Denomination: 'Cardale'
Botanical Name: Triticum aestivum
Applicant/Holder: Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Winnipeg
Cereal Research Centre
195 Dafoe Road
Winnipeg, Manitoba
R3T 2M9
Breeder: Stephen Fox, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba
Agent in Canada: Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
Office of Intellectual Property and Commercialization
6000 C&E Trail
Lacombe, Alberta
T4L 1W1
Tel: (403) 782-8126
Application Date: 2011-04-29
Application Number: 11-7270
Grant of Rights Date: 2014-02-10
Certificate Number: 4713
Grant of Rights Termination Date: 2032-02-10

Variety Description

Varieties used for comparison: 'Superb', 'AC Unity VB', 'Waskada' and 'Vesper'

Summary: 'Cardale' heads later than 'Superb', 'Waskada' and 'Vesper' and is shorter than 'AC Unity VB', 'Waskada' and 'Vesper'. At maturity, the culm of 'Cardale' has medium to strong curvature whereas it is absent or very weak in 'AC Unity VB', 'Waskada' and 'Vesper'. The lower glume of 'Cardale' is long whereas it is medium length on the reference varieties. The lower glume shoulder of 'Cardale' is narrow to medium width whereas it is medium to broad on 'Superb', 'AC Unity VB' and 'Waskada'. The lower glume of 'Cardale' is pubescent whereas it is glabrous on 'Superb', 'Waskada' and 'Vesper'. At maturity, the straw of 'Cardale' has anthocyanin colouration whereas 'Superb', 'Waskada' and 'Vesper' do not. The kernel shape of 'Cardale' is oval whereas it is broad elliptical in 'Superb' and 'AC Unity VB', and elliptical in 'Waskada' and 'Vesper'. 'Cardale' is resistant to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) whereas 'Superb' is susceptible. 'Cardale' is susceptible to wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) whereas 'AC Unity VB' and 'Vesper' are resistant and 'Waskada' is moderately resistant.


PLANT: common hard red spring type, semi-erect growth habit at the 5-9 tiller stage

SEEDLING (4 leaf stage): weak intensity of anthocyanin colouration of the coleoptile, glabrous sheath and blade of the lower leaves
FLAG LEAF: high frequency of plants with recurved flag leaves, absent or very weak intensity of anthocyanin colouration of the auricles, medium glaucosity of the sheath, glabrous blade and sheath

SPIKE: medium glaucosity at heading, parallel sided shape in profile, medium density, awns shorter than the length of the spike
SPIKE AT MATURITY: white, white awns, erect attitude, very sparse hairiness of convex surface of apical rachis segment
CULM: medium glaucosity at heading, medium to strong curviness at maturity
STRAW (AT MATURITY): thin pith in cross-section, no anthocyanin colouration

LOWER GLUME: long, narrow to medium width, pubescent, sparse extent of internal hairs
LOWER GLUME SHOULDER: narrow to medium width, slightly sloping to straight shape
LOWER GLUME BEAK: short to medium length, slightly curved
LOWEST LEMMA: slightly curved beak

KERNEL: medium red, medium size, medium length and width, oval shape, rounded cheek shape, medium to long brush hairs, narrow to medium width and shallow to medium depth of crease
GERM: medium to large size, oval shape

AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS: good resistance to shattering and pre-harvest sprouting tendency, good bread making quality

DISEASE REACTION: resistant to Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), moderately resistant to Fusarium head blight (Fusarium graminearum)

PEST REACTION: susceptible to wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana)

Origin & Breeding History: 'Cardale' (tested as BA77-BM-19 and BW429) originated from the cross 'McKenzie' / 'Alsen' which was made at the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Cereal Research Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba in 2001. After two generations of increase and selection in the F3 and F4, testing for disease resistance, end use quality and agronomic characteristics, a head designated BA77-BM-19 was selected in the F7. It was increased and entered in preliminary yield trials as an F8 in 2005. Following two years of testing in multi-location yield trials in 2006 and 2007, the selection was entered in the Central Bread Wheat "C" registration test in 2008 as BW429.

Tests & Trials: Trials for 'Cardale' were conducted during 2010 and 2011 at Portage La Prairie, Manitoba. A 4 replicate RCB design experiment was planted using 3.72 square metre harvested area plots, seeded at a rate of 269 seeds/square metre. The plots were 4.9 metres long with 5 rows spaced 15 cm apart. Measured characteristics were based on a mean of two years, with 20 measurements taken per year.

Comparison tables for 'Cardale' with reference varieties 'Superb', 'AC Unity VB', 'Waskada' and 'Vesper'

Flag leaf length (cm)

  'Cardale' 'Superb' 'AC Unity VB' 'Waskada' 'Vesper'
mean 22.5 20.1 17.6 19.9 19.7
std. deviation 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.3 2.5

Flag leaf width (mm)

  'Cardale' 'Superb' 'AC Unity VB' 'Waskada' 'Vesper'
mean 13.6 15.3 13.3 13.9 14.6
std. deviation 1.1 1.2 0.9 0.9 1.0

Days to heading

  'Cardale' 'Superb' 'AC Unity VB' 'Waskada' 'Vesper'
number of days 54 52 53 51 51

Plant height at maturity (including awns) (cm)

  'Cardale' 'Superb' 'AC Unity VB' 'Waskada' 'Vesper'
mean 96.9 97.1 105.0 108.7 103.1
std. deviation 5.6 5.1 3.5 4.5 5.2

Spike length (cm)

  'Cardale' 'Superb' 'AC Unity VB' 'Waskada' 'Vesper'
mean 7.7 7.5 7.3 7.2 7.7
std. deviation 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

Click on image for larger view
Wheat: 'Cardale' (left) with reference varieties 'Superb' (center left), 'AC Unity VB' (center), 'Vesper' (center right) and 'Waskada' (right)

Date modified: