Ponoka

Barley

Denomination: 'Ponoka'
Previously Proposed Denomination: 'Bentley'
Botanical Name: Hordeum vulgare
Applicant/Holder: Alberta Agriculture and Forestry
Field Crop Development Centre
5030 - 50'th Street
Lacombe, Alberta
T4L 1W8
Canada
Breeder: Patricia Juskiw, Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, Lacombe, Alberta
Agent in Canada: SeCan Association
400-300 Terry Fox Drive
Kanata, Ontario
K2K 0E3
Canada
Tel: 613-592-8600 ext.223
Application Date: 2003-04-24
Application Number: 03-3570
Grant of Rights Date: 2005-11-24
Certificate Number: 2279
Grant of Rights Termination Date: 2023-11-24

Variety Description

Varieties used for comparison: 'CDC Dolly' and 'Seebe'

Summary: 'Ponoka' has a longer flag leaf than 'Seebe' but a wider flag leaf than 'CDC Dolly'. The intensity of the anthocyanin colouration of the auricles of the flag leaf of 'Ponoka' is weaker than in 'CDC Dolly' and 'Seebe'. 'Ponoka' has a later spike emergence than 'CDC Dolly'. The collar shape of the spike of 'Ponoka' is v-shaped while it is platform shaped in 'Seebe'. 'Ponoka' has a semi erect spike attitude while it is horizontal in 'CDC Dolly'. The spike of 'Ponoka' is longer than 'CDC Dolly'. 'Ponoka' is shorter in plant height than 'Seebe'. The intensity of the anthocyanin colouration of the nerves of the lemma in 'Ponoka' is very weak to absent while it is moderate in 'Seebe'. 'Ponoka' has longer rachilla hairs than 'CDC Dolly'. The shape of the basal markings of the kernel of 'Ponoka' is different than 'CDC Dolly' and 'Seebe'.

Description:

'Ponoka' is a two-row spring, feed barley variety which has an intermediate juvenile growth habit with green coleoptiles. At tillering, the plants have an semi erect growth habit, with no pubescence on the sheaths of the lower leaves. At booting, none or very few of the plants have recurved flag leaves. There is weak pubescence on the blade and sheath of the flag leaf. The sheath of the flag leaf has strong glaucosity. The auricles on the flag leaves have weak anthocyanin colouration. There is weak pubescence on the auricle margins.

Spike emergence of 'Ponoka' is late. The collar shape is v-shaped. At the beginning of anthesis, there is weak anthocyanin colouration at the tips of the lemma awns. At the end of pollen development, spike attitude is semi-erect with a weak glaucosity. When the kernels are fully developed, the spike is parallel in shape with medium density. When the kernels are beginning to ripen, the sterile spikelets are parallel to weakly divergent. The first segment of the rachis is medium in length with a moderate curvature. The lemma awns are longer than the spike. The margins of the lemma awns are rough.

The kernels of 'Ponoka' are husked with absent to very weak anthocyanin colouration of the nerves of the lemma of the kernel. The aleurone layer is whitish and the rachilla hairs are long. Spiculation of the inner lateral nerves of the dorsal side of the lemma are weak with no hairiness of the ventral furrow. Disposition of the lodicules is clasping. The kernel is medium in length and width with incomplete horseshoe shaped basal markings.

'Ponoka' is moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to Common root rot (Cochliobolus sativus, Fusarium spp.) and Spot form net blotch. It is moderately resistant to susceptible to Fusarium head blight (Fusarium graminearum). It is susceptible to Spot blotch (Cochliobolus sativus), net form Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres), and Stem rust (Puccina graminis). It is very susceptible to Septoria speckled leaf blotch (Septoria passerinii) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). 'Ponoka' is resistant to moderately resistant to Scald (Rhynchosporium secalis) and resistant to Covered smut (Ustilago hordie), False loose smut, Black semi-loose smut (Ustilago nigra) and True loose smut (Ustilago nuda). 'Ponoka' has fair lodging resistance and tolerance to drought, good shattering resistance, and tolerance to straw and neck breaking. 'Ponoka' has poor malting quality.

Origin & Breeding History: 'Ponoka', which was known by the experimental designation TR01656 or the Alberta Agriculture line # H93003006Z, originated from the cross H92001F1 / 'TR229' made at the Field Crop Development Center, Lacombe, Alberta using the single seed descent breeding method.

H92001F1 was created from the cross 'Harrington' / 'Camelot'. 'Harrington' (TR441) is a two row malting barley registered in 1981 by the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It was a cross of 'Klages' / S7211. 'Camelot' was introduced to Lacombe's breeding program in 1991 from ICARDA/CIMMYT 13th International Barley Yield Test. This line originated in Germany. 'TR229' is a two row malting barley tested in the Western Cooperative Two-row barley registration test from 1990 to 1992 and granted interim registration in 1993. It is a cross of 'AC Oxbow' ('TR226'/ 'Manley'(TR490)) made by Dick Metcalfe and Bill Legge of Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Brandon, Manitoba.

Heads from the F2 bulk of the population H93003 were selected for a single seed descent program in 1994. The F3 and F4 plants were grown in growth chambers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in the winter of 1994-95. The F5 head rows of this population were grown at Lacombe, Alberta in the summer of 1995. From these head rows the line H93003006Z was selected to enter into yield testing from 1996-2002. Purification of this line took place during this period being completed in 2001 with the bulking of 195 breeder lines at the F11 level to form the breeder seed of this variety. Selection criteria used for this variety included yield, test weight, 1000 kwt, lodging resistance, disease resistance, and maturity. Malting quality was evaluated as well, although the line did not meet the criteria for a malting barley. In 2001, this line was entered into the Western Two Row Barley Cooperative test as TR01656.

Tests & Trials: Tests and trials for 'Ponoka' were conducted at the Field Crop Development Center Research Farm, Lacombe, Alberta in 2003/2004. Plots consisted of 8 rows, 2.5 metres long with about 14 cm between rows and 24 cm between plots. There were three replicates arranged in a RCB design.


Comparison tables for 'Ponoka' with reference varieties 'CDC Dolly' and 'Seebe'

Flag leaf length (cm)

  'Ponoka' 'CDC Dolly' 'Seebe'
mean 14.8 15.0 12.1
std. deviation 0.5 2.0 2.5

Flag leaf width (mm)

  'Ponoka' 'CDC Dolly' 'Seebe'
mean 10.7 7.7 10.4
std. deviation 1.03 0.9 1.5

Spike length (cm)

  'Ponoka' 'CDC Dolly' 'Seebe'
mean 8.4 6.9 8.1
std. deviation 0.5 0.7 0.7

Plant height at ripening including spike and awns (cm)

  'Ponoka' 'CDC Dolly' 'Seebe'
mean 75.7 78.7 78.2
std. deviation 2.1 3.6 2.1
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