Norfolk C-16


Denomination: 'Norfolk C-16'
Botanical Name: Corylus avellana
Applicant/Holder: Hodgson, Martin W.
RR #1, 1385 Col. Talbot Rd.
Courtland, Ontario
N0J 1E0
Breeder: Martin W. Hodgson, Courtland, Ontario
Application Date: 2014-12-10
Application Number: 14-8497
Grant of Rights Date: 2017-06-15
Certificate Number: 5493
Grant of Rights Termination Date: 2042-06-15

Variety Description

Varieties used for comparison: 'Slate', 'Butler' and 'Chelsea C-28'

Summary: The shape of the leaf bud of 'Norfolk C-16' is conic while that of 'Slate' and 'Butler' is ovoid. When actively growing, the tree of 'Norfolk C-16' has weak suckering while the tree of 'Slate' has a medium degree of suckering. The time of leaf bud burst is mid-season for 'Norfolk C-16' whereas leaf bud burst is early for 'Butler'. The colour of the male inflorescence of 'Norfolk C-16' is pink brown while that of 'Slate' and 'Butler' is green. The time of flowering of the male inflorescence is early for 'Norfolk C-16' whereas it is late for 'Slate', mid-season for 'Butler' and mid to late season for 'Chelsea C-28'. The time of flowering of the female inflorescence is mid to late season for 'Norfolk C-16' whereas flowering is early for 'Butler'. The shape of the leaf blade of 'Norfolk C-16' is circular while it is elliptic for 'Slate' and ovate for 'Butler'. The involucre of 'Norfolk C-16' is not constricted while that of 'Slate' is constricted. In relation to the fruit length, the involucre of 'Norfolk C-16' is longer while the involucre of 'Butler' is equal in length and that of 'Chelsea C-28' is shorter than to equal in length. The fruit of 'Norfolk C-16' is longer and narrower than the fruit of 'Slate' and 'Butler' and shorter and broader than the fruit of 'Chelsea C-28'. The shape of the fruit and kernel of 'Norfolk C-16' is long cylindrical whereas they are globose for 'Slate' and short cylindrical for 'Butler'. In lateral cross-section, the fruit of 'Norfolk C-16' is rectangular while the fruit of 'Slate' is triangular and that of 'Butler' and 'Chelsea C-28' is circular. The apex of the fruit of 'Norfolk C-16' is of medium to strong prominence whereas the fruit apex of 'Butler' is weakly prominent. The size of the basal scar of the fruit of 'Norfolk C-16' is small to medium sized while it is large for 'Slate' and medium to large for 'Butler' and 'Chelsea C-28'. The curvature of the basal scar of the fruit of 'Norfolk C-16' is convex while it is absent for 'Chelsea C-28'. The kernel of 'Norfolk C-16' is medium sized while it is large for 'Butler'. The apex of the kernel of 'Norfolk C-16' is pointed while that of 'Butler' is flat. The base of the kernel is flat for 'Norfolk C-16' while it is pointed for 'Slate' and rounded for 'Chelsea C-28'. The corkiness of the skin of the kernel is of medium degree for 'Norfolk C-16' whereas the corkiness of the skin is absent or very slight for 'Slate' and 'Chelsea C-28' and slight for 'Butler'. The time of ripening of the fruit of 'Norfolk C-16' is late while the fruit of 'Butler' ripens early. After fruit fall, the adherence of the involucre to the fruit is of medium adherence for 'Norfolk C-16' while the adherence is strong for 'Slate', absent or very weak for 'Butler' and weak for 'Chelsea C-28'. By weight, the percentage of kernel relative to the fruit is medium for 'Norfolk C-16' whereas it is high for that of 'Butler'.


PLANT: medium vigour, upright to spreading growth habit, medium to strong density of shoots, weak suckering

ONE-YEAR-OLD SHOOT: thin to medium thickness, medium density pubescence, absent or very few lenticels

LEAF BUD: conic shape, green, burst occurs mid-season

MALE INFLORESCENCE: medium length, pink brown


TIME OF FLOWERING: early for male flowers, mid to late season for female flowers

LEAF BLADE: circular, medium size, sparse density of pubescence on lower side, leaf fall occurs mid-season
PETIOLE: medium length, medium density pubescence

INVOLUCRE: no constriction, longer than fruit length, medium indentations, medium serration of indentations, thin callus at base, no pubescence, bracts joined on both sides
FRUIT CLUSTER: predominantly two to three fruits per cluster
FRUIT: large, long cylindrical, rectangular in cross-section, light brown, medium to many stripes on shell, narrow acute apex, medium to strong prominance of apex, medium sized pistil scar, dense pubescence of top of fruit, small to medium basal scar, basal scar is convex, no double kernels, medium adherence of involucre on fruits after fruit fall
KERNEL: medium size, long cylindrical, circular in cross-section, pointed apex, flat base, no lateral groove, medium corkiness of skin, absent or very small internal cavity, medium percentage by weight of kernel relative to fruit


Origin & Breeding History: 'Norfolk C-16' originated from a hybrid cross of two different trees, not exclusive to 'Barcelona', 'Slate', 'Gellatly', 'Myoka', 'Petoka' and 'Grimo 502'. These nuts were purchased as bulk lots of field run hazelnut seeds from Grimo Nut Farm in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario in 1992-1995. The seeds were germinated in nurseries on a farm located at 1385 Col. Talbot Road. in Courtland, Ontario and grown for 2 to 3 years before being transferred in 1994, 1995 and 1996 to fields over 25 acres, spaced between 1.5 to 2 metres apart in rows spaced 6 or 12 metres apart. Approximately 5000 unique seedlings were planted over this time period, and started producing nuts in 1998. In 2000, Eastern Filbert Blight had affected many trees and by 2004, 150 to 200 trees remained. Between 2008 and 2010, trees were spaded and planted into a plot in one field. From these, 'Norfolk C-16' was selected for its catkin survivability in the winter, good pollen production and ability of the nut to shed its skin when roasting. This variety has been cloned by stooling the sprouts which had grown in a nursery in Courtland, Ontario for 2 years before being planted in the fields.

Tests & Trials: The comparative trial for 'Norfolk C-16' was conducted in 2015 in a field located at the Simcoe Research Station in Simcoe, Ontario. The trial included four replicates with 3 trees of each variety per replicate, establishing a total of 12 trees each of the candidate and reference varieties. The trees of the candidate variety and the reference varieties 'Chelsea C-28' and 'Butler' were planted in 2008, while trees of 'Slate' were planted in 2009. All trees were planted bareroot and irrigated using a water tank after being planted 3 metres apart, with 5 metre spacing between rows. Observations and measurements were taken from 10 trees of each variety in 2015.

Comparison tables for 'Norfolk C-16' with reference varieties 'Slate', 'Butler' and 'Chelsea C-28'

Fruit length (mm)

  'Norfolk C-16' 'Slate' 'Butler' 'Chelsea C-28'
mean 23.9 22.2 21.4 26.1
std. deviation 1.2 0.7 0.9 1.2

Fruit width (mm)

  'Norfolk C-16' 'Slate' 'Butler' 'Chelsea C-28'
mean 18.7 21.6 19.9 17.2
std. deviation 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.7

Click on image for larger view
Norfolk C-16
Hazelnut: 'Norfolk C-16' (centre) with reference varieties 'Butler' (left) and 'Chelsea C-28' (right)

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Norfolk C-16
Hazelnut: 'Norfolk C-16'

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Norfolk C-16
Hazelnut: Reference variety 'Slate'

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