Shell Egg Manual - Chapter 4 - Product Inspection

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Table of Contents

4.1 Objective of activity

Shell eggs are sampled and inspected to ensure that regulatory requirements for grade, safety and quality are met.

4.2 References

Canada Agricultural Products Act

Egg Regulations

CFIA Reference Listing of Accepted Construction Materials, Packaging Materials and Non-Food Chemical Products

4.3 Required Equipment

  • Candling light
  • Scale and check weights
  • Air cell gauge
  • Random Sampling Numbers Table - Appendix II
  • Haugh unit table and micrometer
  • Spatula
  • CFIA inspection stamp (required for a certification)
  • Coveralls or Lab coats (as per Area requirement)
  • Sanitary footwear
  • Disinfectant (as per Reference Listing) - spray bottle, pail, brush

4.4 Required Forms

Shell Egg - Product Inspection Report - Origin (CFIA/ACIA 4196)

Appendix IV Switching Rules Tracking Form

Shell Egg Destination Report (CFIA/ACIA 1017)

Pre-grade/Canada Nest Run Product Inspection Report (CFIA/ACIA 5427)

Inspection Report of Shell Eggs / Processed Egg (CFIA/ACIA 5109)

Application for Inspection (Egg or Processed Egg) (CFIA/ACIA 5435)

Certificate of Inspection/Grading (Eggs and Poultry) (CFIA/ACIA 1022)

Notice of Detention (CFIA/ACIA 3256)

Notice of Release from Detention (CFIA/ACIA 3257)

4.5 Grading

Grading eggs normally includes cleaning (usually by washing), candling, weighing (Canada A and B) and packing into containers with the applicable federal grade name.

There are four grades of eggs under the Canadian Egg Regulations. These are Canada A, Canada B, Canada C and Canada Nest Run (CNR). The Egg Regulations limit the grading and application of grade names under these Regulations to inspectors, and to federally registered egg stations.

Eggs in a container marked with a federal grade name must meet the requirements of the grade indicated until the end of the best before date.

4.5.1 Eligibility for Grading

Eggs that have the following qualities are not eligible for grading. When found during a product inspection, they are considered rejects:

  • eggs with an odour foreign to that of a normal egg,
  • eggs with a colour not customary for an egg,
  • mouldy eggs,
  • eggs which have been in an incubator, or
  • eggs that are adulterated, contaminated or otherwise inedible.

4.5.2 Factors Considered For Grade Requirements

The three factors used to determine grade are:

Interior quality

  • Shape and position of the yolk as related to thickness or thinness of the albumen
  • Size or depth of air cell
  • Presence or absence of internal defects (e.g. blood spots, meat spots)

Shell

  • Cleanliness
  • Shape
  • Integrity (e.g. cracks)

Weight

  • There are six weight categories used for Grade A: Peewee (APWS), Small (ASS), Medium (AMS), Large (ALS), Extra Large (AELS) and Jumbo (AJS) sizes
  • There is a minimum weight requirement for Canada B
  • There are no weight requirements for Canada C or Canada Nest Run

4.5.3 Grade Requirements

Grade requirements are set out in Schedule I of the Egg Regulations. A summary of grade requirements can be found in table format in Appendix I.

4.5.3.1 Canada A

Eggs must meet the requirements listed below, in order to be graded as Canada A.

Interior quality
  • Yolk
    • Outline is indistinct (not clearly visible) and membrane is not broken
    • Round in shape
    • Reasonably well centered (yolk is not stuck to the shell): the position of the yolk is related to the quality of the thick albumen
  • Albumen
    • Reasonably firm to keep the yolk centered
  • Air cell
    • Maximum 5 mm depth
    • Floating and tremulous air cells are permitted
  • Internal defects are not permitted
Shell
  • Cleanliness
    • Dirt is not permitted. Note: Stickers or labels applied directly to eggs are not considered Dirt. Stickers may be applied if they are stored and used under sanitary conditions and if they do not interfere with the normal operation of equipment in the egg station. Stickers may cover a maximum area of 2.5 cm2
    • No more than three stain spots, the aggregate area of which cannot exceed 25 mm, are permitted. Note: ink jet printing (e.g. expiry dates, brand names) applied directly to the shell of an egg is not considered as stain. If albumen on the shell is causing a problem (e.g. eggs sticking to the carton), it should be classified as a stain
  • Shape and integrity
    • Grade A eggs should be able to withstand normal handling. The shell must be normal or nearly normal in shape. Misshapen eggs (e.g. long and thin) may break during distribution and should be packed as a lower grade
    • Ridges which do not affect the integrity of the shell are permitted.
    • Normal eggs may have rough areas which do not necessarily indicate a weak shell. However, very rough or porous shells or those with heavy localized calcium deposits (greater than the size of a quarter) which indicate a weakness, should be removed from Grade A
    • Cracks are not permitted
Weight
  • The size of eggs by weight for the grade Canada A is defined in Schedule III of the Egg Regulations.
  • Each egg must meet the minimum weight for the declared size
  • Egg size is treated separately from quality, but the two factors must be considered in the determination of the grade
  • Size designation for Canada A eggs must appear on the label

4.5.3.2 Canada B

Eggs must meet the requirements listed below, in order to be graded as Canada B.

Interior quality
  • Yolk
    • Outline may be visible and membrane is not broken
    • Floats freely within the egg when twirled (the yolk is not stuck to the shell) and may be moderately oblong in shape
    • Eggs showing more than very slight germ development (eggs showing blood lines or a blood ring) are considered rejects
  • Air Cell
    • Maximum 9 mm depth
    • Floating and tremulous air cells are permitted
  • Internal defects are not permitted
Shell
  • Cleanliness
    • Dirt is not permitted. Note: Stickers or labels applied directly to eggs are not considered Dirt. Stickers may be applied if they are stored and used under sanitary conditions and if they do not interfere with the normal operation of equipment in the grading station. Stickers may cover a maximum area of 2.5 cm2
    • Stain spots are permitted but the aggregate area of the stain must not exceed 320 mm2. Note: ink jet printing (e.g. expiry dates, brand names) applied directly to the shell of an egg is not considered a stain. If albumen on the shell is causing a problem (e.g. eggs sticking to the carton), it should be classified as a stain
  • Shape and Integrity
    • May be slightly abnormal in shape
    • May have rough areas
    • May have definite ridges
    • Cracks are not permitted
Weight
  • Must weigh at least 49 grams
  • No size designation on the label

4.5.3.3 Canada C

Canada C is considered a processing grade and provides a safe outlet for the disposition of cracked eggs. Canada C eggs must be shipped to a federally registered processed egg station and pasteurized as a means of controlling the higher risk of Salmonella or other microbial contamination that may be found in cracked eggs.

In addition to meeting the requirements listed below, eggs eligible for Canada A and Canada B may also be packed in this grade.

Eggs which do not meet the requirements for Canada C are considered to be rejects.

Interior Quality
  • Yolk
  • Outline may be prominent and definitely oblong in shape
  • Yolk membrane is not broken
  • Yolk is not stuck to the shell
  • Air Cell
  • No restriction in the size of the air cell
  • Floating and tremulous air cells are permitted
  • Internal defects
  • Blood and meat spots not exceeding 3 mm in diameter are permitted
  • Other internal defects are not allowed
Shell
  • Cleanliness
  • Dirt is not permitted
  • Maximum tolerance for stain (1/3 of the shell). If albumen on the shell is causing a problem (e.g. eggs sticking to trays), it should be classified as a stain
  • Shape and Integrity
  • Cracked eggs may only be packed in this grade
  • Leakers are not permitted
Weight
  • There are no size or weight limitations in this grade

4.5.3.4 Canada Nest Run

Since Canada Nest Run eggs are generally sent for further processing, they are usually not washed, candled or sized. However, Nest Run eggs must meet the minimum quality requirements prescribed by the Egg Regulations. This grade, as with other Canada grades, can only be applied to eggs in a federally registered egg station.

Nest Run Standard

No more than:

  • 10% cracks
  • 5% of the shells with dirt greater than 160 mm2
  • 3% leakers or rejects
  • 15% combined total of cracks, dirts and rejects

Occasionally, based on supply needs, Canada Nest Run eggs may move to a registered egg station to be re-graded for the table market.

4.5.3.5 Rejects

Any egg having any of the following characteristics is considered a reject, including:

  • eggs with the qualities specified in section 4.5.1
  • eggs where the dye has penetrated the shell
  • eggs with blood or meat spot in excess of 3 mm in diameter
  • eggs showing more than very slight germ development (eggs showing blood lines or a blood ring
  • Canada Nest Run eggs with more than 160mm2 of dirt
  • Canada A, B or C eggs with dirt on the shell
  • leakers
  • shell with a stain covering more than 1/3 of the surface of the egg
  • eggs with any internal defects listed below:
    • Black Rot - a condition where, on candling, a black interior is indicated and generally a very rank odour is present
    • Blood Spot - a clot or streak of blood in the white or on the yolk
    • Blood Ring - an advanced stage of germ development indicated by the appearance of a red ring on the yolk
    • Bloody Egg - a condition where blood has diffused into the white
    • Congealed Albumen - a condition where a portion of the albumen shows evidence of having congealed
    • Grass Yolk - an egg which shows a yolk with a green or olive colour
    • Red Rot Or Mixed Rot - a condition resulting from rupture of the yolk-sac to permit mixture of the yolk and white
    • Sour Rot - a condition in which the egg may have a bubbly condition at the air cell line and when broken gives off a sour odour
    • Spot Rot - a mould spot inside the shell or along cracks in the shell
    • Stuck Yolk - a condition where the yolk membrane adheres to the shell so that it is not free when the egg is rotated
    • White Rot - a condition where the yolk is covered with a light-coloured crust, the white often watery, and generally gives off a putrid odour
    • Green albumen - a condition where the albumen turns green and fluoresces under a black light

4.5.3.6 Provincial Cracks

As of April 1, 2013, in accordance with the Egg Regulations, all eggs received at a registered station must be graded and marked with a federal grade name prior to being marketed, such as Canada C for clean, cracked eggs. Federally registered egg grading stations are not permitted to mark eggs as provincial cracks.

4.6 Product Inspection

Product inspection for shell eggs is carried out in order to determine if the product meets the requirements of the grade name applied to the container of eggs. Inspections are carried out on domestic product as well as on imports and exports. All product that is certified by the CFIA must be inspected. Product may also be inspected upon request to confirm product quality.

The following types of inspections may be conducted:

  • Origin inspection: inspection at any place where the eggs were graded, packed or repacked, or any inspection for export or interprovincial movement.
  • Destination inspection: any other type of inspection, including one done at a wholesaler, retailer, distributor, processing plant, or for an import.
  • Nest Run inspection: inspections performed on Canada Nest Run eggs.
  • Pre-grade inspection: inspections performed on ungraded eggs to determine if they are eligible to be graded as Canada A.

4.6.1 General Steps for Product Inspection

Scientific methods of sampling must be employed to ensure that the sample is representative of the population, adequate in size, and unbiased. In order for a sampling to be valid, the inspector must follow the sampling guidelines and adhere to requirements such as sample size, random selection of samples and accurate examination of the product.

4.6.1.1 Preparing for an Inspection

  • Prior to arriving at the inspection location, the inspector gathers the equipment, reports and forms necessary to perform the required duties. Vehicles and clothing must be clean, and the inspector must be equipped to take bio-security measures.
  • Upon arriving, the inspector ensures bio-security measures are followed.
  • Equipment is set up and appropriate checks are performed to verify that the equipment functions properly. Facilities for the inspector must be clean and otherwise suitable in order to adequately perform the inspection.

4.6.1.2 Selection of the Lots

  • Individual lots of eggs are selected from the cooler for inspection purposes. It is the plants responsibility to ensure that eggs are accessible for inspection, and to provide assistance to the inspector, where required.
  • A lot is a quantity of eggs that for any reason is considered separately from any other quantity of eggs for the purpose of an inspection.
  • For routine domestic inspections, it is up to the inspector to decide the quantity of eggs that will make up each lot; however a lot should only contain one size of eggs. For example, the inspector could designate eggs of one size, brand, unique expiry date or packed on date as a lot, or a specific number of pallets of eggs within one size.
  • For import inspections (destination inspections) the lots are determined by the Import Control and Tracking System (see Chapter 8 - Shell Egg - Imports).
  • For export inspections, and inspections that are requested for certification, the entire quantity of product to be certified must be inspected because only product which has been inspected can be certified. The entire quantity of product can be inspected as one lot (where applicable), or it may need to be split into several lots if there are different sizes and/or grades of eggs.

4.6.1.3 Determination of the Number of Units in the Lot (N)

A unit comprises any container containing between 60 and 180 eggs (5-15 dozen). If the eggs are packed in containers of more than 15 dozen (e.g. 24 dozen or 30 dozen), the inspector should determine the definition of a unit prior to selecting the sample. To maintain the statistical validity of the sampling plan, a unit must not contain more than 180 eggs (15 dozen). For example, the inspector may decide that each 24 dozen case will be 2 x 12 dozen units and assign a number to each 12 dozen unit.

4.6.1.4 Determination of the Sample Size (n)

The sampling procedure consists of drawing from the lot, at random, the designated number of units (n) of product required to make up the sample as determined by the appropriate sampling plan. Origin and destination inspections have unique sampling plans, which will be detailed in the appropriate sections of this chapter.

4.6.1.5 Selection of Units Using the Random Sampling Numbers Table

Once the sample size has been determined, number each unit in the lot in a consistent manner from 1 to N, where N is the total number of units in the lot. Use the Random Sampling Numbers Table (Appendix II) to select the units for inspection. This table is used so that each of the units in the lot has the same likelihood of being selected for inspection. The Random Sampling Numbers Table is applied as follows:

  • n is the sample size as determined by the sampling plan table.
  • A starting point in the Random Sampling Numbers table is arbitrarily chosen.
  • Numbers consisting of as many digits as N (e.g. 200 has 3 digits) are extracted by reading across the table, from left to right.
  • Each number encountered, which falls between 1 and N is chosen.
  • Continue until n numbers have been picked

Select the units in the lot which correspond to the numbers picked from the Random Sampling Numbers table. These are the units that will be inspected. The units of product drawn are known individually as units and collectively as the sample.

Example: A lot contains 600 boxes of eggs and the sample size n is 13. The boxes in the lot are numbered from 1 to 600 in some fashion and the Random Sampling Numbers table is used. If the seventh row and sixth column were arbitrarily chosen as the starting point, the table would be read across until 13 distinct 3-digit numbers between 1 and 600 inclusive are obtained. The resulting sample for inspection would consist of the boxes numbered 399, 460, 484, 472, 592, 512, 557, 162, 391, 021, 475, 309 and 263.

For the purpose of inspection, 60 eggs (5 dozen) per unit are always examined. Eggs should be selected at random from various locations within the unit. When selecting the eggs, the inspector must make sure they do not damage the product.

4.6.2 Origin Inspection

An origin inspection is done when the product inspection:

  • occurs at any place where eggs were graded and packed or repacked, or
  • is carried out for certification purposes for export or interprovincial movement (this may occur at a site other than where the eggs were graded).

4.6.2.1 Origin Sampling Plans

An origin inspection uses one of the two sampling plans shown below in Table I and Table II. The sampling plans are based on size designation and grade:

  • Table I - all Canada A sizes (except Extra Large and Jumbo) and Canada B.
  • Table II - Canada AELS and Jumbo sizes.
  • For inspection of Canada C, see section 4.6.2.2.

Note: These sampling schemes were developed based on the International Standard ISO/2859/1, using Acceptable Quality Levels (AQL). The AQL is a designated value of percent defectives (nonconforming) or defects (nonconformities) per hundred units that will be accepted most of the time by the acceptance sampling procedure to be used. An AQL of 25.0% was selected for Canada A Jumbo Size and Extra Large Size and an AQL of 10.0% was chosen for all other grades and sizes.

Table I: Acceptance Sampling Scheme: Shell Egg Program
Sampling Plan for All Canada A Sizes (Except Extra Large And Jumbo) And Canada B
Lot Size (number of Units) Reduced Level
Sample Size
Reduced Level
Ac
Reduced Level
Re
Normal Level
Sample Size
Normal Level
Ac
Normal Level
Re
Tightened Level
Sample Size
Tightened Level
Ac
Tightened Level
Re
2 - 90 2 0 2 5 1 2 8 1 2
91 - 150 3 1 3 8 2 3 8 1 2
151 - 280 5 1 4 13 3 4 13 2 3
281 - 500 8 2 5 20 5 6 20 3 4
501 - 1200 13 3 6 32 7 8 32 5 6
1201 - 3200 20 5 8 50 10 11 50 8 9
3201 - 10,000 32 7 10 80 14 15 80 12 13
over/plus 10,000 50 10 13 125 21 22 125 18 19
Table II: Acceptance Sampling Scheme: Shell Egg Program
Sampling Plan for Canada A Extra Large And Jumbo Sizes
Lot Size (number of Units) Reduced Level
Sample Size
Reduced Level
Ac
Reduced Level
Re
Normal Level
Sample Size
Normal Level
Ac
Normal Level
Re
Tightened Level
Sample Size
Tightened Level
Ac
Tightened Level
Re
2 - 15 2 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 2
16-25 2 1 3 3 2 3 3 1 2
26-90 2 1 3 5 3 4 5 2 3
91-150 3 2 4 8 5 6 8 3 4
151-280 5 3 6 13 7 8 13 5 6
281-500 8 5 8 20 10 11 20 8 9
501-1200 13 7 10 32 14 15 32 12 13
over/plus 1200 20 10 13 50 21 22 50 18 19

The sampling plans in Table I and Table II are further divided based on inspection level. Both the lot size (N) and the inspection level are required to determine the number of units to be selected for the sample (sample size n). There are three levels of inspection:

  • Tightened - Where previous compliance of a given size/grade category of product is low.
  • Normal - Where previous compliance of a given size/grade category of product is average.
  • Reduced - Where previous compliance of a given size/grade category of product is high

The level of inspection for each lot is based on the previous inspection results for the same product size tracking category, as indicated on the Switching Rules Tracking Form (see section 4.6.2.3 for further details). When more than one lot is to be inspected during the same visit, the results of inspection for one lot may impact the level of inspection for the next lot (where both lots fall under the same tracking category). In order for a plant to move from one inspection level to another, the switching rules are applied. Details on product tracking and switching rules can be found in section 4.6.2.3. The starting inspection level at a newly registered egg station is Normal for all sizes and grades of eggs.

When an origin inspection is performed on product at a location other than where the eggs were graded, (other than for export), the inspection level to be used is that of the same grade/size of product at the originating egg station. The responsible inspector for that egg station may have to be contacted to obtain the appropriate inspection level. The results for the inspection will then be communicated back to the inspector responsible for the egg station. The results will be considered as a regular inspection at the egg station and may change the inspection level for that grade/size of eggs. However, when certifying shipments for export, the normal level of inspection is used.

Example: If a lot contains 600 boxes of ALS eggs, Table I is used to determine the sample size. If the inspection level for that grade/size of egg is Normal, the sample size would be 32 units. If the inspection level was reduced, the sample size would be 13 units.

Note: In some sections of the sampling plans, where the lot size is at the low end of the 2-90 or 2-15 unit range, the sample size may exceed the lot size (Table I - Normal and Tightened levels, Table II - Tightened level). In such cases, the following steps should be taken:

  • The inspector should first determine if the size of the units in the lot can be reevaluated. For example, if the units were numbered as boxes of 15 dozen, unit numbers could be reassigned by splitting the boxes into 3 units of 5 dozen to increase the total number of units in the lot. Inspectors must keep in mind that a unit must contain a minimum of 60 eggs (5 dozen). If, by splitting the units, the required sample size can be met, proceed with the inspection as usual. The size of the unit (in dozens) should be defined on the Shell Egg - Product Inspection Report - Origin (CFIA/ACIA 4196 - intended for internal use).
  • If the units cannot be reduced in size, the number of units in the lot will remain smaller than the sample size. In these cases, 100% of the eggs must be examined. When evaluating the acceptability of the lot, the Acceptance and Rejection numbers would not apply. The acceptability of the lot should be determined using the following percentages: no more than 7% total undergrades and no more than 5% undergrades excluding cracks.

4.6.2.2 Product Assessment

  • As each lot of product is being assessed, the Shell Egg - Product Inspection Report - Origin (CFIA/ACIA 4196 - intended for internal use) should be completed. See section 4.6.2.7 for instructions on how to fill out the form. 
  • The units should be candled and assessed against the grade requirements. Eggs that do not meet the requirements for the grade at which they were graded are considered undergrades.
  • Eggs weighed on a Syro scale must be placed directly upright on the scale.
  • The undergrades for each unit should be tracked separately. Use a separate line for recording the undergrades found for the 60 eggs inspected in each unit.
  • Eggs that are undergrades, leakers or rejects should be segregated for proper disposition.
  • The acceptability of the units should be assessed and recorded on the appropriate line of the form. For purposes of determining acceptability of the units, eggs that have cracked shells, and are undergrade for a reason other than cracks must be counted as a crack. Counting one egg in two categories is not acceptable.

Acceptable unit: A unit in a lot is acceptable if, from the 60 eggs drawn and examined, a maximum total of 4 undergrades including cracks are found, of which not more than 3 are undergrades for reasons other than cracks. Leakers and rejects are not considered in the evaluation of an individual unit.

Defective unit: A unit is defective if a total of at least 5 undergrades including cracks are found, or at least 4 undergrades for reasons other than cracks.

How to determine if a unit is defective
Undergrades for reasons other than cracks Total undergrades, including cracks
unit acceptable 3 4
unit defective 4 5

The acceptability of the lot should be determined and recorded on the appropriate line of the form. Acceptability of the lot is based on two evaluations;

  • the number of defective units as compared to the acceptance and rejection numbers
  • the administrative tolerance.

In order to determine the acceptability of a lot, an Acceptance Number (Ac) and Rejection Number (Re) are required. These numbers are determined by using the sampling plans in Table I and Table II.

Ac = the maximum number of defective units allowed in the sample for a lot to be accepted.

Re = the minimum number of defective units in the sample requiring the lot to be rejected.

Acceptable lot: A lot is acceptable if the number of defective units found in the sample is equal to or less than the acceptance number (Ac) for the appropriate sample size.

Reject lot: If the number of defective units is equal to or greater than the rejection number (Re), the lot fails and will be detained.

Lot requiring further evaluation: At the Reduced level in both sampling plans (Tables I and II), there may be instances where the number of defective units is found to be greater than the acceptance number (Ac) but less than the rejection number (Re). In such cases, the inspection level is moved to Normal and the product is evaluated to determine its disposition. To do this, the following procedure should be followed using either Table I & II under section 4.6.2.1 :

Table I: Sampling Plan for all Canada A sizes (except Extra Large and Jumbo) and Canada B
  • Determine if any one of the defective units contains an excessive number of undergrades. Excessive is defined as a unit containing more than double the regular acceptable number of undergrades. In other words, a unit is considered to contain an excessive number of undergrades if it contains at least 7 undergrades other than cracks (which is more than double the regular acceptance number of 3), or contains at least 9 undergrades including cracks (which is more than double the regular acceptance number of 4).
  • If the defective units do not contain an excessive number of undergrades, the lot is accepted
  • If any of the defective units contain an excessive number of undergrades, additional units must be taken to bring the sample size up to the number required at the Normal level.

Example: for a lot of 400 boxes ALS, an additional 12 units would be required to bring the sample size from the Reduced level of 8 units to the Normal level of 20 units (Table I).

  • The additional units are inspected and the entire lot of eggs, including the previous defective unit from sampling at the Reduced level, is assessed as a whole. The assessment for the disposition of the product is carried out based on the results at the Normal level of inspection.
  • Regardless of the outcome of the assessment, the inspection level for that product size tracking category moves to Normal.
Table II: Sampling Plan for Canada A Extra Large and Jumbo sizes

Lot Size 16-280 units

  • In Table II, when the lot size falls between 16 and 280 units at the Reduced level, the Rejection number (Re) can never be reached, even if every unit examined is defective. (Example: with a lot size of 151-280 units, the sample size is 5 but the Rejection number (Re) is 6. Even if all 5 units are defective, the Rejection number cannot be reached).
  • When the number of defective units falls between the Ac and Re numbers, additional units must be taken to bring the sample size up to the number required at the Normal level.
  • The additional units are inspected and the entire lot of eggs, including the previous defective units from sampling at the Reduced level, is assessed as a whole. The assessment for the disposition of the product is carried out based on the results at the Normal level of inspection.
  • Regardless of the outcome of the assessment, the level for that product size tracking category moves to Normal.

Lot Size 281 to >1200 units

  • In Table II, when the lot size is 281or greater, and the number of defective units falls between the Ac and Re numbers, proceed in the same manner as described in Table I above (i. e. only increase the sample size for this lot to Normal where one or more of the defective units contains an excessive number of undergrades).
  • Inspection of Canada C: For inspection of Canada C eggs at origin, Table I is used to determine the sample size, but Ac and Re numbers do not apply. Canada C eggs are inspected for leakers and rejects only, and are assessed based on the administrative tolerance described below.
Administrative Tolerances for Grade A, B and C Product Inspected at Origin

In addition to the evaluation of the lot based on the Acceptance (Ac) and Rejection (Re) numbers, the administrative tolerance for product inspected at origin must also be applied. The administrative tolerance allows for some leakers and rejects in the lot.

Administrative Tolerances at Origin
Leakers Stain > 1/3 Table Note 1 Reject Table Note 2
Canada A /B 1 per 2 units Table Note 3 1 per unit
Canada C 1 per unit 3 per unit 1 per unit

Table Notes

Table Note 1

Regulated tolerance - Egg Regulations, Schedule IV, Section 3

Return to table note 1  referrer

Table Note 2

Dirts are included in the Reject administrative tolerance for Canada A, Canada B and Canada C

Return to table note 2  referrer

Table Note 3

A unit consists of 60 eggs (5 doz. eggs)

Return to table note 3  referrer

The number of leakers and rejects in the lot should be calculated as an average for the lot at the end of the inspection and compared to the administrative tolerance. If the number of reject eggs or leakers found during the inspection is more that the Administrative Tolerance, the lot fails and will be detained, even if the acceptance number (Ac) of units was met.

Example: A lot of 200 boxes of Canada C eggs is inspected. The sample size is 5 units (Table I). 60 eggs from each of the 5 units are inspected. The following results were found

Results of example sample:
Unit 1 2 3 4 5 Total
Leakers 1 2 0 2 0 5
Rejects 0 3 1 1 2 7
  • the results show that a total of 5 leakers and 7 rejects were found.
  • The average of leakers found in the lot is 1 (5) 5)
  • The average of rejects found in the lot is 1.4 (7) 5).
  • the administrative tolerance chart shows that for Canada C eggs, on average 1 leaker per sample and 1 reject per sample is allowed.
  • Upon comparison, the average number of leakers (1) is equal to the administrative tolerance (1), which is acceptable. However, the average number of rejects (1.4 ) is greater than the administrative tolerance (1). Therefore, the lot fails.

4.6.2.3 Product Tracking

The results for each lot must be tracked on the Switching Rules Tracking Form before the next lot is inspected, since the inspection results for one lot may impact the level of inspection for the next lot. Product tracking is to be carried out in the following way:

Egg stations that grade more than 50 boxes per week:

The inspector is to track product in three separate categories:

  • Canada A Jumbo and Canada A Extra Large Size (AELS),
  • Canada A Large Size (ALS)
  • Other grades and sizes, i. e. AMS, ASS, APWS, B's, C's

The inspection level for lots of Canada A Jumbo and Canada AELS is tracked separately from other sizes since a different table is used to determine accept and reject levels. Lots of ALS are also to be tracked separately since the majority of eggs graded in Canada fall into this category and data on compliance must be maintained. Other grades may be combined.

Egg stations that grade less than 50 boxes per week:

The inspector is to track product in one category.

It is necessary to track product from small stations in one category because there may be limited availability of graded product during inspections at these stations. With limited availability of product, the length of time required to switch the station between inspection levels could be extremely long if product was tracked separately.

If a lot of ALS fails an inspection at the Reduced level in a small station, and the inspection level then moves to Normal, lots of any product sizes can be used to bring the station's product inspection level back to Reduced since all product is tracked in the same category. Note: it is understood that corrective action must be taken where required and the original problem addressed. For example, other sizes are not to be used to move a plant back to Reduced if the plant has failed, and consistently fails, Canada A Extra Large Size. The plant must first address the AELS problem.

The Switching Rules Tracking Form is used to track the level of inspection in each category. It has three separate sections so that each of the three product categories can be tracked separately. It is possible that an egg station may have a different inspection level for each size category. See Appendix IV for an example of how to fill out the Switching Rules Tracking Form.

Note: Where a lot fails and is subsequently re-graded, the re-inspection done for a release from detention is not counted in product tracking. 4.6.2.4 Switching Rules

4.6.2.4 Switching Rules

After each lot has been assessed and the results for the lot tracked on the Switching Rules Tracking Form, the switching rules must be applied to determine the end level of inspection for the lot, which will also represent the start level of inspection for the next lot in the same tracking category. The Switching Rules are based on the acceptability of the lot inspected, the level of inspection for the given grade/size of product, the station's weekly grading volume and previous compliance. A schematic of the switching rules can be found in Appendix III.

To switch from Reduced to Normal
  • One inspected lot is not accepted or;
  • Acceptance number is exceeded (number of defective units in the sample falls between the acceptance and rejection numbers identified in the Acceptance Sampling Scheme Table for the given total number of units in the lot).
To switch from Normal to Tightened
  • Two out of five consecutive lots (2 out of 5) inspected at the Normal level are not accepted.
To switch from Tightened to Normal
  • Three (3) consecutive lots inspected at the Tightened level are accepted.
To switch from Normal to Reduced
  • stations grading >3,000 boxes/week: 10 consecutive lots inspected at normal are accepted.
  • stations grading between 50 and 3,000: 5 consecutive lots inspected at normal are accepted.
  • stations grading <50 boxes/week: 3 consecutive lots inspected at normal are accepted

Note: Should product remain at the Tightened level after 10 consecutive inspected lots, the status of the egg station is to be reviewed with regard to the application of Canada grade standards.

4.6.2.5 Completing the Inspection

Once the inspector has inspected all of the lots they are going to inspect that day, the following activities should be carried out to complete the inspection:

  • All undergrades from each sample are to be removed and identified to the plant so that they are not dispersed back into the sample.
  • The inspector completes and signs the Shell Egg - Product Inspection Report - Origin (CFIA/ACIA 4196 - intended for internal use), has the operator (or designate) sign the report, and provides a copy of the report for both the operator's and the inspector's files. Further copies may need to be distributed depending on the regional structure.

4.6.2.6 Examples - Origin Inspection

Example 1: Consider a lot of 600 boxes (units) of 15 dozen Canada A Large Size eggs, being inspected at origin. Assuming a Reduced level, the pertinent sampling plan (Table I) requires that a sample of 13 boxes be randomly selected for inspection and that 60 eggs be examined from each box to determine its individual acceptability. Upon inspection, the following results are obtained:

Results from origin inspection example 1
Unit in Sample Undergrades, Excluding Cracks Total Undergrades, Including Cracks Classification of Unit
1 0 2 acceptable
2 3 3 acceptable
3 2 4 acceptable
4 2 2 acceptable
5 1 4 acceptable
6 0 2 acceptable
7 0 3 acceptable
8 4 4 defective
9 1 2 acceptable
10 0 2 acceptable
11 6 7 defective
12 2 4 acceptable
13 3 4 acceptable

Applying the definition of a defective unit, two boxes have been found defective, namely box 8 and box 11. According to the sampling plan, the acceptance number (Ac) is 3, permitting as many as 3 units (boxes) to be defective in an acceptable lot. Consequently, the above lot of eggs is deemed acceptable and passes. The administrative tolerance for leakers and rejects would still have to be considered before the final assessment of the product was made.

Example 2: A lot of 80 boxes (units) of 15 dozen Canada AELS eggs is to be inspected at origin. At a Normal level (Table II), a random sample of 5 units needs to be drawn and 60 eggs per box examined for possible undergrades. Assume the following results are recorded:

Results from origin inspection example 2
Unit in Sample Undergrades, Excluding Cracks Total Undergrades, Including Cracks Classification of Unit
1 2 5 defective
2 3 3 acceptable
3 2 6 defective
4 1 7 defective
5 1 7 defective

Box 2 is the only acceptable unit found in the sample. The sampling plan gives 3 and 4 as the acceptance and rejection numbers respectively. Since the rejection number of 4 has been reached, the lot must be rejected.

Example 3: A lot of 160 boxes of Canada AELS eggs is to be inspected at origin where each box contains 15 dozen eggs. From the appropriate sampling plan under Reduced level (Table II), a random sample of 5 units needs to be drawn and 60 eggs per box examined for undergrades. Assume the following results are recorded:

Results from origin inspection example 3
Unit in Sample Undergrades, Excluding Cracks Total Undergrades, Including Cracks Classification of Unit
1 2 7 defective
2 3 5 defective
3 2 6 defective
4 1 9 defective
5 1 7 defective

The Acceptance Sampling Plan (Table II) identifies 3 and 6 as the acceptance and rejection numbers respectively. As all the units sampled failed (5) and the rejection value (6) is more than the number of units sampled, the inspector will move the sampling frequency to Normal and take additional units to determine the acceptability of the lot. In this example the inspector will need to select 8 additional unique units at random to bring the sample size up to 13 as required for a lot of this size at the Normal inspection level. The results of inspecting the additional units are as follows:

Results from origin inspection example 4
Unit in Sample Undergrades, Excluding Cracks Total Undergrades,Including Cracks Classification of Unit
6 4 4 defective
7 2 4 acceptable
8 1 4 acceptable
9 1 7 defective
10 0 4 acceptable
11 1 3 acceptable
12 3 4 acceptable
13 1 5 defective

At the Normal level of inspection the acceptance and rejection numbers identified in the acceptance sampling plan (Table II) are 7 and 8 respectively for a lot of AELS containing 160 boxes. From the additional units inspected there are 3 further defective units to add to the 5 defective units found in the first five units inspected at the reduced level, giving a total of 8 defective units which is the reject number for the lot. The lot is rejected.

For the switching rules, start counting consecutive lots at the Normal level at the next inspection.

4.6.2.7 Shell Egg - Product Inspection Report - Origin (CFIA/ACIA 4196 - intended for internal use)

Shell Egg - Product Inspection Report - Origin (CFIA/ACIA 4196 - intended for internal use) is the form that is to be used for all regular or requested origin inspections. It is to be used with the sampling plans found in Tables I and II in section 4.6.2.1 of this chapter. The following guidelines are to assist in the completion of the form:

  1. Name and Address: The name and address should be written as it appears on of Station the registration list. If the mailing address is a head office then the legal address of the station must be used, otherwise either is acceptable.
  2. Registration No. : Registration number of the egg station where the eggs were graded.
  3. Date: Date written out (Mar. 14, 2006) or in the form yyyy/mm/dd.
  4. Region: Province of egg station.
  5. Inspector's Number: Number on inspector's I. D. card.
  6. Page of : Due to the format of the sampling plan, more than one sheet may be required for an inspection. This section will ensure that all pages of a single report are accounted for at all times.
  7. Lot Description: A description containing all details required to specifically identify a lot. Information should include, if applicable, container type, registration number, brand name, Best Before date description of unit, grade and size, etc.
  8. Start Level of Inspection: Use a letter, R (reduced), N (normal) or T (tightened) to indicate the start level of inspection for each lot.
  9. Units in Lot: Number of containers (N) with 5 to 15 dozen equivalents in lot.
  10. Sample Size: The number of units required (n) as per Table I or II
  11. Acceptance/Rejection Numbers: The two numbers listed in Table I or II corresponding to the numbers of units in the lot under the applicable inspection level.
  12. Undergrades: A separate line is to be used to record the results found for the 60 eggs inspected in each unit taken for a lot. Cracks - the number of cracks found in one individual unit. Other Undergrades - list all defects other than cracks found in that same one unit. Use letters to indicate defects (i.e. AC - air cell, Y - yolk, S - size (specify), etc. , followed by the number of that defect in the unit). A single egg may be assigned to only one undergrade category even if it could be classified in multiple categories. Note: for inspection of Grade C eggs, the undergrades section is not applicable.
  13. Accept/Reject Unit: Use the letters Ac (accept) or Re (reject) to indicate the result of the examination of that one individual unit using the criteria for acceptable and defective units (see 4.6.2.2 )
  14. Leakers: Number of leakers in that one unit.
  15. Rejects: Number of rejects in that one unit.
  16. Accept/Reject Lot: Use the letters Ac (accept) or Re (reject) to indicate the outcome of the lot, using the criteria for the determination of acceptability of a lot (see 4.6.2.2 ) Note: This box is only filled in on the last line for that lot after the results for the last unit from the lot have been determined. The results from this box should be filled in on the Switching Rules Tracking form.
  17. End Level of Inspection: Use a letter R (reduced), N (normal) or tightened) to indicate the end level of inspection for each lot. This result may affect the Start Level of inspection of subsequent lots inspected that day, if subsequent lots fall under the same tracking category. It should be filled in on the Switching Rules Tracking form.

4.6.3 Destination Inspection

A destination inspection is any inspection carried out at a place other than where the eggs were graded or packed (e.g. at a wholesaler, retailer, distributor, breaking plant, grading station).

Destination inspections are used for all imports.

Note: Destination inspections have no impact on the level of inspection of the station where the eggs originated.

4.6.3.1 Destination Inspection Sampling Plan

A destination inspection uses the sampling plan which can be seen in Table III below. The destination inspection sampling plan applies to Grade A and B eggs.

For inspection of Canada C eggs at destination, Table III is used to determine sample size only, since the tolerances for cracks and undergrades do not apply. Canada C eggs are inspected for leakers and rejects only (see section 4.6.3.2).

Table III Destination Inspection Sampling Plan
Units in Lot Sample Size-Minimum Number of Units To be Selected Eggs to be Examine d (60 eggs per unit) Destination Tolerance - Grades A and B
3% Crack ToleranceTable Note 4 7 % tolerance all undergradesTable Note 4
2 120 3,6 8,4
26-50 3 180 5,4 12,6
51-90 4 240 7,2 16,8
91-150 5 300 9 21
151-280 8 480 14,4 33,6
281-500 13 780 23,4 54,6
501-1200 20 1200 36 84
1201-3200 32 1920 57,6 134,4
3201-10,000 50 3000 90 210

Table Notes

Table note 4

The tolerances (3% and 7%) have been calculated out so that the values in the column are expressed as number of eggs.

Return to table note 4  referrer

The tolerances in Table III are based on Schedule IV section 2(2) of the Egg Regulations. A sample, representing a lot, may have up to 10% total undergrades and still be considered acceptable. Of the 10% total undergrades, the first 3% (crack tolerance) is an allowance for cracks only. Any cracks in excess of 3% are added to all other undergrades and the total cannot exceed 7%. Note: the 7% does not include leakers and rejects.

4.6.3.2 Product Assessment

  • While product is being assessed, the Shell Egg Destination Report (CFIA/ACIA 1017 - intended for internal use) should be completed. See section 4.6.3.4 for instructions on how to fill out the form.
  • The units should be candled and assessed against the destination tolerance. Eggs weighed on a Syro scale must be placed directly upright on the scale.
  • Set aside the undergrades found in the units inspected. Undergrades should be separated into cracks, and undergrades other than cracks. Eggs that have cracked shells, and are undergrade for a reason other than cracks must be counted as a crack. Counting one egg in both categories is not acceptable. Rejects and leakers will be considered separately.
  • Count the total number of cracks in the sample inspected. Subtract the crack tolerance (3%) from the total number of cracks. Add the number of remaining cracks to the number of undergrades other than cracks. This total number must not exceed 7%.

Example: A lot contains 80 boxes of eggs. Table III indicates that 4 units are to be selected for sampling and 240 eggs are to be examined. Upon examination, the sample of 240 eggs was found to have 12 cracks and 14 undergrades other than cracks. Table III shows that the crack tolerance (3%) is 7.2 eggs.

The Evaluation of the Lot Based on the Destination Tolerance
Instructions Calculations
1. Subtract the crack tolerance (Table III: 3% cracks) from the total number of cracks in the sample 12 cracks in sample - 7.2 crack tolerance = 4.8 remaining cracks
2. Add the number of remaining cracks to the number of undergrades other than cracks 4.8 remaining cracks + 14 undergrades other than cracks = 18.8 total undergrades
3. Compare total undergrades in lot to the value in Table III (7% tolerance) 18.8 total undergrades is greater than (>) the 16.8 undergrades allowed

Since the number of total undergrades exceeded the 7% tolerance, the lot fails.

  • If the undergrades exceed the tolerance upon inspection of the lot, a detention should be applied and the lot transferred to a registered egg station for correction.
Administrative Tolerances for Canada A, B and C Inspected at Destination

In addition to the evaluation of the lot based on the destination tolerance, the administrative tolerance for product inspected at destination must also be applied. The administrative tolerance allows for some leakers and rejects in the lot.

Administrative Tolerances at Destination
Leakers Stain > 1/3 Table Note 5 Reject Table Note 6
Canada A /B 1 per unit Table Note 7 1 per unit
Canada C 3 per unit 3 per unit 1 per unit

Table Notes

Table Note 5

Regulated tolerance - Egg Regulations, Schedule IV, Section 3

Return to table note 5  referrer

Table Note 6

Dirts are included in the administrative reject tolerance

Return to table note 6  referrer

Table Note 7

A unit consists of 60 eggs (5 doz. eggs)

Return to table note 7  referrer

The number of leakers and rejects in the lot should be calculated as an average for the lot at the end of the inspection and compared to the administrative tolerance. If the number of reject eggs or leakers found during the inspection is more than the Administrative Tolerance, the lot fails and will be detained, even if the number of undergrades was found to be acceptable.

4.6.3.3 Completing the Inspection

Once the inspector has inspected all of the lots they are going to inspect that day, the following activities should be carried out to complete the inspection:

  • Any undergrade eggs that are found to be within the tolerance for the number of samples examined may be dispersed throughout the samples. Any rejects or leakers that were found during the inspection are to be discarded.
  • The inspector completes and signs the Shell Egg Destination Report (CFIA/ACIA 1017 - intended for internal use), has the operator or designate sign the report, and provides a copy of the report for both the operator and the inspector's files. Further copies may need to be distributed depending on the regional structure.

4.6.3.4 Shell Egg Destination Report (CFIA/ACIA 1017 - intended for internal use)

The Shell Egg Destination Report is the form completed during any destination inspection of shell eggs. It provides a record of the details of lots and lot sizes, number of eggs inspected and undergrades found during the inspection. The following guidelines are to assist in the completion of the form:

  1. Name and address: The name and address of the Station, Shipper, Importer or Institution should be written. The Report will be issued to the party in possession of the eggs.
  2. Certificate No. For an import, include the USDA certificate number and the ICTS control number. If a CFIA Certificate of Inspection/Grading (CFIA/ACIA 1022 - intended for internal use) was issued, include the certificate number.
  3. Date: Date written out (Mar. 14, 2006) or in the form yyyy/mm/dd.
  4. Registration Number: Registration number of the place of inspection, where applicable.
  5. Place of Inspection: The location where the eggs are inspected, if different from above, or the supplier of the eggs or the consignee. The appropriate location should be circled.
  6. Inspector's Number: Number on inspector's I. D. card.
  7. Region: Province where eggs are being inspected.
Inspection Details

Lot

  1. Lot Description: Include enough detail to specifically identify a lot of eggs (e.g. Best Before Date, carton brand name, registration number, boxes, wire baskets or other type of container, etc. )
  2. Grade: Canada A, Canada B, Canada C or Foreign Country Grade.
  3. Registration No: Federal registration number of the plant where the lot of eggs was graded.
  4. Units in lot: Number of units in the lot (N).
  5. Sample Size: Number of units to be selected (n) as determined by the destination inspection sampling plan.
Undergrades
  1. Cracks over Tolerance: The number of cracked eggs remaining after crack tolerance (3%) has been subtracted from total number of cracked eggs.
  2. Air Cell, Yolk, Size, Shell: Record the number of these separately. A single egg may be assigned to only one category.
  3. Total: Total number in the Undergrades section.
  4. Tolerance: The number of Undergrades allowed in the lot (7% of the total number of eggs inspected).
Summary

Leakers

  1. Total: Total number of leakers.
  2. Tolerance: The number of leakers allowed in the lot.

Rejects

  1. Total: Total number of rejects.
  2. Tolerance: The number of rejects allowed in the lot.
  3. Accept/Reject Lot: Use the letters Ac (accept) or Re (reject) to indicate outcome of the lot.

4.6.4 Nest Run Inspection

Nest Run inspections can be carried out at origin or destination. In both cases, the following inspection sampling plan is used to determine sample size:

Table IV Pre-grade/ Nest Run Sampling Plan
Units in Lot Sample Size - Minimum Number of Units to be Selected Minimum Number of Eggs to be Examined
0 - 25 2 120
26 -50 3 180
51 - 90 4 240
91 - 150 5 300
151 - 280 8 480
281 - 500 13 780
501 - 1200 20 1200
1201 - 3200 32 1920
3201 - 10,000 50 3000

4.6.4.1 Product Assessment

  • While product is being assessed, results are to be recorded on the Pre-grade/Canada Nest Run Product Inspection Report (CFIA/ACIA 5427 - intended for internal use). This report is used for both Nest Run and Pre-grade inspections. Some sections of the report are not applicable to a Nest Run Inspection. See section 4.6.5.3 for instructions on how to fill out the report.
  • The units should be candled and the acceptability of the lot assessed.

At origin, Canada Nest Run eggs must meet the requirements set out in Schedule I of the Egg Regulations.

At destination, a tolerance is applied to allow for damage that may occur during transportation.

The origin requirements and destination tolerance for Canada Nest Run eggs can be seen in Table V below.

Table V Nest Run Origin Requirements and Destination Tolerance
Defect Origin Destination
Cracked shells 10% 13%
Dirt >160 mm 5 5% 5%
Leakers or Rejects 3% 5%
Total Maximum 15% 20%

4.6.4.2 Completing the Inspection

  • Any eggs that are found to be within the tolerance may be dispersed throughout the samples. Any rejects or leakers that were found during the inspection are to be discarded since leakers and rejects are not eligible for breaking or grading.
  • Product Inspection Report (CFIA/ACIA 5427 - intended for internal use), has the operator or designate sign the report, and provides a copy of the report for both the operator and the inspector's file. Further copies may need to be distributed depending on the regional structure.

4.6.5 Pre-Grade Inspection

The pre-grade program is designed to encourage the production and marketing of high quality shell eggs. This is achieved by inspecting ungraded eggs arriving at the egg station to be graded Canada A, to determine if they meet the regulated requirement.

Pre-grade inspections also contribute to food safety by reducing the number of excessively dirty, cracked, or weak shelled eggs that go through the washing process. These eggs may increase the egg solids and fecal content of the wash water, contributing to unacceptable conditions.

A lot of ungraded eggs that fails to meet the pre-grade requirements upon inspection, is not eligible to be graded as Canada A.

In some provinces, provincial pre-grade programs exist. In such provinces, the inspector should keep on file a copy of the provincial pre-grade program from each province where ungraded eggs are received. The provincial pre-grade program will identify who and how to distribute failed pre-grade inspections and whether or not a monitoring component exists within the program.

4.6.5.1 Frequency of Pre-grade Inspections

Targeted pre-grade inspections will be carried out throughout the year based on the annual regional quota as distributed by the Area Egg Specialist.

CFIA inspectors will also perform pre-grade inspections upon request. These requested inspections are cost recoverable (see Chapter 12 - Shell Egg - Cost Recovery).

4.6.5.2 Pre-grade Inspection Procedures

1. Selection of Producer

The Provincial Egg Marketing Board may provide the CFIA, upon request, a list of all registered quota holding egg producers in the province. These lists will be available at the request of the Inspection Supervisor for distribution to the inspectors. The list from the provincial board should include the flock age, flock size and the name of the egg station to which the eggs are shipped. Alternatively, the CFIA may request that an egg station provide a list of egg producers who ship to their facility. The list from the egg station should include flock age, flock size and day of the week on which the producer typically ships.

For inspection purposes, the CFIA inspector may target flocks based on the following:

  • age of the flock - typically flocks that are at least 53 - 56 weeks of age (9 months of lay).
  • an excessive amount of visual defects in a lot of ungraded eggs noticed during the inspector's regular inspection duties.
  • poor grade out reports - the inspector may request grade out reports from the egg station for each egg producer that ship eggs to the egg station.
  • information provided by an egg station employee indicating that a producer's eggs may have problems with cracks, dirt, leakers, rejects or poor shell quality.

CFIA inspectors may inspect eggs from a particular flock upon request on a cost-recoverable basis.

2. Inspection Procedure
  • Sample size is determined using the Nest Run/Pre-grade Sampling Plan (see Table IV in section 4.6.4).
  • The eggs are candled and assessed against the pre-grade requirements listed below.
  • Haugh units are considered in the assessment of the lot. Twenty (20) eggs, chosen at random from the total sample drawn are broken out to determine the quality of the albumen using a Haugh unit micrometer. See Appendix V for instructions on Haugh Unit determination.
  • Results are to be recorded on the Pre-grade/Canada Nest Run Product Inspection Report (CFIA/ACIA 5427 - intended for internal use). See section 4.6.5.3 for instructions on how to fill out the form.
3. Product Assessment

The sample of eggs is assessed based on the Pre-grade requirements below. A summary of pre-grade requirements can be found in table format in Appendix I.

  • Pre-grade Requirements
  • lot of eggs will fail if:
  • the Haugh unit requirement is not met as stated in A),
  • any individual maximum tolerance is exceeded in B) or
  • if the total percentage of all the items in B) exceed 15  %.

A. Quality factor of albumen averages 67 Haugh units or higher.

B. Individual Maximum Tolerance (%)

  • Cracked Shells 10.0
  • Rough, ridges or misshapen shells 10.0
  • DirtFootnote 8 >160 mm2 and < 1/3 area of shell 5.0
  • DirtFootnote 8 ≥1/3 area of the shell 2.5
  • Stain >1/2 area of the shell 5.0
  • Air cell in excess of 5 mm in depth 5.0
  • Leakers 2.5
  • Total Maximum Tolerance (%)
  • Total of all items above 15.0

Note: When an egg has excessive dirt >160 mm2 and the shell is cracked, it is to be classified as a crack (it cannot be counted as both a crack and a dirt). This means that all eggs in a pre-grade inspection must be candled. It is not acceptable to pick out dirt prior to candling.

4. Completing the Inspection

The inspector completes the Pre-grade/Canada Nest Run Product Inspection Report (CFIA/ACIA 5427 - intended for internal use) and determines whether the lot of eggs passes or fails the inspection. See section 4.6.5.3 for instructions on how to fill out the Report.

Acceptable Inspections:

When the lot of eggs is found to be acceptable, the Pre-grade/Canada Nest Run Product Inspection Report is delivered or mailed to the Egg Inspector's Supervisor or Regional Program Officer (or designate), depending upon the regional structure, for filing.

Failed Inspections:

Provinces with a Pre-grade inspection program:

  • The eggs are detained and the egg station operator is informed that the lot of eggs failed and is not eligible to be graded as Canada A.
  • The egg station operator is to notify the producer that their eggs have failed.
  • The Pre-grade/Canada Nest Run Product Inspection Report is immediately faxed to the Inspection Supervisor/Regional Program Officer at the Regional CFIA office.
  • It may be required that the inspection report be faxed immediately to the Provincial Egg Producer's Board and Provincial Poultry Specialist.
  • Typically, detained lots of eggs are purchased by the Provincial Egg Board and directed to a registered processed egg station identified as For Further Processing or FFP. Detained lots of eggs are released from detention after they are broken at the processed egg station.
  • Future lots of eggs from quota holder flocks identified as not meeting the requirements as a result of an inspection will be directed to a registered processed egg station as per the agreement with the Provincial Egg Marketing Board.
  • Once the producer's problem has been investigated, the Provincial Egg Board will normally request that the CFIA inspect the producer's eggs to determine if they now meet the pre-grade requirements. This requested pre-grade inspection is cost recoverable. If the producer's eggs pass this inspection, their eggs are no longer directed to the processed egg station and become eligible to be graded as Canada A. If the pre-grade inspection fails, the eggs continue to be directed to the processed egg station until another cost-recoverable inspection is requested and the lot passes
  • The CFIA will only detain and control lots which have been subjected to an inspection and have failed.

Provinces without a Pre-grade Inspection Program

  • If the lot fails, the eggs are detained and the egg station operator is informed that the lot of eggs failed and are not eligible to be graded as Canada A. The egg station operator is to notify the producer that their eggs have failed.
  • Failed lots can be detained for control purposes only and may be graded out as Canada B, Canada C or Canada Nest Run. Note: the requirements for Canada Nest Run are very similar to the pre-grade requirements. Therefore, a lot that fails pre-grade is unlikely to meet the Nest Run requirements.
  • If a lot of ungraded eggs fails a pre-grade inspection and the lot is not eligible to be graded Canada Nest Run and the egg station operator wishes to ship the eggs to a registered processed egg station marked as Ungraded and For Further Processing, the operator must request permission from the Executive Director in that Area as per section 9(14) of the Egg Regulations.
  • Future lots are not subject to control by the Provincial Egg Producer's Board.
  • The CFIA will only detain and control lots which have been subjected to an inspection and have failed.

Non-Quota Holders

  • Non-quota holders are not included in provincial pre-grade programs. When a flock fails from these producers they are only eligible to be graded as Canada B and Canada C or as Canada Nest Run if the lot meets the standard.
  • Future lots from the failed flock may be controlled where they have been officially inspected and have failed.

4.6.5.3 Pre-grade/Canada Nest Run Product Inspection Report (CFIA/ACIA 5427 - intended for internal use)

The Pre-grade/Canada Nest Run Product Inspection Report is the form that is used to record the details of a Pre-grade or a Canada Nest Run Inspection. It is to be used with the Pre-grade/Canada Nest Run Sampling Plan (Table IV - 4.6.4). The percentage of eggs below standard is recorded on this form so that it may be compared with the regulated requirements provided on the form. The following guidelines are to assist in the completion of the form:

  1. Name and address of inspection location: The legal name and address of the station, shipper, importer or institution where the inspection is conducted. The report will be issued to the party in possession of the eggs.
  2. Name and address of egg station or producer: Nest run inspection: the legal name and address of the of the egg station or egg station responsible for the grading of Canada Nest Run eggs.

    Pre-grade inspections: the name of the producer from which the ungraded eggs originate.

  3. Date: The date the inspection is performed. The date should be written out (Dec. 25, 2008) or in the form yyyy/mm/dd.
  4. Inspector's Number: Number on the inspector's ID. card.
  5. Registration No. : Nest Run Inspections: the federal registration number of the egg station responsible for the grading of the Canada Nest Run eggs being inspected. This will correspond with the egg station information provided in box 2.

    Pre-grade inspections: if the eggs are ungraded and are being inspected at an egg station, the registration number of the place of inspection may be recorded. This would correspond with box 1.

  6. Province of Origin: Province where the eggs originated. Region can also be included here if the inspector wishes to provide more detailed information.
  7. Quota No. : Eggs in Canada are produced under a supply management system. The quota number may be provided by the egg station, the producer or the provincial egg marketing board. Very small producers may not have a quota number.
  8. Barn No. : The barn number is required for trace back purposes where a producer has more than one barn.
  9. Weeks of Lay or Flock Age: The age of the hen is to be recorded in either weeks of lay (number of weeks the hens have been in lay) or flock age. Week of lay is often used to target lots of eggs for pre-grade inspection. The inspector should circle either weeks of lay or flock age depending on the information recorded.
  10. I. P. V. No. : The serial number printed on an Industrial Product Verification form. This form may be completed by an egg station to control the movement of Canada Nest Run product designated as surplus to the table market.
  11. Lot Description: Record enough detail to specifically identify a lot of eggs. The date the eggs were picked up from the farm should be recorded as the lot description, as it would be unique to each lot.
  12. Units in the lot: The total number of units (N) in the selected lot. A unit comprises any container containing between 60 and 180 eggs (5 to 15 dozen).
  13. Sample Size: The number of units (n) to be selected as determined by the Pre-grade/ Nest Run Inspection Plan for the designated lot size.
  14. Number of eggs examined: The number of eggs to be candled during the inspection.
Pre-grade Inspection - Inspection Details
  1. No. of Eggs: For each of the applicable quality attributes listed in the far left column of the table, the total number of eggs in each category is recorded on the associated line of column 15.
  2. % : The number of eggs recorded for each quality attribute is converted to a percent value. The percentage is determined by dividing the number of eggs in the category by the number of eggs examined and multiplying by 100. The results should be recorded in column 16.

    In order to make an assessment, the percentage is rounded to a whole number and compared to the associated pre-grade standard listed in the adjoining column. For example, 10.4 % cracks would be rounded to 10 and the lot would pass for cracks. (Note: percentages for the categories Dirt >1/3 of shell and Leakers should be rounded to the nearest one decimal place).

  3. Total (No. of Eggs): The total is determined by adding the values recorded in column 15.
  4. Total (%): The total is converted to a percent value and recorded. The percentage is determined by dividing the total number of eggs recorded in column 15 by the number of eggs examined and multiplying by 100.

    This calculated percent is rounded to the nearest whole number and compared to the associated pre-grade standard listed in the adjoining column.

Canada Nest Run
  1. No. of Eggs: For each of the applicable quality attributes listed in the far left column of the table, the total number of eggs in the category is recorded on the associated line of column 19.
  2. % : The number recorded for each quality attribute is converted to a percent. The percentage is determined by dividing the number of eggs in each category by the number of eggs examined and multiplying by 100. The results should be recorded in column 20.

    In order to make an assessment, the percentage is rounded to a whole number and compared to either the Canada Nest Run origin standard or the Canada Nest Run destination tolerance as appropriate.

  3. Origin Standard: If the inspection is conducted at the grading station (or point of export) the origin standard is to be used to assess the sample. The check box for column 21 is to be marked.
  4. Destination Tolerance: If the inspection is conducted at a place other than where the eggs originated (e.g. processed egg station), the destination tolerance is to be used to assess the sample. The check box for column 22 is to be marked
  5. Total (No. of eggs): The total is determined by adding the values recorded in the rows of column 19.
  6. Total (%): The total is converted to a percent value and recorded. The percentage is determined by dividing the total number of eggs recorded in column 19 by the number of eggs examined and multiplying by 100.

    This calculated percent is rounded to the nearest whole number and compared to the Nest Run origin or destination tolerance, as appropriate.

Haugh Unit Record (for pre-grade inspections only)
  1. Egg weight: The individual weights (in grams) of each of the 20 eggs are to be recorded in row 25.
  2. Haugh Unit: The Haugh Units for each of the 20 eggs are to be recorded in row 26. Haugh Unit values are obtained using an Ames Haugh Unit micrometer (See Appendix V for instructions on how to use a Haugh Unit micrometer). Haugh Units should be recorded to one decimal place.
  3. Average: The average Haugh Unit is determined by adding all of the Haugh Unit values and dividing by 20 (the total number of eggs tested). The average Haugh Unit is rounded to the nearest whole number and compared to the minimum Haugh Unit standard of 67.
Results
  1. Results: To determine if a lot passes or fails, compare the results to the standard for each individual quality attribute as well as the total. If any attribute exceeds the standard, the lot is rejected. If the average Haugh Unit is less than 67 for a pre-grade inspection, the lot is rejected. The appropriate box should be checked off (lot accepted or lot rejected).
  2. Remarks:The remarks section may be used to further detail why a lot failed or to record other pertinent information. Some examples are prominent type of crack (impact, tension, pinholes); temperature and relative humidity of the storage room; temperature of the eggs; prominent type of problem when inferior shells are excessive (rough, odd shape, ridging).

4.6.6 Inspection of Inedible Egg

4.6.6.1 Control of Inedible Egg

Inedible eggs are those that are unfit for human consumption (rejects, adulterated or contaminated) and are not eligible for grading or breaking (as defined in section 4 and 6.1 of the Egg Regulations and section 4(1) of the Processed Egg Regulations respectively).

Inedible egg is to be stored in containers labelled as Inedible Egg - Not For Human Consumption and Oeufs non comestibles - impropres à la consommation humaine. Inedible egg can be denatured or non-denatured. The inspector must be aware of the destination of all inedible product and its use.

The following inspection activities are to be carried out:

  • The inspector will review records for each facility at the frequency indicated in the annual workplans. The records at the point of origin and destination should correspond. Where possible, the inspector should follow the product from origin to destination and observe its use.
  • Inspection results are to be recorded on an Inspection Report of Shell Eggs / Processed Egg (CFIA/ACIA 5109 - intended for internal use). These reports are to be kept on file.
  • Additional verifications are to be conducted if the inspector suspects the product is not being distributed and used as stated by the facility operator at origin or destination.
  • If it is found that inedible egg has not been distributed as permitted, immediate enforcement action should be taken.

4.6.6.2 Use of Inedible Egg as Feed Ingredients

  1. Where inedible egg may contain substances which could be of concern if the product is to be used as a feed ingredient, the CFIA egg inspector(s) should discuss the issue with CFIA Feed Inspection staff to allow them to further evaluate the situation.
  2. Where inedible egg is being used in feeding swine or poultry the egg inspector(s) must advise their local animal health inspection counterparts. Depending upon the circumstances, feeding inedible egg back to swine or poultry may require a permit issued by the animal health inspector

4.6.6.3 Provincial Acts and Regulations

Provincial legislation may include requirements for the identification, denaturation and licensing for purchasing and selling of inedible egg. This may affect CFIA egg inspectors in provinces where MOUs exist between the province and the CFIA. In general, the province will provide a description of the CFIA's responsibilities. Inspectors working in provinces where MOUs exist must be aware of the provincial requirements.

4.7 Requested Inspection and Certification of Eggs

Certification is required for exports and imports, and may be requested for interprovincial movement or to confirm the grade of eggs. For exports and imports, see Chapter 8 - Shell Egg - Imports and Chapter 9 - Shell Egg - Exports.

Part IV of the Egg Regulations prescribes the requirements for inspection and certification.

4.7.1 Certification Procedure

  • Section 23 of the Egg Regulations states that a person must fill out an Application for Inspection (CFIA/ACIA 5435). The completed Application for Inspection must be forwarded by the applicant to the CFIA 48 hours in advance of when the inspection is required. Advance notice is required to facilitate scheduling for the inspection.
  • The inspection is cost recoverable (see Chapter 12 - Shell Egg - Cost Recovery).
  • If the lot fails, the product is detained (see Chapter 11 -Shell Egg - Enforcement and Compliance).
  • If the lot passes, complete the Certificate of Inspection/Grading (Eggs and Poultry) (CFIA/ACIA 1022 - intended for internal use) which is valid for 5 days from the date of inspection. The certificate is stamped with the CFIA stamp (see Figure 1) in red ink, to the right of the inspector's signature. Each copy of the certificate is to be stamped with the CFIA stamp using red ink.

    Image of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Stamp

    Figure I - CFIA Stamp

  • Stamping of shell egg containers will be performed upon request and the time is not cost recoverable. If stamping is requested, it is the responsibility of the requester to set the load up so that every display panel is visible to the inspector for stamping. This is known as the H block setup (See Appendix VI). The CFIA stamp will be applied to the top right hand corner of the principle display panel of each container in a neat and legible manner.
  • A copy of the completed certificate is kept by the inspector. The original is given to the applicant.

4.8 Breaking Stock

Regulations provide for the movement of shell eggs of processing quality from one province to another. These eggs may be ungraded or graded, including Canada Nest Run and Canada C. They may be of Grade A quality but dye-marked with the Maple Leaf logo on the outer container over stamped with the word dyed.

All eggs for breaking are expected to meet the grade claimed. If these eggs are inspected, and fail to meet the grade standards, they are to be detained.

Eggs which are found with visible mould at an egg station should be sorted immediately. The entire pallet may need to be discarded if other than a very minor amount of mould is identified.

4.8.1 Dyed Eggs

Dyed eggs are those eggs that have been declared surplus to the table requirements and have been purchased by the Egg Farmers of Canada (EFC). These eggs are dye-marked at the egg station and moved to federally registered processed egg stations. Since eggs bearing a dye mark are washed and are destined for processing, they may be stored in either cooler.

If eggs are dyed, the dye must be on CFIA's Reference Listing of Accepted Construction Materials, Packaging Materials and Non-Food Chemical Products or be otherwise demonstrated by the operator to be safe for use on shell eggs. The spot of dye should not exceed 20 mm in diameter and should be applied to the large end of the egg as per regulation. The dye should be diluted according to manufacturer's instructions so that it does not penetrate the shell and contaminate the egg. If the spot of dye exceeds 20 mm in diameter or the dye is not properly diluted, notify the egg station management immediately. Eggs where the dye has penetrated the shell are considered inedible.

4.9 Packaging and Labelling

For information on packaging requirements for shell eggs, see Chapter 7 -Shell Egg -Packaging, Marking and Labelling.

4.10 Transportation

4.10.1 Preparation of Product

  • Eggs should be cooled prior to being shrink-wrapped to reduce the risk of mould development.
  • Pallets should only be shrink-wrapped immediately prior to shipping or wrapped in a manner which allows ventilation of the product (e.g. plastic netting).
  • Eggs should not be stored on the loading dock prior to shipping.

4.10.2 Transportation Vehicles

  • Trucks/trailers used for transporting eggs must be capable of maintaining the eggs in a refrigerated state. For graded eggs the ambient temperature should be 10°C, if being transported for 2 hours or more.
  • Trucks must be closed to the outside environment and capable of providing adequate protection from contamination.
  • Vehicles used for transporting eggs must not have been used to transport any product or substance which might adversely affect the eggs (e.g. chemicals, pet food, livestock, etc. )

Appendix I - Pre-Grade and Grade Requirements Table

Pre-grade (Lot Basis) Canada A Canada B Canada C Canada Nest Run
Weight n/a

AJS - 70 g min

AELS - 63 g min

ALS - 56 g min

AMS - 49 g min

ASS - 42 g min

APW - less than 42 g

49 g minimum no requirements n/a
Albumen average Haugh Unit 67 and above reasonably firm no requirements no requirements n/a
Yolk n/a

indistinct yolk outline

round and reasonably well centered

distinct yolk outline

moderately oblong

floats freely

slight degree of germ development

prominent yolk outline

definitely oblong

does not adhere to shell membrane

n/a
Air Cell no more than 5 % with air cells larger than 5 mm maximum 5 mm maximum 9 mm no requirements n/a
Blood or Meat Spots n/a not permitted not permitted maximum 3 mm in diameter n/a
Dirt

no more than 5 % with dirt (excluding yolk) between 160 mm2 and 1/3 of shell

no more than 2.5 % with dirt (excluding yolk) on more than 1/3 of shell

not permitted not permitted not permitted maximum 5 % where dirt is more than 160 mm2
Stains no more than 5 % with stain covering 2 of shell

maximum 3 stains

maximum total area 25 mm2

maximum total area 320 mm2 maximum total area 1/3 of shell no requirements
Shape Roughness Ridges maximum 10 %

normal or nearly normal in shape

may have rough areas and ridges other than heavy ridges

slightly abnormal

has rough areas and definite ridges

no requirements n/a
Cracks maximum 10 % not permitted not permitted may be cracked, but not leaking maximum 10 %
Leakers maximum 2.5 % not permitted not permitted not permitted maximum 3 % including rejects
Total Maximum total 15 % n/a n/a n/a Maximum total 15 %

Appendix II - Random Numbers Table

20 17 42 28 23 17 59 66 38 61 02 10 86 10 51 55 92 52 44 25
74 49 04 49 03 04 10 33 53 70 11 54 48 63 94 60 94 49 57 38
94 70 49 31 38 67 23 42 29 65 40 88 78 71 37 18 48 64 06 51
22 15 78 15 69 84 35 52 32 54 15 12 54 02 01 37 38 37 12 93
93 29 12 18 27 30 30 55 91 87 50 57 58 51 49 36 12 53 96 40
45 4 77 97 36 14 99 45 52 95 69 85 3 83 51 87 85 56 22 37
44 91 99 49 89 39 94 60 48 49 06 77 64 72 59 26 8 51 25 57
16 23 91 02 19 96 47 59 89 65 27 84 30 92 63 37 26 24 23 66
04 50 65 04 65 65 82 42 70 51 55 04 61 47 88 83 99 34 82 37
32 70 17 72 03 61 66 26 24 71 22 77 88 33 17 78 08 92 73 49
3 64 59 7 42 95 81 39 6 41 20 81 92 34 51 90 39 8 21 42
62 49 0 90 67 86 93 48 31 83 19 7 67 68 49 3 27 47 52 3
61 00 95 86 98 36 14 03 48 88 51 07 33 40 06 86 33 76 68 57
89 03 90 49 28 74 21 04 09 96 60 45 22 03 52 80 01 79 33 81
01 72 33 85 52 40 60 07 06 71 89 27 14 29 55 24 85 79 31 96
27 56 49 79 34 34 32 22 60 53 91 17 33 26 44 70 93 14 99 70
49 5 74 48 10 55 35 25 24 28 20 22 35 66 66 34 26 35 91 23
49 74 37 25 97 26 33 94 42 23 1 28 59 58 92 69 3 66 73 82
20 26 22 43 88 08 18 85 08 12 47 65 65 63 56 07 97 85 56 79
48 87 77 96 43 39 76 93 08 79 22 18 54 55 93 75 97 26 90 77
8 72 87 46 75 73 0 11 27 7 5 20 30 85 22 21 4 67 19 13
95 97 98 62 17 27 31 42 64 71 46 22 32 75 19 32 20 99 94 85
37 99 57 31 70 40 46 55 46 12 24 32 36 74 69 20 72 10 95 93
5 79 58 37 85 33 75 18 88 71 23 44 54 28 00 48 96 23 66 45
55 85 63 42 00 79 91 22 29 01 41 39 51 40 36 65 26 11 78 32
67 28 96 25 68 36 24 72 3 85 49 24 5 69 64 86 8 19 91 21
85 86 94 78 32 59 51 82 86 43 73 84 45 60 89 57 6 87 8 15
40 10 60 09 05 88 78 44 63 13 58 25 37 11 17 47 75 62 52 21
94 55 89 48 90 80 77 80 26 89 87 44 23 74 66 20 20 19 26 52
11 63 77 77 23 20 33 62 62 19 29 03 94 15 56 37 14 09 47 16
64 00 26 04 54 55 38 57 94 62 68 40 26 04 24 25 03 61 01 20
50 94 13 23 78 41 60 58 10 60 88 46 30 21 45 98 70 96 36 89
66 98 37 96 44 13 45 05 34 59 75 85 48 97 27 19 17 85 48 51
66 91 42 83 60 77 90 91 60 90 79 62 57 66 72 28 08 70 96 03
33 58 12 18 02 07 19 40 21 29 39 45 90 42 58 84 85 43 95 67
52 49 40 16 72 40 73 5 50 90 2 4 98 24 5 30 27 25 20 88
74 98 93 99 78 30 79 47 96 92 45 58 40 37 89 76 84 41 74 68
50 26 54 30 01 88 69 57 54 45 69 88 23 21 5 69 93 44 5 32
49 46 61 89 33 79 96 84 28 34 19 35 28 73 39 59 56 34 97 7
16 65 13 44 78 39 73 88 62 03 36 00 25 96 86 76 67 90 21 68
64 17 47 67 87 59 81 40 72 61 14 0 28 28 55 86 23 38 16 15
18 43 97 37 68 97 56 56 57 95 1 88 11 89 48 7 42 60 11 92
65 58 60 87 51 09 96 61 15 53 66 81 66 88 44 75 37 1 28 88
79 90 31 00 91 14 85 65 31 75 43 15 45 93 64 78 34 53 88 02
7 23 00 15 59 05 16 09 94 42 20 40 63 76 65 67 34 11 94 10
90 8 14 24 1 51 95 46 30 32 33 19 0 14 19 28 40 51 92 69
53 82 62 2 21 82 34 13 41 3 12 85 65 30 0 97 56 30 15 48
98 17 26 15 04 50 76 25 20 33 54 84 39 31 23 33 59 64 96 27
8 91 12 44 82 40 30 62 45 50 64 54 65 17 89 25 59 44 99 95
37 21 46 77 84 87 67 39 85 54 97 37 33 41 11 74 90 50 29 62

Appendix III (description in 4.6.2.4 )

Flow chart - Switching Rules Description follows.
Switching Rules

Flow diagram of switching rulesReduced: One inspected lot not accepted of Acceptance number exceeded. Connects to;Normal: 2 out of 5 consecutive lots inspected at Normal level not accepted: Connects to;Tightened: 10 consecutive inspected lots at Tightened level results in a review of station status. Connects to back to;Normal: 3 consecutive lots inspected at Tightened level accepted. Connects back to;Reduced: > 3000 boxes/week: 10 consecutive lots accepted. 50-3000 boxes/week: 5 consecutive lots accepted. < 50 boxes/week: 3 consecutive lots accepted

Appendix IV - Switching Rules Tracking Form

Ac = Accepted lot; Re = Rejected lot; *Ac = Acceptance Number Exceeded but Rejection Number Not Reached

Switching Rules Tracking Form - AELS and JUMBO
Date No. of Units Start Level Ac/Re Lot End Level
June 24 60 N0 Ac N1
June 24 48 N1 Ac N2
July 5 60 N2 Re1 N0
July 6 35 N0 Ac N1
July 8 120 N1 Ac N2
July 8 60 N2 Ac N3
July 12 48 N3 Ac N⁵
July 12 60 N4 Ac R
July 13 240 R Ac R
July 15 120 R *Ac N0
July 15 60 N0 Ac N1
July 16 36 N1 Re1 N0
July 19 48 N0 Re2 T0
July 20 60 T0 Ac T1
July 20 60 T1 Ac T2
July 22 48 T2 Ac N0
July 23 60 N0 Ac N1
July 23 120 N1 Ac N2
July 27 120 N2 Ac N3
July 28 60 N3 Ac N4
Switching Rules Tracking Form - ALS
Date No. of Units Start Level Ac/Re Lot End Level
June 24 120 R Ac R
June 24 96 R Re1 N0
July 5 48 N0 Re1 N0
July 5 112 N0 Ac N1
July 6 48 N1 Ac N2
July 8 96 N2 Re2 T0
July 8 96 T0 Ac T1
July 12 100 T1 Ac T2
July 15 160 T2 Ac N0
July 15 96 N0 Ac N1
July 19 120 N1 Ac N2
July 23 48 N2 Ac N3
July 27 96 N3 Ac N4
July 27 96 N4 Ac R
July 28 120 R Ac R
July 28 48 R Ac R
July 28 48 R Ac R
Aug 3 96 R Ac R
Aug 3 120 R *Ac N0
Aug 3 96 N0 Ac N1
Switching Rules Tracking Form - OTHER
Date No. of Units Start Level Ac/Re Lot End Level
June 23 60 C N0 Re1 N0
June 23 25 AM N0 Ac N1
June 24 60 AS N1 Ac N2
July 5 48 B N2 Ac N3
July 6 30 PW N3 Ac N4
July 8 60 C N4 Re1 N0
July 12 60 AS N0 Ac N1
July 13 48 C N1 Ac N2
July 15 25 C N2 Re2 T0
July 15 60 AM T0 Ac T1
July 23 48 AS T1 Ac T2
July 27 60 C T2 Ac N0
July 27 60 B N0 Ac N1
July 28 60 AS N1 Ac N2
July 28 60 AM N2 Ac N3
July 29 40 AM N3 Ac N4
July 30 36 B N4 Ac R
July 30 60 PW R Ac R
Aug 3 36 C R Re2 N0
Aug 3 24 B N0 Ac N1

Registered Egg Station : Uncle Bob's Egg Farm

Average Weekly Grading Volume : Between 50 and 3,000 boxes per week

Appendix V Instructions on Haugh Unit Determination

Model S-8400 Haugh Unit Micrometer

B. C. Ames Co. , 78 Stone Place, Melrose, MA 02176

Telephone: (781) 893-0095 / (800) 438-4249, Fax: (781) 647-3356, www.bcames.com

The Ames Haugh Unit Micrometer is a precision instrument used for checking albumen height of eggs. It has a special two part dial which permits you to read the Haugh unit values directly.

  1. The dial face consists of two parts. The inner part is fixed. The outer part of the dial face is adjustable by turning the knurled rim of the Dial Indicator.
  2. The inner, fixed part of the dial has 3 segmented scales printed in black and reading in ounces per dozen (OZ/DOZ) at top of dial; in ounces per egg (OZ/EGG) at lower right of dial; and in grams per egg (GRAMS/EGG) at lower left of dial. The pointers or indices for these scales are small black triangles on the inner edge of the outer dial, overprinted on the red scale.
  3. The outer dial has two scales. One, printed in red, reads in tenths of a millimeter. The other, printed in black reads in Haugh units.
  4. The indicating hand follows the movement of the micrometer spindle as it is raised or lowered by turning the knurled knob at the top of the Indicator.

Note: Before measuring the albumen, always withdraw the spindle of the micrometer (counter-clockwise turn of the knob), then bring it down slowly upon the albumen to be measured by a clockwise turn of the knob.

Important: This instrument has been factory adjusted so the Indicating Hand aligns with the graduation representing 24 OZ/DOZ when the spindle tip makes contact with a plane, flat surface supporting the instrument. If, at some later time, the Indicating Hand points to some other graduation under these conditions, the set screw on the neck of the tripod should be loosened slightly and the Indicator re-positioned vertically to re-establish the previous Hand alignment. Then the set screw should be firmly tightened.

General procedure to determine Haugh units:

  1. Weigh eggs to be tested. For speed in operation, sort the eggs into groups of like weights. By grouping the eggs according to common weights, it is necessary to adjust the dial for weight differences only between the measurements taken for each group. Weight may be determined in ounces per dozen, (OZ/DOZ), ounces per egg (OZ/EGG) or grams per egg (GRAMS/EGG), as the operator desires. The 3 scales on the inner part of the dial may be used interchangeably by using the index and scale desired.
  2. Set the index for the weight of the first group of eggs to be tested by twisting the knurled rim of the Indicator.
  3. Break out the first egg on a plane, flat surface.
  4. Retract the spindle of the micrometer by a counter-clockwise turn of the micrometer knob.
  5. Place the micrometer over the egg, being careful to place it so the legs do not pierce any part of the firm albumen envelope.
  6. By sliding the micrometer, position the spindle over the firm albumen about mid-way between the yolk and edge of the envelope and bring the stem down SLOWLY by a clockwise turning of the Indicator knob. Watch the tip of the spindle and the albumen closely. The proper reading is obtained when the albumen appears to snap up to the specially designed tip of the spindle. Stop twisting the knob promptly when this occurs.
  7. Read the Haugh unit value directly from the position of the Indicating hand on the outermost scale (printed in black), each division of the black scale equals 1 Haugh unit.
  8. Wipe the spindle with a clean cloth or tissue after each use. Retract the spindle and the instrument is ready for use again.

The micrometer may also be used as an ordinary spherometer by placing the index marked set at 24 OZ/DOZ and reading height of firm albumen (or of any other object placed on a plane surface) on the red scale. Each division of the red scale equals 0.1 mm.

Guidelines for Haugh Unit Measurement

  1. Comparable results can be obtained only if uniform procedures are used.
  2. The use of a breaking knife to break the shell is preferable, since blunt edges such as table edges may cause splintering of the shell with the possibility of puncturing the thick white. Care must be taken in using the breaking knife so that the thick white is not ruptured.
  3. At the time of breaking, the egg should be held as near to the glass as possible and the contents emptied very gently from the shell.
  4. When the envelope of thick white is firmly attached to the shell membrane (usually in the small end) rupture of the thick white can usually be prevented by slowly raising the half shell.
  5. A section of the shell may be left in contact if it does not interfere with the reading.
  6. Albumen heights should be measured immediately after breaking, therefore, break one egg at a time. A delay of a few minutes can make a significant difference in the Haugh unit reading.
  7. Check the micrometer before using. Set it on the glass and turn the spindle down until it touches the surface of the glass. The micrometer indicator should read zero. This should be repeated from time to time, to ensure that the micrometer is properly adjusted.
  8. The micrometer reading must be taken on a flat area on the surface of the widest expanse of the thick white.
  9. Eggs with very high albumen will not have a flat surface. In such cases, a point about halfway between the yolk and the edge of the widest expanse of thick white should be selected to measure the Haugh unit.
  10. Measurements should be taken so as to avoid measuring areas over air bubbles or chalaza.
  11. The spindle should be rolled down slowly until it just makes contact with the surface of the albumen. After the reading is measured, the spindle should be raised and cleaned before re-using.
  12. Albumen heights should not be recorded when the thick white has been mechanically ruptured or when the yolk membrane is ruptured from any cause.

Appendix VI - H-Block Set-Up for Stamping Boxes Of Eggs

Standard skid - 60 boxes

Table - Standard skid Description follows.
An image of a standard skid.

A 60-box skid has a configuration of 3 boxes x 4 boxes x 5 boxes.

H Block - remove grey boxes and put on top layer for stamping

Table - H Block Description follows.
An image of an H Block.

A 60-box skid has a configuration of 3 boxes x 4 boxes x 5 boxes. Remove the two middle columns on 3-box side to expose the boxes in the middle and stamp.

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