mirror but close enough to provide the required view of the carcass.
A minimum of 1000 lux of shadow-free lighting with a minimum Colour Rendering Index (CRI) of 85 is required at each post-mortem inspection station and associated company HLIS stations, Shewhart testing station, presentation testing station, Finished product standards (FPS) testing station, cooler rework/trim station and each carcass rework trim and verification station. In addition, as applicable, a diffuse light source (such as a double tube fluorescent light fixture) shall be mounted at the top of the carcass mirror to provide a minimum of 1000 lux of lighting at the carcass shoulder level. Directional lighting may also be required at the carcass inspection station to ensure that sufficient lighting is provided inside the thoracic cavity of the carcass as it passes through the inspection zone.
- Carcass centre spacing
The minimum distance between carcass centres is of sufficient size to avoid common surface contact between carcasses and to afford proper inspection of the carcass.
Table 3.1: Minimum distance between carcass centres Species Recommended carcass centre spacing Beef 1.83 metres (6.0 ft).
- Table width
The table or trays shall be wide and long enough to allow for the proper inspection of viscera and to prevent any interference and/or common contact between viscera from adjacent carcasses.
The minimum moving table width shall be 1.52 metres (5 ft).
Must be of sufficient size and readily accessible to an inspector's working position.
- Hand washing facilities
Each position requiring hand washing facilities will be equipped with a sink, soap and towels. When the position is located on a platform, it is recommended the sink be installed on the outside of the platform. The objective is to avoid any encumbrances affecting job tasks and safety of industry or inspection staff.
- Adjustable platform/position
Where adjustable platforms are used the following principles are recommended:
- The platform if as measured from the rail, the upper platform height can be less than or equal to 2.54 metres (100 inches). The lower platform can be greater than or equal to 2.85 metres (112 inches).
- The platform if as measured from the floor, the upper platform can be greater than or equal to 1.17 metres (46 inches). The lower platform height can be less than or equal to 83.82 cm (33 inches).
- Shewhart testing stations
The Shewhart inspection stand or allocated space shall have a minimum length of 92 cm (3 ft),and have lighting standards as noted above. It shall be positioned close enough to the carcass line (comfortable arm's length) to satisfy Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) requirements and so the evaluator may manipulate the carcass if necessary. The station shall be located directly after the process step(s) it evaluates and prior to any further alteration to the product. This provides for effective evaluation of the process step and a timely response interval when corrective actions are required. A sanitizer is not required if trimming is not performed. Operators shall provide properly designed and/or enough Shewhart testing stations to evaluate the entire carcass for the hide removal and evisceration procedure. The use of mirrors of the proper size and orientation and / or stations that are adjustable are options to consider to achieve the outcome. It is recommended that two stations evaluate hide removal. These will be located so they can evaluate the hind (rump/bung) and front (shank/brisket) quarters after hide removal and prior to the pre-evisceration wash if it exists. At least another station shall evaluate the evisceration procedure.
- Presentation Testing Stations
For Presentation testing of heads, viscera and carcasses, each testing station requires a minimum length of 92 cm (3 ft) without encumbrance. Presentation testing stations shall be located next to and upstream from the respective CFIA inspection stations.
- CFIA Inspection Stations
With the exception of the items mentioned below, minimal requirements described in section 18.104.22.168.5 of Chapter 3 of MOP apply to all CFIA inspection stations (i.e. head, viscera, carcass and veterinary held rail inspection stations).
- A minimum 1.83 metres (6 feet) of dedicated work space is required for each of the head inspection stations when the line speed exceeds 310 carcasses per hour. See table 4.1 A & B for the recommended number of head inspection stations.
- The requirement for the beef viscera inspection station is 2.44 metres (8 feet) per inspector.
- A minimum 1.83 metres (6 feet) in length and 0.75 metres in depth of dedicated work space is required for the CFIA Carcass inspection station.
- The inside/outside carcass inspection platform shall be located opposite to the mirror prior to or after the splitting saw and in a position such that the carcass inspector can easily view the viscera table and communicate with the viscera inspector. Alternatively, the operator may develop and implement a program, approved by the CFIA, to control the viscera associated with any carcass held at the inside/outside carcass inspection station.
- Finished Product Standards (FPS) Testing Station(s)
Regardless of whether FPS testing is performed off-line or online, the FPS testing station shall be located downstream from the CFIA and company held rails and all company trimming procedures. This station shall be configured so the test monitor performing the FPS test has access to all parts of the carcass and the station shall be large enough to safely accommodate two people. The station shall be equipped with safety rails, a sanitizer, a complete hand washing facility and a clipboard holder. It is recommended that the station be adjustable.
In the case of the FPS-FS-I testing station, the station must be positioned before the final carcass wash. For the location of FPS-FS II and OCD stations, the operator has the flexibility to determine the most appropriate location as long as the rationale for such placement is supported by its HACCP plan.
In those plants where FPS-FS-I testing is performed on the moving line, the operator's written program shall set out a means of identifying and correcting all carcasses in the sample set that are found to have any defect before the final carcass wash;
- Carcass rework holding capacity
The operator shall demonstrate their capability of maintaining complete control of rejected lots that enter the carcass cooler. The operator shall provide sufficient rail space to hold the detained lot(s) under full control until each lot is reworked to acceptable standards.
- Carcass rework/trim station
An acceptable area that will allow effective rework of the detained lot shall be provided. The carcass rework station may be a permanent trim station or mobile station. The location of the stand shall be in an open area, avoid common contact and shall receive the final approval of the VIC. Each stand must adhere to OSH safety guidelines and be fully equipped with a sanitizer, record/clipboard holder and convenient access to hand washing facilities.
- Rework Verification Station/Area
This station/area should have enough space to safely accommodate two people. It may be a permanent or mobile station. The station used as the rework station can also be used for rework verification. It can be located in the carcass cooler or immediately following the rework trim station when rework is done at the entrance to the processing room. The monitor(s) shall have access to all parts of the carcass.
- Line Speed Indicator
An accurate digital line speed indicator for the carcass evisceration chain must be provided on the slaughter floor so that it can be easily read by the inspectors performing presentation testing.
CFIA inspection stations may require more space based on configuration (i.e. greater spacing between carcass and/or parts) and ergonomic assessments.
4. General Inspection Procedures
4.1 CFIA Post-mortem Inspection Procedures
Under HLIS there are a number of changes that affect post-mortem carcass and parts presentation methods when compared to those procedures that occur in plants under traditional inspection. With respect to specific CFIA post-mortem inspection tasks in a HLIS facility all procedures remain essentially the same as in traditional inspection but with a notable reduction in manipulation of carcasses and their parts resulting in a reduction of the number of required inspection stations at higher line speeds.
For inspectors working in an HLIS slaughter establishment, all the post-mortem inspection tasks stated in Chapter 17 of the MOP must be performed except for the following differences:
- The inspector observes the surfaces of the tongue after it has been palpated by a plant employee. Routine palpation of the tongue by the inspector is not required.
- The inspector observes the cut surfaces of the internal pterygoid and external masseter muscles after they are incised by a plant employee. Further routine incision of these muscles by the inspector is not required.
- The inspector incises and observes the cut surfaces of parotid, medial retropharyngeal, and mandibular lymph nodes.
- The inspector observes the lateral retropharyngeal (atlantal) lymph nodes. Routine incision of these lymph nodes is not required.
Thoracic and abdominal viscera inspection
- The inspector observes and palpates the dorsal surfaces of the lungs. The ventral surfaces of the lungs are not routinely observed.
- The inspector observes the hepatic lymph node. Routine incision of this lymph node is not required.
- The inspector observes the internal, external and cut surfaces of the heart after an establishment employee presents the opened heart for inspection. Further routine incision of the heart by the inspector is not required.
- Inspection of the kidneys must be performed on the viscera inspection table.
- The inspector visually examines the spleen.
- Carcass inspection may be conducted on an unsplit carcass in the case of steers and heifers, but should be conducted on the split carcass of mature animals (cows and bulls).
Post-mortem activities are performed as described in section 17.7, Chapter 17 of the MOP. Accordingly, CFIA online inspectors in HLIS establishments do not identify OCDs as listed in the HLIS program. Identification and removal of defects such as eyelid, hair, hide, etc. are the responsibility of the operator. It is the responsibility of the plant Detector to identify defective conditions and decide if the carcass is to be railed out for trimming or left on line. It may not be possible at higher speeds for one person to identify, mark and trim carcasses. Therefore once determined by the operator or VIC that an individual cannot perform multiple tasks effectively, the Detector(s) shall only identify and mark dressing defects and TPCs that are OCDs and one or more accredited Trimmers shall be in place to effectively perform the sanitary removal of the identified defects.
4.1.1. CFIA Inspection Station and Staffing Requirements
The staffing numbers listed in these tables are the minimum number of stations needed to staff the slaughter floor. Operational administrative requirements, ergonomic factors, special projects and physical layout of the kill floor may affect these numbers. Each site should be evaluated by the operational personnel to determine the appropriate staffing levels needed in each facility.
The ante-mortem inspection is performed by the CFIA personnel under the supervision of the VIC. In certain situations, establishment of a permanent ante-mortem inspection station may be required (e.g. just in time slaughter).
|Line speed /hour||Head EG||Viscera EG||Carcass EG||Floor MonitorTable Note 2||VMTable Note 3|
|140 - 180||1||2||1||1 (shared)Table Note 4||2|
|181 - 250||2||2||1||1 (shared)Table Note 4||2|
|251 - 310||2||4||1||1 (shared)Table Note 4||2|
|311 - 375||3||4||1||1 (shared)Table Note 4||3|
- Table Note 2
Process monitoring non-stationary position; and
- Table Note 3
Includes the VIC's position.
- Table note 4
The term "shared" refers to the fact that both Industry and the CFIA are involved in the process control activity.
|Line speed /hour||Head EG||Viscera EG||Carcass EG||Floor MonitorTable Note 5||VMTable Note 6|
|140 - 180||1||2||1||1 (shared)Table Note 7||2|
|181 - 250||2||2||1||1 (shared)Table Note 7||2|
|251 - 290||2||4||1||1 (shared)Table Note 7||2|
- Table Note 5
Process monitoring non-stationary position; and
- Table Note 6
Includes the VIC's position.
- Table note 7
The term "shared" refers to the fact that both Industry and the CFIA are involved in the process control activity.
The HLIS monitor position shall be managed through the use of inspection station rotation. The CFIA inspection personnel shall perform record monitoring, perform correlation tests for presentation standards, finished carcass product standards and Shewhart Control Chart performance and generally oversee the activities of the Production and QC departments. It is recommended that the same individual be assigned to the floor monitoring position for at least the full shift and work in conjunction with and under the supervision of the slaughter floor veterinarian.
The figures that are indicated for the various inspection stations may be impacted by various facility configurations with respect to carcass presentation. The VIC may re-distribute the recommended staffing numbers after consulting the Area Operation Specialist and the RVO provided the total numbers are not altered.
4.2 Random Testing Guideline
One of the major principles in any statistical testing program involving the selection of samples is that each unit in the population should have an equal chance of being selected as a sample. This is not completely possible under HLIS slaughtering conditions. These guidelines are intended to support that principle within the practical restraints of this inspection system.
As a general observation, production employees should be exempted from the testing procedure if they may be in a compromised circumstance with respect to objectivity when conducting these tests. If a production employee is used in performing any test, special efforts should be in place to ensure s/he is not influenced by the presence of the Production Supervisor. It is recommended that the QC Department be in charge of all testing requirements when this situation is encountered. The Veterinarians in Charge shall review this situation in their respective facilities and determine what arrangement is most effective in providing the most reliable product evaluation procedure.
Finished Product Standard (FPS) checks
A designated plant person(s) shall select random times according to the operator's written program for conducting the carcass tests for food safety and non food safety defects. The selected times shall be submitted to the VIC or delegate by the operator before the beginning of each shift.
The operator need only perform the required checks within the 30 minute or 1 hour period required by the program, additional randomness is not required. These test times shall also be submitted to the VIC or delegate by the operator before the start of each shift.
Shewhart Control Chart checks
These shall be performed by the operator on a random basis ensuring that each hour of the production shift is tested. The schedule of times shall be submitted to the VIC or delegate by the operator prior to the start of each shift.
These shall be performed by the operator after all rework tasks have been performed on the detained lot. The entire population of the lot shall have an equal opportunity of being selected for the carcass subgroup test. The CFIA shall be notified when a rework is being performed on a detained lot and records of performance shall be maintained by the operator. Rework testing frequency by the CFIA shall be discretionary.
When the various carcass monitoring tests and evaluations are being performed either by the operator or by the CFIA the general rule of observation is that the proximity of the carcass surface shall be at arm's length and conducted from an acceptable inspection platform as referenced under section 3. - Facility Requirements.
CFIA oversight and verification activities
The CFIA shall perform periodic oversight monitoring and verification functions with respect to the operator's testing, recording activities as well as employee performance to ensure the satisfactory application of the HLIS program. These activities shall also include randomly scheduled correlation tests but may also include unscheduled or spontaneous correlation tests if deemed necessary by the VIC or delegate. Independent verification tests of a particular process control step are not routinely performed by CFIA but at the discretion of the VIC such test(s) may be authorized where it is determined that such a test is warranted.
4.3 CFIA/Accredited Employee Carcass Identification and Trimming Procedures
CFIA held tags are to be used for conditions requiring veterinary disposition (FPS-FS II) or in special circumstances as deemed necessary by CFIA personnel. In addition, an in-plant identification tag or ink marking system will be used by plant employees to identify dressing defects and TPCs that are OCDs.
In-plant identification tags or ink marks must be removed once the defect is corrected. Defects so identified may be trimmed at any working position down the line or off line at the operator's discretion as long as the defect is removed sanitarily before leaving the final carcass approval area.
CFIA held tags may only be removed by a CFIA inspector or by an accredited plant employee under the direct and immediate supervision of a CFIA inspector.
4.3.1 - Duties of Trained/Accredited Plant Personnel
- Head and tongue preparation and presentation
Head and tongue preparation may vary between establishments (e.g. tongue attached to the head or detached, head oriented up or head oriented down), but once decided must remain consistent within the establishment. The employee shall thoroughly palpate the tongue and mark or signal the CFIA inspector of any abnormalities. The employee shall also incise the lateral and medial muscles of mastication exposing predominantly muscle tissue (at least 75%) and minimum connective tissue (no more than 25%). The medial and lateral retro pharyngeal and mandibular lymph nodes shall be prepared and presented intact and in a consistent location.
- Viscera preparation and presentation
The viscera shall be presented in a consistent orientation that normally provides for minimum manipulation by the CFIA inspector. Under normal operating conditions the operator will provide one or more "presenters" upstream from the CFIA inspection station to ensure that all viscera are properly prepared and oriented.
- Heart: a trained plant employee shall open the heart such that all chambers are exposed and also incise the interventricular septum.
- Kidneys: a trained employee shall open the kidney capsule (minimum 75%), remove them from the carcass and present them on the table in a consistent location for CFIA inspection.
- Stomach/intestines: a trained plant employee shall orient the rumen and its attached components in a consistent orientation as approved by the VIC.
- Carcass defect detectors
The carcass detector will use an approved in-plant marking/tagging system to identify all dressing defects and TPCs that are OCDs and may also place CFIA held tags on certain carcasses at the direction of CFIA Inspection staff.
- Carcass defect trimmers
The carcass trimmer will trim all identified defects on line or off line but no trimming shall be performed on CFIA held carcasses until after veterinary disposition. CFIA held tags are only removed after trimming and at the direction of a CFIA Inspector. The carcass trimmers shall remove all other identification marks/tags after trimming and no carcass shall leave the final carcass approval area until these procedures are completed.
- Process control step monitors
This includes those accredited employees who monitor all presenter activities, perform FPS (FS and OCD rework) carcass monitoring and Shewhart Control Chart monitoring. The monitors shall score, record and initiate corrective actions as required in each of their respective monitoring functions.
When an accredited plant employee is required to perform more than one task, whether an accredited task or non accredited task relating to that person's job, that employee shall not be distracted by additional responsibilities that would prevent him from otherwise satisfactorily performing the accredited functions of the position as if it were his sole responsibility.
5. Statistical Process Controls
All slaughtering plants are responsible for producing product that is consistently in compliance with minimum food safety standards as set out in the Meat Inspection Act (MIA) and Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990, (MIR), Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures (MOP) and the Food Safety Enhancement Program (FSEP). In order to be able to evaluate as well as enhance an operator's ability to comply with these standards, the High Line Speed Inspection System (HLIS) program incorporates the use of Statistical Process Controls (SPC). These are science based tools that help to improve and at the same time objectively measure the performance effectiveness of a manufacturing process.
Under the HLIS, dressed carcasses and their parts must meet several performance criteria during the dressing procedures. These performance criteria are applied in the form of Presentation Standards (PS), Finished Product Standards (FPS) and Shewhart Control Chart performance standards. These tools provide the means for assessing the carcass and parts for food safety and wholesomeness while also determining if the slaughter process is in control. The PS, FPS and Control Chart tests are all tools that are applied at specified locations by randomly sampling and testing the carcass and/or its parts during the production shift for a pre-determined level of manufacturing performance.
5.1 Introduction to Control Charts
This section provides a brief introduction to the use of control charts. For additional detailed information on this as well as Presentation Standards (PS) and Finished Product Standards (FPS) information, please consult relevant CFIA training modules and section 6. - Presentation Standards and section 7. - Finished Product Standards for Carcasses of this policy.
Control charts are used in various manufacturing environments to provide a statistical indication of how effectively a certain manufacturing step(s) is performing under a prescribed set of Quality Assurance standards. Their importance rests in being statistically reliable in evaluating the manufacturing step they are assessing. For optimal benefit it is critical that this evaluation occurs at a location immediately downstream from the process step that is being evaluated in order to provide real time performance measurement and feed back to the operating step under evaluation.
The Shewhart Control Chart operates on the principle of measuring a process step's departure from mean or average performance through the use of units of standard deviation. This approach has been shown to be an objective statistically reliable means of determining when early process intervention is warranted.
The application of the Shewhart Control Chart provides the additional benefit of allowing the use of ISO special sampling plans for evaluating final carcass performance rather than the conventional General Inspection Level II sampling plan which requires a larger carcass sample size.
Under the evaluation of a process by the application of the Shewhart Control Chart, a trained and accredited plant employee shall conduct scheduled randomized hourly control chart tests on 10 consecutive carcasses immediately after the dehiding and evisceration step and prior to any further alteration or trimming of the carcass. All surfaces of the entire carcass will be evaluated. The carcasses will only be scored as "positive" or "negative" for the presence of any distinguishable fecal, ingesta or milk defect, as applicable, related to the dehiding or evisceration steps. All test results are to be recorded on form HLIS 001 or an equivalent in-house form. The CFIA will periodically monitor operator testing and recording activities during the production shift and will also perform correlation tests. See section 1.1 - Product Testing.
- For areas above the point of contact with the hook, any findings will not be scored, however, the operator must have a written protocol for addressing any visible contamination associated with this area at a location downstream from this point of evaluation. The reasoning behind this is to avoid carcasses dropping as a result of aggressive trimming in the hook area.
- The area within the circular cut that will be made to remove the bung is not to be scored. It is this area that is bagged during the bunging process, and therefore need not be scored.
Shewhart Control Chart
5.2 Corrective Actions for Shewhart Control Chart Deviations
As previously noted, the Shewhart Control Chart evaluates a process on the principle of units of standard deviation from the mean or average performance. One standard deviation (+/-) from average performance is considered to be acceptable or satisfactory performance. Two standard deviations are considered fair performance and 3 or more standard deviations are viewed as unsatisfactory performance. See Appendix A - Decision Tree for Shewhart Control Chart.
Satisfactory performance: the green zone
No action required.
Fair performance: the yellow zone
Random testing shall be immediately suspended and the operator shall initiate immediate corrective actions as detailed in its written program. Corrective action procedures shall have been previously approved by the VIC or delegate. Any new corrective action procedures shall be approved by the VIC or delegate before implementation. Once corrective measures have been implemented the operator shall perform a retest no earlier than 15 minutes after the previously failed test. Two consecutive satisfactory test scores taken at least 15 minutes apart shall be achieved before random testing is resumed. If the retest score remains in the fair performance zone after any of the 2 consecutive retests the floor supervisor and the VIC or delegate shall consult on the next course of action which shall include a line speed reduction.
Unsatisfactory performance: the red zone
Upon scoring an unsatisfactory test result random testing shall be suspended and an immediate 10% line speed reduction shall be initiated by the operator along with the corrective measures as approved and detailed in the operator's written program. These corrective measures shall have been previously approved by the VIC. The CFIA shall be notified immediately whenever an unsatisfactory score is recorded. Once corrective measures have been satisfactorily implemented a retest shall be performed by the operator no earlier than 15 minutes after the previously failed test. The operator shall first achieve a satisfactory score on the initial retest before line speed increases may commence. When 2 consecutive satisfactory retest scores have been achieved and the line speed has returned to normal random testing frequencies shall be resumed.
In the event of a second consecutive unsatisfactory retest score a further 10% line speed reduction shall occur with re-evaluation of the corrective measures and consultation between the VIC or delegate and floor supervisor. Upon completion of each consecutive satisfactory 15 minutes retest thereafter the line speed may be increased by the same increment it was reduced until original line speed is re-established. Also see section 1.1 - Product Testing and Appendix A - Decision Tree for Shewhart Control Chart.
6. Presentation Standards
The provision for uniform presentation standards is a key element in the implementation of HLIS. It provides not only consistency in presentation of the carcass and its parts but also reduces potential food safety concerns and offers early indication as to whether certain carcass dressing procedures are in control.
Uniform presentation is essential in maintaining inspection efficiency and is critical at the higher rates of slaughter. When the carcass or its parts are not uniformly presented in a predetermined manner, time allotted for inspection must be used to correct or compensate for presentation errors. Therefore, the presentation standards must be met to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of inspection when the HLIS standards are used. The adequacy of presentation is affected by several factors such as disease conditions, carcass uniformity, evisceration line configuration, sequence of evisceration procedures, adequate equipment, lighting, but most notably well trained and efficient production employees.
6.1 General Responsibilities
6.1.1 Operator Responsibility
Plant management is responsible for implementing the prescribed presentation standards as well as initiating all corrective actions. The operator shall ensure the proper presentation of heads, viscera and carcasses using trained accredited personnel. The operator shall also designate responsible persons to schedule and conduct monitoring tests and take corrective action whenever the required standards are not met. This function is normally shared between Production and QC but may be performed by the QC Department alone if the operator so chooses. The VIC or delegate shall be informed whenever corrective actions are initiated. See Table 6.1.
6.1.2 CFIA Inspection Responsibility
Inspection personnel will monitor the activities of plant employees assigned to perform presentation monitoring checks. This will include evaluations of records, observation of employee performance and correlation tests for comparison with operator's results.
6.2 Presentation Standards
6.2.1 Head Presentation
Tongue presentation may vary between establishments (e.g. tongue attached to the head or detached), but must be consistent within an individual establishment. Prior to the inspector's examination of the tongue, an establishment employee is required to thoroughly palpate each tongue and notify the inspector if abnormalities were found. As this process happens prior to the beef head presentation station, it is expected that when the individual performs head presentation monitoring, he will observe the designated plant employee performing palpation of the tongue on the same number of heads as are evaluated during this test period at the beef head presentation station. In this case, this individual performing the monitoring does not necessarily need to observe the same heads as those evaluated at the head station. Notification to the inspector may be accomplished by directly signalling or by means of a marking system developed by the operator and acceptable to the Veterinarian in Charge (e.g. ink, tags, cuts or other markings). There shall be no visible contamination from ingesta and there shall be no movement or sway of the tongue that would interfere or impede inspection activities.
The parotid lymph nodes may be presented in their natural location or cut free along with their accompanying parotid salivary gland during the process of incising the masseter muscles and be presented attached to the lowest portion of the incised masseter muscle. The presentation must be consistent at one location or the other. The medial and lateral retro pharyngeal and mandibular lymph nodes must be presented intact and in a consistent location. No more than 50% of any lymph node shall be missing.
The head may be presented nostrils facing upwards or downwards but must be consistent. The head must be properly identified to correlate with the viscera and carcass of the same animal. Prior to the inspector's examination of the head, a plant employee is required correctly trim and dress the head, incise both lateral and medial muscles of mastication (cheeks) to expose the muscles for inspection. These incisions are to be made between the muscle planes so that the lateral and medial muscles of mastication are exposed showing predominantly muscle tissue (at least 75%) and minimum connective tissue (no more than 25%), and with no more than 25% of the muscle surface obscured by blood. The head shall not be approved if it bears visible contamination from ingesta. It shall be the operator's responsibility to ensure all heads are properly presented for CFIA inspection. Heads which are improperly prepared or display food safety dressing defects shall be so identified and controlled as inedible material by the operator.
The seepage of blood onto the exposed muscle surfaces may be reduced by cutting the blood vessels (common carotid artery and the external maxillary vein) at the angle of the mandible. Cutting these vessels before the head enters the final head wash cabinet reduces the amount of blood found on the cheeks at inspection.
6.2.2 Viscera Presentation
The viscera shall be consistently presented to meet the operator's presentation standard and to minimize manipulation by the CFIA inspector. Viscera (grey offal and red offal) may be presented in different configurations (e.g. hook, tray, table, etc.). Each operator will determine in conjunction with the VIC which method of viscera presentation and orientation will be implemented in the establishment. The red offal must be readily accessible and consistently laid out as determined by the operator's presentation standard so that the Inspector may visually assess the organ without having to perform any additional manipulations.
In case of presentation on hook, where the organ attaching the viscera has been mechanically damaged during carcass dressing and the viscera is normally suspended by that particular organ the operator and VIC must agree on an alternate methodology that will achieve the same outcome.
All operators, regardless of the line speed in their plant, will create a diagram depicting the reference standard for viscera presentation in their establishment and, after VIC approval, this schematic will serve as the scoring standard for the ISO viscera presentation tests. The schematic drawing(s) of the approved viscera placement must be readily accessible to inspection and production personnel.
There shall be no co-mingling or common contact of viscera units belonging to different carcasses. Overlapping or obscuring of viscera from the same carcass due to improper placement and orientation shall also be prevented. The viscera must be properly identified to correlate with the head and carcass of the same animal.
In addition, no part shall be pinched, overhang the table edges or be dragged along.
With the exception of the Gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), there shall be no GIT contamination of the viscera.
Where portions of paired organs (e.g. kidneys) are missing, at least 50% of each of the paired organs or one complete organ from the pair shall be present to allow the Inspector to render a disposition. At least 50% of an unpaired organ (e.g. heart, liver) shall be present in order for a disposition to be rendered.
22.214.171.124 Red Offal
A plant employee shall open all chambers of the heart and incise the interventricular septum to fully expose the interior of the heart for examination by the CFIA inspector.
The ventral surface of the liver and the dorsal surface of the lungs are readily visible and they have consistent orientation.
A plant employee shall open the kidney capsule (a minimum of 75% of each kidney shall be exposed), separate the kidneys from the carcass and present the kidneys for inspection with the viscera.
126.96.36.199 Grey Offal
Small and large intestines shall be presented in a consistent orientation with the mesenteric chain fully exposed.
Spleens can be separated from the viscera or presented in full view of the inspector in those establishments that do not separate spleen from the viscera.
6.2.3 Carcass Presentation
The operator shall present the dressed carcass for inspection in a manner that will ensure good visualization of the external surfaces, thoracic and abdominal cavities, and cut surfaces of the carcass. There shall be no movement of the carcass. No organ remnant shall be left in the carcass that obstruct inspection (See appropriate CFIA training modules and form HLIS 004C - ISO SPC Test - Beef Carcass Presentation). Those carcasses that cannot be properly eviscerated as the result of pathological (physiological or disease origin) complications shall not be scored. Additional carcasses shall be chosen for testing if pathological complications have impeded proper evisceration. The carcass must be properly identified to correlate with the head and viscera of the same animal.
6.3 Testing and Scoring Presentation Standards
6.3.1 Test Procedures for Presentation Standards
The presentation tests will be made at the following frequencies. Also refer to section 6.1.1 - Operator Responsibility.
|Party performing sampling||Sampling Mode||Frequency based on lot size (carcasses per hour-CPH)|
|Operator||Normal||<200 CPH 60 min., ≥200 CPH 30 min.|
|Operator||Reduced||<200 CPH 60 min., ≥200 CPH 30 min.|
|Operator||Tightened||<200 CPH 30 min., ≥200 CPH 15 min.|
The CFIA will perform periodic record monitoring activities to evaluate the entries made on presentation forms by establishment personnel. The frequency for such evaluations will be established by the VIC. The inspector shall enter the date, time, and his initials at the bottom of each form evaluated, and if errors are found on the forms or they are not complete or timely, the inspector should describe the findings and actions taken on the bottom or back of the form. The CFIA will also perform correlation tests. The CFIA correlation test may also be recorded on the operator's form and will use a different colour of ink to distinguish CFIA information. Records of presentation tests shall be maintained for a period of one year.
Line speed checks
An accurate digital line speed indicator(s) for both the head chain and the carcass chain is required at a location readily accessible to the person performing presentation tests. A 1% margin of error shall be allowed for inherent variations in the system.
6.3.2 Scoring Presentation Errors
Only the first error observed for each sample will be scored on the test for each of the following:
Presentation Error Categories
- Tongue (if presented separately, may be hung by the tip or root but is scored as part of head presentation):
- visible gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) contamination present;
- improper orientation, turned >45 degrees from center position (hung backwards, sideways);
- visual mass(es) present; palpation does not take place;
- loss of identification;
- part or >50% of the tongue missing.
- Head (may be suspended with head pointing up or down, tongue in or out)
- visible GIT contamination present;
- improper dressing (hide, eyelids, horns, lips, loose hairs);
- improper preparation of head (<75% cheek muscles exposed/incised, a minimal ratio exposed cheek muscle tissue to connective tissue of 3 for 1, >25% blood obscuring surface, muscles not incised, tongue not palpated/lesion undetected);
- loss of identification;
- part or >50% of any lymph node/tongue/medial/lateral masticator muscle missing.
- Tongue (if presented separately, may be hung by the tip or root but is scored as part of head presentation):
- Viscera (all viscera are scored collectively under this heading)
- visible GIT contamination present;
- improper position/orientation; incorrect schematic position, turned more than 45 degrees from normal center position;
- improper preparation; heart not adequately opened, >25% surface obscured;
- loss of identification, co-mingling or common contact with other carcass parts;
- part or >50% of organ missing.
- visible GIT contamination present;
- improper position/orientation; incorrect schematic position, turned more than 45 degrees from normal center position, upside down, etc.;
- loss of identification, co-mingling, common contact with other carcass parts;
- part or >50% of liver/gall bladder/lymph node missing.
- Gastro-intestinal tract (GIT)
- GIT internal spillage impeding inspection activities (i.e. inspector becomes contaminated, wash up, requires longer to perform duties, etc.);
- improper position/orientation; incorrect schematic position, turned more than 45 degrees from normal center position;
- loss of identification, co-mingling or common contact with other carcass parts;
- part or >50% of any organ/lymph node missing;
- GIT table overhang, dragging, pinching.
- visible GIT contamination present;
- improper preparation; >25% of at least one kidney is covered by capsule;
- loss of identification, co-mingling, common contact with other carcass parts;
- part or >50% of at least one kidney is missing.
- visible GIT contamination present;
- loss of identification, co-mingling or common contact with other carcass parts;
- part or >50% of any organ/lymph node missing.
- generalized GIT contamination preventing inspection of carcass;
- improper orientation/position; hind legs not spread to specified distance for correct carcass exposure;
- improper dressing of carcass, organ remnant, unremoved parts preventing final inspection;
- loss of identification.
6.4 Corrective Actions for Failed Presentation Tests
Presentation checks shall be performed using ISO 2859-1 sample plan and the ISO switching rules between Reduced mode, Normal mode and Tightened mode shall apply. Sample size is based on the operator's production volume. All new facilities shall commence testing in Normal mode. The results and follow up actions of all presentation tests are recorded on form HLIS 004 A, form HLIS 004 B or form HLIS 004 C for head, viscera or carcass presentation tests or an equivalent in-house form. All corrective actions generated by presentation checks will be the operator's responsibility and may be initiated by either Plant Production or Quality Control. Under normal circumstances Plant Production and QC shall manage their respective corrective action issues separately unless otherwise defined in the operator's written program. If the CFIA's presentation correlation test result fails to correlate with that of the Presentation Monitor an immediate retest shall be performed and QC will be notified. Two consecutive non matching correlation tests between the operator and CFIA will require that corrective actions be initiated by the operator based on the results of the second CFIA test which shall be taken as the correct score. The CFIA will monitor all Plant Production and QC corrective action activities to ensure program requirements are met. The discrepancy in scoring results shall be investigated and reconciled in consultation with the VIC after all required corrective actions have been implementedFootnote 8. Also see section 1.1 - Product Testing.
There shall be no more than one process control step (Shewhart or Presentation test) under a line speed reduction at any given time. If a failure is discovered at any other presentation test site, while a line speed reduction is already in effect, the line speed is not reduced as a result of this second failure. Random testing is, however, suspended at this newly discovered failure site and 15 minute retests are initiated. Random testing will resume (as per Appendix A - Decision Tree for Shewhart Control Chart) at each site as it is brought under control. Line speed increases will only take place, however, as the last site to be brought into compliance is being brought under control. All corrective actions shall be recorded on the testing form or a document attach to the form stating the corrective actions.
The operator must continue to successfully pass 4 out of 5 consecutive random tests to maintain Normal mode status. Should the operator fail 2 presentation tests within any window of 5 consecutive tests in Normal mode, the testing mode shall be switched to Tightened, no other corrective action shall be initiated.
Upon entering Tightened mode random testing shall be suspended and a presentation retest shall be conducted every 15 or 30 minutes until Normal mode is restored (5 passed tests). Once returned to Normal mode random testing shall be resumed. When returning to random testing in Normal mode, testing should be resumed at the established frequency already submitted as long as the next test time falls within the next hour of production. If not, another test must be randomly selected within the next hour of production.
After any 2 consecutive failures in Tightened mode the VIC or delegate shall be notified and consultation between the operator and the CFIA shall take place to determine the cause of the presentation under performance. At the discretion of the VIC a 10% line speed reduction may be exercised if immediate improvement cannot be achieved in the subsequent retest score.
Ten consecutive successful test scores in Normal mode shall be achieved before switching may occur to Reduced Mode. Any single failure of a test score in Reduced mode will move the operator back to Normal mode. No other corrective actions shall be initiated.
Excessive line speed
If on any test the line speed is found to exceed the currently allowed rate as per standards presented in section 4.1.1, an immediate line speed reduction to the allowed rate is required. After any line speed reduction, the line speed shall be rechecked after 15 minutes. If the line speed is above the currently allowed rate after the retest the VIC or delegate must be notified and a 10% reduction from the current maximum allowed line speed will apply.
|Sample Code||AQL||Normal Frequency||Tightened Frequency||Reduced Frequency|
|Sample size = 8Table Note 9
|Sample size = 8Table Note 9
|Sample size = 3Table Note 9
|Sample size = 8Table Note 9
|Sample size = 13Table Note 9
|Sample size = 5Table Note 9
|Sample size = 8Table Note 9
|Sample size = 13Table Note 9
|Sample size = 3Table Note 9
- Table note 9
- For further information on sample size codes and AQL determination, please refer to appropriate CFIA training modules for HLIS.
- All sampling plans based on ISO 2859-1:1999(E), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Central Secretariat, Geneva.
7. Finished Product Standards for Carcasses
It is critical in slaughter production environments to be able to perform periodic product evaluations on the finished product in order to validate effective hygienic manufacturing performance.
Finished product standards (FPS) testing is designed to:
- verify that the procedures used in preparing and approving a dressed food animal carcass are in control; and
- ensure the operator is producing a product that is in conformance with minimum Canadian regulatory standards.
FPS tests are performed on selected sample sets of carcasses randomly chosen throughout the production shift to validate the operator's performance in meeting prescribed performance standards.
Accredited plant personnel are responsible for performing FPS tests as well as taking the appropriate action(s) in response to the FPS test results. Certified CFIA inspectors are responsible for monitoring the establishment's tests, actions and records; as well as performing correlation tests and periodic independent tests (as deemed necessary by the VIC) to verify the company's performance.
7.1 Defect Classification
FPS testing is meant to detect the incidence of carcass dressing defects classified under three categories:
- FPS Food Safety I (FPS-FS I);
- FPS Food Safety II (FPS-FS II); and
- Other Carcass defects (OCD).
FPS-FS I are carcass defects that have the potential to create a food safety risk. These defects include identifiable fecal material, ingesta and milk. FPS-FS I defects shall be evaluated on the basis of colour, texture and consistency. They must be clearly identifiable before being scored as such. Generally defects that are less than 3.0 mm in their greatest dimension can be difficult to characterize with certainty when using only the naked eye. If the observer is not able to clearly identify a defect as being of gastrointestinal origin or milk, it shall be classified as extraneous or foreign material, removed and, as applicable, scored under the OCD defects category.
FPS-FS II are also carcass defects that have the potential to create a food safety risk. These defects result from the presence of various types and degrees of untrimmed pathological conditions and normally include pathologies that are first identified by CFIA personnel and then removed by industry under CFIA supervision. The presence of a FPS-FS II in any sample set will require correction for the condition prior to the carcass(es) being released followed, as applicable, by the appropriate corrective actions for the lot. Many times, the detection of these conditions is the responsibility of CFIA and, accordingly, these incidences should be discussed with the VIC to be rectified.
Finally, OCD defects are generally the result of untrimmed, food suitability defects and/or conditions that are required to be removed in accordance with regulations as part of the dressing procedure but do not generally pose a direct food safety risk. These defects also include simple isolated resolved pathological or unacceptable anatomical conditions that are assigned to the industry for identification and removal such as bruising, simple fractures, dry adhesions and single tarsal arthritis. These different criteria are detailed in section 7.3.2.
Operators have the flexibility to perform FPS verifications on-line or off-line. All carcass samples shall be selected at one time (consecutively) if the sample set is examined off-line. In establishments where the sample set is examined on-line, the first carcass should be selected using a standard random selection technique and each subsequently sampled carcass shall be chosen at regular intervals (e.g., every 10th carcass). The complete verification of a sample set may be divided into zones check (e.g. a full verification of a sample set would be composed of an evaluation of the hind section of an appropriate number of carcass units and followed by another evaluation of the same number of units for the front section). The following should be taken into account before considering zones check approach:
- the line speed;
- the size of the carcass unit;
- the size of the station; and
- the capacity for rail/station adjustment.
The proposed approach must be clearly described in the operator's written program and must be approved by the VIC.
The operator must perform FPS-FS I testing prior to the final carcass wash cabinet. In the case of FPS-FS II and OCD, the operator has the flexibility to determine the most appropriate location to perform the test as long as the rationale is supported by its HACCP system.
7.2 Carcass Evaluation for Defects
7.2.1 Carcass evaluation for Finished Product Standards - Food Safety I (FPS-FS I) defect testing
The carcass is evaluated for FPS-FS I defects based on principles of ISO sampling plan 2859-1, S-1. The lot size shall be the choice of the facility operator (see definitions) and agreed to by the VIC but must remain within the operator's process control capability. Also included in this plan are associated switching rules which allows the operator to function in Normal, Tightened or Reduced sampling mode based on test performance results. Scheduled random sampling is performed by the facility operator and monitored by the CFIA. Refer Appendix C - Decision Tree for Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Food Safety I (FS I) Defects. Once a lot size category is selected by the operator it may not be switched spontaneously. A written request shall be submitted to the VIC and a mutually acceptable implementation date negotiated.
Sample size is determined according to the operator's status under ISO sampling plan 2859-1, using Inspection level S-1 (this sample plan is only applicable if the Shewhart Control Chart is applied at the evisceration step) and a pre-determined AQL. The acceptable quality level (AQL) for carcass food safety defects (FPS-FS I) must be at a minimum of 4%. An operator may implement a more stringent AQL, if he desires to do so. The acceptance and rejection numbers for ISO SPC test are shown in Table 7.1A.
|AQL||Sample Code S-1 Lot size||Sample Mode||Sample Size||Accept||Reject|
Normal mode is the starting mode when HLIS is first introduced in an establishment. Record all non-conformances on form HLIS 003 - Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Food Safety I (FS I) Defects or an equivalent in-house form.
There is a zero tolerance for any FPS-FS I defect; therefore, the sample set and associated lot fails as a result of any findings. All carcasses shall be examined in a sample set even if the sample set fails due to the examination of the initial carcasses in the set. The operator shall immediately identify and hold the production lot associated with the test failure for rework procedures. The CFIA shall be notified. All defects shall be removed in a sanitary manner before the sample set is released.
During FPS-FS I verification testing, any defects not covered by this defect category (e.g. bile, hair, dirt, or foreign matter, etc.) which are noted during the evaluation shall be sanitarily removed before the carcass is released. However, no zero tolerance follow-up actions will be required (i.e. rework of the associated lot) for the purpose of this policy. Particulate material <3.0 mm in size that cannot be clearly or readily identified as GIT contamination or milk using the normal criteria of texture, colour and appearance will be treated as extraneous material and must be sanitarily removed.
CFIA will perform correlation tests: the inspector shall compare the FPS-FS I test score with the operator's results. If results are not in agreement with CFIA, the results of the CFIA test shall be officially recorded and appropriate corrective actions shall be initiated by the operator.
When a correlation test is performed by the CFIA and the same form for recording results is shared with the operator a different ink colour shall be used to distinguish the CFIA results. Appropriate corrective actions shall be initiated by the operator in case of FPS-FS I test failure.
Normal mode is maintained as long as the operator continues to pass carcass sample set tests. Observation of one or more food safety defects will fail the sample set and alter the classification of Normal test mode.
The operator shall suspend random sampling, notify the CFIA of the failure, detain and implement rework procedures on the lot associated with the test failure and move into Tightened testing mode on the next sample test.
Alteration to normal mode may be waived, if the operator had determined that specific circumstances reasonably caused the contamination event before the actual testing was performed. The operator must have documented evidence supporting that determination. Rework actions still need to be performed.
The switch to the Tightened mode results in the suspension of random sampling. The operator should perform retests every 15 minutes, however the time period can be adjusted up to 30 minutes at the operator's discretion in order to allow enough time before evaluating the actual results of the corrective actions. This adjustment is subjected to VIC approval. The frequency selected will directly affect the size of the lot to be reworked. In each carcass sample set the carcasses are examined for food safety defects only and all carcasses in the set shall be examined irrespective of how many food safety defects are noted. Five consecutive satisfactory sample sets must be achieved before returning to Normal Mode.
While in Tightened mode any test failure requires rework of the lot associated with the test failure. See section 7.4 – Rework Procedures for Failed Lot(s). The CFIA shall be notified of each test failure.
Reduced mode is an elective category and the operator may decline if he so chooses and is achieved after 10 consecutive satisfactory tests in Normal mode. The operator must perform without any defects being observed in any carcass sample sets while in Reduced mode or he shall return to Normal mode.
A lot failure occurs in this mode upon the first failed test of a sample set. The operator shall notify the CFIA of the failure, detain and implement rework procedures on the lot associated with the test failure and switch to the normal mode at the next scheduled test.
7.2.2 Carcass Evaluation for Finished Product Standards - Food Safety II (FPS-FS II) Defect testing
Scheduled random sampling for FPS-FS II pathology defects shall be performed by the operator and monitored by the CFIA. The test shall be performed for the purposes of data gathering only until further notice.
Any FS II pathology defect noted during the carcass evaluation is to be recorded in the allocated section of form HLIS 003 - Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Food Safety I (FS-I) Defects or an equivalent in-house form. The test for FS category II defects can be performed concurrently on the same carcasses as those selected for the FPS-FS I or FPS-OCD test.
There is a zero acceptance for the presence of any FS category II defect. Any defects, regardless of their type, shall be sanitarily removed before the carcass sample set is released. Normally, only the sample set shall be refurbished and no rework of the associated lot shall occur.
Should the veterinarian determine that more than just the sample set may be affected by the presence of an FS II defect s/he may instruct the operator to conduct a full rework on the associated lot of carcasses.
Corrective actions may include but are not limited to:
- increased frequency of testing;
- placing an additional trimmer on-line;
- review of ante mortem screening procedures; and
- employee counselling/re-training.
7.2.3 Carcass Evaluation for Other Carcass Defects (OCD)
The carcass is evaluated for other carcass defects (OCD) which are defects that do not pose a direct food safety concern such as bruises, fractures, adhesions, hair, failed regulatory requirements (e.g. presence of non-lactating mammary tissue, untrimmed stick wound, etc.). When testing for these criteria generally about 1% of the carcass population is randomly sampled by the operator and monitored by the CFIA. The carcass sample size shall be determined by the VIC based on the above criteria. Refer to Appendix B - Decision Tree for Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Other Carcass Defects (OCD). Reduced testing frequencies may occur in this category based upon operator's performance.
The operator shall perform carcass tests for other carcass defects on each production lot during each production shift. The choice of frequency will be correlated to the operator's defined lot size (1.0 hour of production or 0.5 hour of production). See Table 7.2. These tests shall be performed on a random basis and may be conducted at the same time as the food safety defect test.
After ten (10) consecutive successful test scores the operator may elect to move into Relaxed testing mode. The same number of carcasses shall be tested but at a lowered frequency. See Table 7.2. Any test failure will return the operator to Regular mode.
When taking samples all carcasses shall be selected at one time if the sample is to be examined off line. When selecting carcasses from a moving line, random selection principles shall be used and consecutive sample units shall be collected. The non-conformance results for the sample units are to be recorded and scored on form HLIS 002 - Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Other Carcass Defects (OCD).
When the test is performed by the CFIA and the same form is shared with the operator a different ink colour shall be used to distinguish the CFIA results.
After performing a CFIA correlation test the inspector shall compare the test score with the operator's results. If results are not in agreement an additional correlation test shall be performed. In the event of a second non matching score the CFIA test results shall be officially recorded as the correct result and appropriate corrective actions initiated (if applicable) by the operator. Discrepancies between test results can be discussed with CFIA officials.
The VIC and the operator shall collaborate to determine the reason for the non correlation. The CFIA inspector shall also evaluate appropriate operator's records for timeliness, completeness, and accuracy at the preselected random times and correlate the results with the appropriate establishment representative.
7.2.4 Corrective Actions for Other Carcass Defects
Upon failing any FPS test for other carcass defects (OCD) whether in Regular or Relaxed mode the operator shall immediately identify and hold for rework only the immediate production lot associated with the test failure. If the operator was in Relaxed testing mode he shall return to Regular testing mode. Ten (10) consecutive successful test scores shall be achieved before returning to Relaxed mode. The affected lot shall be reworked for the defect(s) that were identified in the failed test score.
7.2.5 CFIA/Operator Testing Frequency
All correlation tests performed by the CFIA monitor will be selected on a random time basis. More than one check per shift or half shift may be performed if there is concern regarding test results. The VIC or delegate shall approve any additional testing.
|Finished Product Standards||Carcass testing frequency|
|Facility Operator FS||once per hour R & N/once per 15* T|
|Facility Operator OCDs||once per ½ or 1 hour Rg, once per 1 or 2 hours Rx|
* or up to 30 minutes, at the operator's discretion.
R = reduced, N = normal, T = tightened, Rg = regular, Rx = relaxed
7.3 Scoring Carcass Defects
7.3.1 Food safety (FS) Defects
The following defects have a zero tolerance. For those defects that may be questionable as to origin and are < 3.0 mm in their greatest dimension please refer to section 7. - Finished Product Standards for Carcasses for Additional Criteria.
- identifiable fecal material
- identifiable ingested material
- identifiable milk (as applicable)
- food safety pathology
All food safety defects that are observed while examining a sample set shall be sanitarily removed before the sample set is released. All findings shall be recorded on form HLIS 003 or an equivalent in-house form. Refer to Appendix C - Decision Tree for Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Food Safety I (FS I) Defects.
7.3.2 Other carcass defects (OCD)
Summary is shown in Table 7.3.
Bile, oil, etc. Minor defects include stains that are ≤4.0 cm. Major defects include stains that are >4.0 cm. Five minor defects or more, over the entire carcass, accumulates to one major defect.
- Blood clots
Clots ≤4.0 cm are not scored. Minor defects include clots that are between >4.0 cm and ≤15.0 cm. Major defects include clots that are >15.0 cm. All measurements are taken across the greatest dimension (GD). Five minor defects or more, over the entire carcass, will equate to one major defect.
Bruises ≤2.5 cm are not scored, Minor defects include bruises that are between >2.5 cm and ≤6.0 cm across the greatest dimension and ≤2.5 cm deep. Major defects include bruises that are >6.0 cm across the GD or >2.5 cm deep. Five minor defects or more, over the entire carcass, will equate to one major defect.
- Extraneous material
Minor defects include ≤10 cm2 area of smear or between ≥5 specks and ≤10 specks in a single 50 cm2 area. Major defects include >10 cm2 area of smear or >10 dust specks in a single 50 cm2 area. The accumulation of 5 minors or more, over the entire carcass, will equate to one major defect.
Minor defects include each insect, warble, etc. Five minors or more, over the entire carcass, will equate to one major defect.
- Fractures/Single Tarsal Arthritis
Any recent fracture or a fracture that has failed to heal and poses a consumer unsuitability condition or an unremoved Single tarsal arthritis. Scores as a major defect.
Minor defects include 5-10 strands in a single 50 cm2 area. Major defects include >10 strands in a 50 cm2 area. Five minors or more, over the entire carcass, will equate to one major defect.
Minor defects include any piece of hide ≤10.0 cm across the GD. Major defects include any piece of hide >10.0 cm across the GD.
- Mammary tissue - non lactating (see note below)
Minor defects include any piece of tissue ≤20 cm (Note that each minor defect is equal to 0.5 score of a major defect). Major defects include any piece of tissue >20.0 cm.
- Organ remnant (see note below)
Defects ≤5.0 cm are not scored. Minor defects include any defect between >5 cm and ≤7.5 cm. Major defects include one or more remnants >7.5 cm in size.
- Scar tissue/adhesions
Defects ≤5.0 cm are not scored. Minor defects include any defect between >5.0 cm and ≤7.5 cm. Major defects include any defect >7.5 cm in size.
- Stick wounds
Any untrimmed stick wounds in part or in whole is scored as a major defect.
For each major defect score 1. To convert minor defects to major defects, multiply the number of minor defects by 0.2 (except mammary and organ remnants which are multiplied by 0.5). The lot will be accepted with a total of 6.9 and rejected with a total score of 7 or greater. Any lactating mammary tissue will be considered as FPS-FS-I defect and will be managed using a zero tolerance approach.
|Non Conformance||Minor Defect |
|Stains (e.g. bile, oil, etc.)||≤4.0 cm||>4.0 (GDTable Note 10) or ≥5 minors|
|Blood clots||>4.0 cm and ≤15.0 cm (GDTable Note 10)||>15.0 cm (GDTable Note 10) or ≥5 minors|
|Bruising||>2.5 and ≤6 cm (GDTable Note 10) and ≤2.5 cm deep||>6 cm (GDTable Note 10) or >2.5 cm deep or ≥5 minors|
|Extraneous material||≤10 cm2 area of smear or ≥5 specks and ≤10 specks in a single 50 cm2 area||>10 cm2 area of smear or >10 specks in a single 50 cm2 area or ≥5 minors|
|Parasites/insects||Each warble, fly, etc.||≥5 minors|
|Hair||5 to 10 strands in a single 50 cm2 area||>10 strands in a single 50 cm2 area or ≥5 minors|
|Hide||≤10.0 cm (GDTable Note 10)||>10.0 cm (GDTable Note 10)|
|Scar tissue/ adhesions||>5 cm and ≤7.5 cm (GDTable Note 10)||>7.5 cm (GDTable Note 10)|
|≤20 cm (GDTable Note 10)
(Multiply by 0.5)
|>20 cm (GDTable Note 10)|
|Organ remnant||>5 cm and ≤7.5 cm
(Multiply by 0.5)
|>7.5 cm (GDTable Note 10)|
|Fractures & single tarsal arthritis||N/A||Any fresh fractures or single tarsal arthritis|
|Stick Wounds||N/A||Any untrimmed or partially untrimmed stick wound|
- Table note 10
8GD = greatest dimension
- Multiply each non-conformance by 0.2 (Except mammary tissue and organ remnants which are multiplied by 0.5).
- Multiply each major non-conformance by 1. Add major and minor non-conformance.
- Accept a lot with total of 6.9 or less and reject with a total score of 7 or greater.
- If what is found is less than the minimum minor size or count listed, do not score.
- Where minor defects are numerous enough to classify as a major, do not score as minor also.
7.4 Rework Procedures for Failed Lot(s)
The operator shall notify the CFIA when rework procedures are being performed on any detained lot. The frequency of rework procedure monitoring by the CFIA shall be at the discretion of the VIC. Operators and the CFIA shall refer to Appendix E - Decision tree for carcass rework for the details on process actions required for carcass product rework procedures.
The operator has the option to rework the entire lot associated with the FPS-FS I test failure (section 7.4.2) and verify the rework was effective through rework evaluation OR to subject the lot to verification testing (section 7.4.1). The operator's written program will clearly indicate how plant personnel will:
- identify lots/sub-lots of carcasses subject to rework procedures;
- rework or perform verification testing, as applicable to the rework procedure chosen by the operator;
- evaluate rework; and
- respond to any failure of the rework procedures.
Lots (sub-lots) under verification testing or under rework evaluation will normally be tested only for those defects that originally failed the FPS test sample set. However, in the case of FPS-FS I, finding of any zero tolerance FS I defects (i.e. not only the FS I defect that originally failed the sample set, but also any other FS I) will fail the lot/sub-lot and lead to rework of the entire lot.
In all cases, any other defect (i.e. FPS-FS II or OCD defects not associated with the original lot failure) that is detected during rework procedures will also be sanitarily removed but not scored.
7.4.1 Lot Verification Testing
Under this elective option, the operator will carefully examine the specific lots of carcasses retained for rework procedures for the presence of the defect that lead to the lot failure (OCD) or in the case of FPS-FS I, any zero tolerance defects.
For FPS-FS I failure, the lot verification testing option can only be used when a failure occurred in Reduced or Normal mode. If the FPS-FS I failure occurred in Tightened mode, lot rework and evaluation must be implemented.
For lot verification testing, the operator will randomly select the specified number of carcasses for verification testing. The sample size should be representative of the entire population and should vary depending on the size of the original failed lot. Table 7.4.1 provides minimum sample size number of carcasses that shall be collected for the testing. The entire population of the lot shall have an equal opportunity of being selected for testing.
|Number of carcass units per lot||Minimal number of random samples to collect|
- Rejection criteria: If one or more samples are rejected, regardless the number of carcasses sampled, the lot fails
- If a defect is found in the lot, the lot will have to be fully reworked. See section 7.4.2 for the next steps.
- If the lot is free of defects, the entire lot can be released for further processing.
A responsible plant employee shall inform the VIC/delegate whenever a failure occurs.
7.4.2 Lot Rework and Evaluation
When rework is to be performed, such as in case of a failure in Tightened mode for FPS-FS I testing or when rework is chosen in lieu of procedures in section 7.4.1 or when a failure is found during procedures of section 7.4.1, the operator may choose to rework the lot during the cooling process. Every carcass belonging to the lot shall be reworked at an appropriately equipped rework trim station.
Once the specified lot has been reworked for the appropriate defects, the operator will select one of the following options:
The reworked lot may be kept intact or divided into sub-lots. The minimum number of carcasses randomly selected from the reworked lot or sub-lot for evaluation may be obtained from the table below. The entire population of each lot/sub-lot shall have an equal opportunity of being selected for testing. If the lot/sub-lot is less than 25 carcasses, the procedure in Subsection 7.4.2 (2) shall be followed. The operator must achieve a satisfactory test result before releasing the lot/sub-lot for further processing. All carcasses associated with a lot/sub-lot that failed the test shall be reworked once again. The reworked lot/sub-lot must be re-tested using the same statistical testing procedures and pass the test before the lot/sub-lot can be released for further processing.
Table 7.4.2: Minimal number of random carcasses to collect for the rework evaluation. Number of carcass units per lot or sub-lot Minimal number of random samples to collect 25-124 3 125-149 4 150-199 5 200-349 6 350-499 7 500-649 8 650-799 9 800-949 10 950-1099 11 1100-1199 12 More than 1200 13
Rejection criteria: If one or more samples are rejected, regardless the number of carcasses sampled, the lot fails
A responsible plant employee shall inform the VIC/delegate whenever a failure occurs.
- If the lot is reworked on-line prior to or upon leaving the carcass cooler area, immediately following the rework trim station procedure, every carcass shall be re-examined by an accredited plant employee at a properly equipped station. The plant employee shall verify that those defects that failed the entire lot and all FS I and II defects have been removed from each carcass during the initial rework trimming step. A carcass that fails the evaluation step shall be immediately isolated and reworked or reworked while on line (subject to VIC approval), and no carcass shall be released for shipping or further processing until it has been refurbished to edible standards or alternately deemed inedible. Only those carcasses which have passed both the first and second steps (i.e. trimming and evaluation) may be released for shipping or further processing.
7.4.3 CFIA responsibilities and actions:
- Rework testing frequency by the CFIA shall be discretionary. The CFIA will periodically monitor the rework procedures to ensure that the Operator is meeting the requirements of the program.
- The VIC or delegate shall be informed whenever corrective actions are taken on a failed rework lot.
7.4.4 Voluntary Rework Under Extraordinary Circumstances
Due to extraordinary circumstances beyond the operator's immediate control certain groups of carcasses may be presented with non-food safety conditions on the evisceration floor that significantly bias that group towards failure of the performance standards for Finished Product Testing. In such circumstances and at the discretion of the VIC, the operator may request that such a group of affected carcasses be exempted from FPS Testing provided that the operator agrees to properly identify and retain the affected group for rework as described in section 7.4 - Rework Procedures for Failed Lot(s), the exempted group of carcasses poses no food safety concerns and an approved written procedure has been established for the handling of such carcasses in the operator's written program and/or HACCP plan.
Decision tree for Shewhart control chart
Decision Tree for Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Other Carcass Defects (OCD)
- Regular mode shall be used to start.
- Regardless of which inspection mode is being used, all defects are removed from the sample before it is released and all units in the sample are examined.
- Regardless of mode, Regular or Relaxed, only the immediate associated lot shall be reworked when a failure occurs.
Decision Tree for Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Food Safety I (FS-I) Defects
- Normal mode shall be used to start.
- Normal, tightened or reduced modes shall continue unchanged except where indicated by the decision tree above.
- Regardless of which inspection mode is being used, all carcass defects shall be removed from the sample set before it is released and ALL carcass units in the sample are examined.
- Retests shall be performed every 15 or 30 minutes as per operator's written program.
Decision Tree for Presentation
- Testing in normal, tightened or reduced modes shall continue unchanged except where indicated by the decision tree.
- A sample unit (viscera, head or carcass) fails if one or more attributes are scored.
- There is a maximum of one failure per sample unit.
- There shall be no more than one process control step under a line speed reduction at any given time.
Decision tree for carcass rework
REWORK PROCEDURES FOR FAILED LOTS:
FOOD SAFETY (FPS-FS) DEFECTS OR OTHER CARCASS (FPS-OCD) DEFECTS
The CFIA shall be notified when any lot rework procedure is scheduled to occur.
LOT VERIFICATION TESTING (section 7.4.1):
The lot verification testing option can only be used when a failure occurred in Reduced or Normal mode for FPS-FS I. If the failure occurred in Tightened mode, lot rework and evaluation must be implemented.
- Determine the lot size and identify/segregate in accordance with the HLIS policy.
- Utilize the random sampling procedure in accordance with the HLIS policy to select the appropriate number of carcasses from the lot for verification testing. If the defect that caused the failure is not detected (OCD defect that caused the failure or any zero tolerance defect), release the lot. If the defect is detected the entire lot associated with the initial FPS test failure will have to be reworked.
- Rework and testing procedures continue until the lot passes.
LOT REWORK AND EVALUATION
IN COOLER REWORK (section 7.4.2 (1)):
- Rework every carcass in the lot for the defect(s) that produced the failure.
- Utilize the random sampling procedure in accordance with the HLIS policy to select the appropriate number of carcasses from the reworked lot for test. If the defect that caused the failure is not detected (OCD defect that caused the failure or any zero tolerance defect), release the lot. If the defect is detected redo rework and test until the lot passes.
ONLINE COOLER REWORK (section 7.4.2 (2)):
- Rework every carcass in the lot for the defect(s) that produced the failure (OCD defect that caused the failure or any zero tolerance defect).
- EVERY reworked carcass shall be immediately re-examined by an accredited employee located at an approved on line verification station. Any defect found shall be immediately removed prior to the release of the carcass for further processing or shipping.
HLIS 001 - Shewhart Control Chart
Establishment # Date:
Test location: (check one)
Evisceration Hide removal (rump) Hide removal (brisket)
|Sample #||Time and Line Speed||Score||Comments||CFIA Initial||Est. Initial|
HLIS 001 - (Amended 2012/02/01)
Important: If further corrective action is required, record it on the back of this form or on an attached or referenced document
HLIS 002 - Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Other Carcass Defects (OCD)
HLIS 003 - Finished Product Standards - Carcasses with Food Safety I (FS-I) Defects
HLIS 004A - ISO SPC Test - Beef Heads Presentation
HLIS 004B - ISO SPC Test - Beef Viscera Presentation
HLIS 004C - ISO SPC Test - Beef Carcass Presentation
HLIS 005 - HLIS Beef Program - Facility Assessment
For CFIA use only.
- Date modified: