First Canadian


Denomination: 'First Canadian'
Previously Proposed Denomination: 'Centurion'
Botanical Name: Citrus
Applicant/Holder: Nair, M.P.M.
4461 Clarence Avenue South
Grasswood, Saskatchewan
S7N 1A7
Breeder: M. P. M. Nair, Nair, M.P.M., Grasswood, Saskatchewan
Application Date: 2011-03-07
Application Number: 11-7213
Protective direction granted: 2011-03-07
Grant of Rights Date: 2017-05-19
Certificate Number: 5488
Grant of Rights Termination Date: 2042-05-19

Variety Description

Variety used for comparison: 'Improved Meyer's'

Summary: When grown under indoor, low light conditions under relatively constant temperatures, the plants of 'First Canadian' set flower and fruit 3 to 4 times per year whereas those of 'Improved Meyer's' may set flower and fruit possibly once a year. The infructescence of 'First Canadian' will set up to 4 to 6 fruit per cluster whereas that of 'Improved Meyer's' will set up to 2. The fruit surface of 'First Canadian' is medium yellow and rough whereas that of 'Improved Meyer's' is yellow orange and smooth. The fruit of 'First Canadian' has a prominent nipple at the distal end whereas 'Improved Meyer's' does not. The fruit of 'First Canadian' adheres strongly to the stalk whereas that of 'Improved Meyer's' does not. The number of seeds in the fruit of 'First Canadian' is absent or very few whereas that of 'Improved Meyer's' is medium. The fruit rind of 'First Canadian' is of medium thickness whereas that of 'Improved Meyer's' is very thin.


PLOIDY: diploid
PLANT: spreading growth habit, flowers 3 to 4 times per year, fruit matures mid-season for consumption, parthenocarpy present
SPINES: medium density, medium length

YOUNG LEAF: anthocyanin colouration absent

LEAF: elliptic shape, straight or weakly concave shape in cross-section, twisting absent or weak, dark green, obtuse apex, emargination absent at tip, petiole wings inconsistent and extremely small
LEAF MARGIN: absent or weak undulation, dentate incisions

FLOWER: corolla reflexes, stamens dry and remain during fruit growth, long style

FRUIT: very strong clustering of fruits, small length/diameter ratio, broadest part positioned at middle, slightly rounded shape of proximal part, neck absent, medium depth of depression at stalk end, small stylar scar, total persistance of style, persistent attachment of fully ripened fruit to stalk, medium juiciness, absent or very few seeds resulting from open pollination
DISTAL END: slightly rounded shape, strong prominance of nipple, strong radial grooves
FRUIT SURFACE: variegation absent, predominantly medium yellow, weak glossiness, rough
OIL GLANDS OF FRUIT SURFACE: large glands interspersed with smaller ones, larger glands large in size with strong conspicuousness, both pitting and pebbling present, medium density of pitting
RIND: medium thickness, medium oiliness
FRUIT FLESH: light yellow
CORE: medium density of filling, large diameter, absent or weak presence of rudimentary segments, strong segment walls
JUICE VESCICLES: short, medium thickness, medium conspicuousness of walls, medium coherence
FRUIT JUICE: medium level of soluble solids, medium acidity
SEED: polyembryony absent

Origin & Breeding History: 'First Canadian' originated from the cross of the lemon hybrid, 'CLX-1', (female parent) with 'Meyer's Lemon' (male parent) which was carried out in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in 1991. 'CLX-1' was derived from the cross of Citrus medica variety 'Odichu Kuthi Naranga' (female parent) with the Citrus limon variety 'Ponderosa' (male parent) also carried out in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan during the winter of 1980-1981. Within one year of the first generation cross, the plants developed fruit from which 18 seedlings were planted. Four plants survived which later bloomed after 7 years of culture on the windowsill. In 1991, one plant (CLX-1) from the original first four seedlings was selected and used as the mother plant for subsequent crosses. In 1991, CLX-1 was crossed with 'Meyer's Lemon' from which 6 seedlings were produced. One of those seedlings, 'First Canadian' (under the experimental code MLX-6), was selected in 2010 for its ability to grow on the windowsill under low light conditions producing multiple cycles of blooming, its compact plant growth habit, fruit size, skin thickness and good quality fruit characteristics.

Tests & Trials: The comparative trials were conducted in the agriculture greenhouses of the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The plants arose from cuttings taken in 2010 from the mother plants which were growing in 10 gallon containers. A minimum of 5 self-rooted cuttings grown in 15 centimetre pots were established under low light conditions. Once established, a minimum of 5 plants of each variety were transferred to the greenhouse to grow under higher light conditions to ensure both the candidate and reference varieties would grow enough to initiate floral buds, but not too high so to kill the plants of the candidate variety, 'First Canadian'. The observations for the trial were finalized during the spring of 2016.

Click on image for larger view
First Canadian
Lemon: 'First Canadian' (right) with reference variety 'Improved Meyer's' (left)

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