Chelsea C-28


Denomination: 'Chelsea C-28'
Botanical Name: Corylus avellana
Applicant/Holder: Hodgson, Martin W.
RR #1, 1385 Col. Talbot Rd.
Courtland, Ontario
N0J 1E0
Breeder: Martin W. Hodgson, Courtland, Ontario
Application Date: 2014-12-10
Application Number: 14-8496
Grant of Rights Date: 2017-06-15
Certificate Number: 5492
Grant of Rights Termination Date: 2042-06-15

Variety Description

Varieties used for comparison: 'Slate', 'Butler' and 'Norfolk C-16'

Summary: The one-year-old shoot of 'Chelsea C-28' is thin while it is of medium thickness for 'Butler'. When actively growing, the tree of 'Chelsea C-28' has very weak suckering while the tree of 'Slate' has a medium degree of suckering. The time of leaf bud burst is mid-season for 'Chelsea C-28' whereas leaf bud burst is early for 'Butler'. The colour of the male inflorescence of 'Chelsea C-28' is pink brown while that of 'Slate' and 'Butler' is green. The time of flowering of the male inflorescence is mid-season to late for 'Chelsea C-28' whereas flowering for 'Norfolk C-16' is early. The time of flowering of the female inflorescence is late for 'Chelsea C-28' whereas flowering is mid-season for 'Slate' and early for 'Butler'. The shape of the leaf blade of 'Chelsea C-28' is circular while the shape is elliptic for 'Slate' and ovate for 'Butler'. The involucre of 'Chelsea C-28' is not constricted while that of 'Slate' is constricted. In relation to the fruit length, the involucre of 'Chelsea C-28' is shorter than to equal in length while the involucre of 'Slate' and 'Norfolk C-16' is longer. The fruit of 'Chelsea C-28' is longer and narrower than the fruit of the reference varieties. The shape of the fruit and kernel of 'Chelsea C-28' is long cylindrical whereas they are globose for 'Slate' and short cylindrical for 'Butler'. In lateral cross-section, the fruit of 'Chelsea C-28' is circular while the fruit of 'Slate' is triangular and that of 'Norfolk C-16' is rectangular. The apex of the fruit of 'Chelsea C-28' is of medium prominence whereas the fruit apex of 'Slate' is strongly prominent and that of 'Butler' is weakly prominent. The size of the basal scar of the fruit of 'Chelsea C-28' is medium to large while it is small to medium for 'Norfolk C-16'. The curvature of the basal scar of the fruit of 'Chelsea C-28' is absent while it is convex for the reference varieties. The apex of the kernel of 'Chelsea C-28' is pointed while that of 'Butler' is flat. The base of the kernel is rounded for 'Chelsea C-28' while it is pointed for 'Slate' and flat for 'Butler' and 'Norfolk C-16'. The corkiness of the skin of the kernel is absent or very slight for 'Chelsea C-28' whereas the corkiness of the skin is slight for 'Butler' and medium for 'Norfolk C-16'. The time of ripening of the fruit of 'Chelsea C-28' is late to very late while the fruit of 'Butler' ripens early. After fruit fall, the adherence of the involucre to the fruit is weak for 'Chelsea C-28' while the adherence of the involucre is strong for 'Slate', absent or very weak for 'Butler' and medium for 'Norfolk C-16'. By weight, the percentage of kernel relative to the fruit is low to medium for 'Chelsea C-28' whereas it is high for 'Butler'.


PLANT: medium to strong vigour, upright to spreading growth habit, medium density of shoots, absent or very weak to weak suckering

ONE-YEAR-OLD SHOOT: thin, medium to dense pubescence, few lenticels

LEAF BUD: conic shape, green, burst occurs mid-season

MALE INFLORESCENCE: medium length, pink brown


TIME OF FLOWERING: mid to late season for male flowers, late season for female flowers

LEAF BLADE: circular, small to medium size, sparse pubescence on lower side, leaf fall occurs mid-season
PETIOLE: medium length, medium density pubescence

INVOLUCRE: no constriction, shorter than to equal in length to fruit length, medium indentation, weak to medium serration of indentations, thin callus at base, medium density pubescence, bracts joined on both sides
FRUIT CLUSTER: predominantly one to two fruits per cluster
FRUIT: large, long cylindrical, circular in cross-section, light brown, many stripes on shell, broad acute apex, medium prominance of apex, medium sized pistil scar, medium to dense pubescence of top, medium to large basal scar, basal scar is flat, no double kernels, weak adherence of involucre on fruits after fruit fall
KERNEL: medium to large, long cylindrical, circular in cross-section, pointed apex, rounded base, no lateral groove, absent or very slight corkiness of skin, absent or very small internal cavity, low to medium percentage by weight of kernel relative to fruit

TIME OF RIPENING: late to very late

Origin & Breeding History: 'Chelsea C-28' originated from a hybrid cross of two different trees, not exclusive to 'Barcelona', 'Slate', 'Gellatly', 'Myoka', 'Petoka' and 'Grimo 502'. These nuts were purchased as bulk lots of field run hazelnut seeds from Grimo Nut Farm in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario in 1992-1995. The seeds were germinated in nurseries on a farm located at 1385 Col. Talbot Road. in Courtland, Ontario and grown for 2 to 3 years before being transferred in 1994, 1995 and 1996 to fields over 25 acres, spaced between 1.5 to 2 metres apart in rows spaced 6 or 12 metres apart. Approximately 5000 unique seedlings were planted over this time period, and started producing nuts in 1998. In 2000, Eastern Filbert Blight had affected many trees. In 2004, 150 to 200 trees remained. Between 2008 and 2010, trees were spaded and planted into a plot in one field. From these, 'Chelsea C-28' was selected for its catkin survivability during winter, good pollen production and the ability of the nut to shed its skin when roasting. This variety has been cloned by stooling the sprouts which had grown in a nursery in Courtland, Ontario for 2 years before being planted in the fields.

Tests & Trials: The comparative trial for 'Chelsea C-28' was conducted in 2015 in a field located at the Simcoe Research Station in Simcoe, Ontario. The trial included four replicates with 3 trees of each variety per replicate, establishing a total of 12 trees each of the candidate and reference varieties. The trees of the candidate variety, 'Chelsea C-28', and reference varieties 'Norfolk C-16' and 'Butler' were planted in 2008, while trees of 'Slate' were planted in 2009. All trees were planted bareroot and irrigated using a water tank after being planted 3 metres apart, with 5 metre spacing between rows. Observations and measurements were taken from 10 trees of each variety in 2015.

Comparison tables for 'Chelsea C-28' with reference varieties 'Slate', 'Butler' and 'Norfolk C-16'

Fruit length (mm)

  'Chelsea C-28' 'Slate' 'Butler' 'Norfolk C-16'
mean 26.1 22.2 21.4 23.9
std. deviation 1.2 0.7 0.9 1.2

Fruit width (mm)

  'Chelsea C-28' 'Slate' 'Butler' 'Norfolk C-16'
mean 17.2 21.6 19.9 18.7
std. deviation 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.6

Click on image for larger view
Chelsea C-28
Hazelnut: 'Chelsea C-28' (right) with reference varieties 'Butler' (left) and 'Norfolk C-16' (centre)

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Chelsea C-28
Hazelnut: 'Chelsea C-28'

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Chelsea C-28
Hazelnut: Reference variety 'Slate'

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