Requirements for Captive Non-Domestic Ruminants Imported From the United States to Canada

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TAHD-DSAT-IE-2012-4-2
April 1, 2014

Amendments: Removal of Anaplasmosis related requirements.

The terms of this document provide the import requirements for certain animals commonly described as captive non-domestic ruminants that are not expressly defined in the Health of Animals Act and the Health of Animals Regulations as bovine, bison, or cattle.

These requirements should be applied to the following:

Family Bovidae

  • Subfamily Bovinae – Tragelaphus sp. (bongo, bushbuck, kudus), Taurotragus sp. (eland), Boselaphus sp., Bubalus sp. (Asian water buffalo), Syncerus sp. (African buffalo), Bos sp. (oxen, guar, yak)
  • Subfamily Cephalophinae – Cephalophus sp., Sylvicapra sp.
  • Subfamily Hippotraginae – Kobus sp. (waterbuck kob), Redunca sp. (reedbuck), Pelea sp., Hippotragus sp., Oryx sp., Addax sp., Damaliscus sp. (sassabies), Alcelaphus sp., Connochaetes sp. (wildebeests, gnus)
  • Subfamily Antilopinae – Oreotragus sp., Ourebia sp., Raphicerus sp. (steenbock), Neotragus sp., Madoqua sp., Dorcatragus sp., Antilope sp., Aepyceros sp., Ammodorcas sp., Litocranius sp., Gazella sp., Antidorcas sp., Procapra sp.
  • Subfamily Caprinae – Ovibos sp. (muskox)

Family Giraffidae (giraffe and okapi)

Family Antilocapridae (pronghorn)

Family Tragulidae (chevrotains)

Family Moschidae (musk deer)

Note: Families Camelidae and Cervidae are not included in this import directive. Please refer to the Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) for additional information on the importation of animals included in these groups.

Also note that these requirements are applied to shipments containing one or multiple animals.

1. General Requirements

1.1 All captive non-domestic ruminants require an Import Permit, issued by a Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) office prior to the arrival of the animal at a port of entry (paragraph 12[1][a] Health of Animals Regulations).

Note: For family Bovidae, subfamily Bovinae, import permits cannot be issued until after the CFIA Import staff at National Headquarters in Ottawa have verified the Bovigam test results, as described in section 2.2 of this document.

1.2 Captive non-domestic ruminants imported into Canada must be born after January 1, 1999. The animals must be identified with a permanent identification that is recognized by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and must not be under restriction for movement, slaughter, or destruction control.

1.3 A captive non-domestic ruminant may only be imported into Canada from the U.S. if the animal is transported directly to the Canada-U.S. border from the place of origin in the U.S., where it was tested in accordance with the Import Permit conditions.

1.4 An animal that was born after its mother was tested is not required to meet the test requirements of this document, if imported into Canada at the same time as its mother. An animal that was born after its mother was tested, unless it was born en route to Canada, must be identified with permanent identification and recorded on the health certificate of its mother.

1.5 Captive non-domestic ruminants must be accompanied by a certificate from an official veterinarian of the U.S. or a certificate from a veterinarian licensed in the U.S. which is endorsed by an official veterinarian of the U.S. The certificate must include the name and address of the consignor, the animals' export location, and the name and address of the consignee. The certificate must also clearly identify the animals, indicating that the animals were inspected by a veterinarian within the 10 days preceding the date of importation, that the animals were found to be free from any communicable disease, and that the animals were, to the best of the knowledge and belief of the veterinarian, not exposed to any communicable disease within the 60 days preceding the date of the inspection.

1.6 For animals imported for display in a zoo, the zoo must be a facility accredited by the Canadian Association of Zoos and Aquariums (CAZA) and the exporting zoo must be a facility accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) (or be subject to a case by case evaluation).

2. Pre-Export Requirements

Note: The animals being presented for importation must not come into contact with any animals, products, or equipment of lesser or unknown health status during the period between the start of the required testing and export to Canada. In addition, no new animals shall be added to the group intended for export, unless these animals have sanitary guarantees similar to those of the rest of the group. This must include adequate separation from wildlife that may be a source of tuberculosis and brucellosis during the pre-export period.

Test and Treatment Requirements

2.1 Brucellosis

The animals must test negative on two tests for brucellosis, using the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) or other test approved by the CFIA Footnote 1 for this purpose, with the second test conducted within 30 days of importation. The interval between the tests should be at least 60 days. The tests must be performed in a laboratory that is approved to perform the test by the USDA.

The results of the brucellosis test (including the type of test performed) must be shown on the required health certificate for the animal to be imported.

Any animal with a non-negative result is ineligible for export to Canada. It must be retested using cELISA, performed in a laboratory that is approved to perform the test by the official veterinary service of the country of export. If the result is negative, the remainder of the shipment will be eligible for export to Canada. If the result is positive, the animal must be removed from the group and the remainder of the shipment retested for brucellosis, using FPA at least 42 days from the time the reactor animal was removed, with negative results. If further positive results are obtained, the entire group is ineligible for export to Canada.

2.2 Tuberculosis

Negative results must be obtained on two tuberculosis intradermal tests, using the cervical or caudal fold injection site. (The caudal fold option is for the family Bovidae, subfamily Bovinae only.) For family Bovidae, subfamily Bovinae only, the interval between the intradermal tests must be at least 60 days. For all other families and subfamilies, the intradermal test interval must be at least 90 days. In all cases, the second intradermal test must be performed no more than 30 days prior to export.

Testing procedures must be administered by a veterinarian who is competent in the specified procedure in the exported species.

The tuberculosis intradermal test is conducted with a dose rate of 0.1 mL of Canadian bovine PPD tuberculin (or product of equivalent potency approved by the CFIA) injected at the cervical or caudal fold site. Identify the injection site with a permanent ink marker, and record the skin thickness with callipers. Measure the skin thickness 72 hours post-injection.

A reactor is any animal in which there is an increase of greater than 1.5 mm in the skin thickness at the site of injection in response to the initial injection of tuberculin.

For the Family Bovidae, Subfamily Bovinae Only

In addition to the intradermal testing, negative results must be obtained on a Bovigam test that is performed in a laboratory approved by the USDA, within the 30 days prior to export. Collect the blood for this test at the same time as the animal is injected for its second intradermal test.

Forward the Bovigam test results to CFIA National Headquarters for interpretation and decision regarding the acceptability of the results.

Note: Only after these results are obtained and approved will the import permit be issued for the shipment. At least 5-10 business days must be allowed for the issuance of the import permits following the receipt of all the necessary information to complete the request.

In addition, the CFIA is only assessing the Bovigam results at this time, and thus the shipment still requires certification and endorsement in the U.S. and inspection at the first point of entry into Canada. This ensures that all requirements have been met to enter Canada and proceed to the quarantine site.

No additional tests are required for the other families and subfamilies.

Any reactor animal to either of the intradermal tests or the Bovigam (where applicable) should be removed from the group of animals intended for export, and the entire testing protocol should be started again for the remainder of the group. A minimum interval of 60 days is always required between any intradermal test performed in the family Bovidae, subfamily Bovinae. A minimum interval of 90 days is required between intradermal tests for all other families and subfamilies.

The results of all the tuberculin tests (including the dates of test readings) and the Bovigam test (when applicable) must be shown on the required health certificate for the animal to be imported.

2.3 Bluetongue (State of Florida only)

Animals imported from the state of Florida require a negative test for bluetongue, using the cELISA test within the 30 days prior to import. For a positive result, a PCR test must be performed, with negative results, for the animal to be eligible for entry into Canada. A cELISA-positive animal that is also positive on PCR is ineligible for export to Canada, and thus must be removed from the group. The remainder of the shipment must be retested, using cELISA at least 28 days after removing the reactor animal.

Animals being sampled should have both a serum sample and a blood sample drawn at the same time, which should be forwarded to the lab, requesting a PCR test if the cELISA test is positive.

3. State and Premises of Origin and Certification

The state of origin must be certified as follows:

  • The state of origin must not have reported any case of tuberculosis in any captive hoofstock or wildlife during the three years prior to export.

Note: If this certification statement cannot be met, requests to import may be considered at the CFIA's discretion on a case-by-case basis and in accordance with the CFIA policy, Derogations to Import Permit Conditions (TAHD-DSAT-IE-2002-18).

The premises of origin must be certified as follows:

  • The premises of origin must have been in existence as an operation for the three years preceding the export of animals.
  • During the preceding three years, there must have been no clinical, serological, epidemiological, microbiological, or other evidence of brucellosis.
  • During the preceding three years, there must have been no clinical, serological, epidemiological, microbiological, or other evidence of tuberculosis.
  • The exporting herd must not contain animals sourced from any herd in which tuberculosis has been diagnosed.
  • There must not have been any evidence of communicable disease on the premises of origin for at least 60 days before export.
  • The herd of origin must have an established relationship with a veterinary practice or practitioner for three or more years.
  • During the three years preceding importation, there must have been no contact with any tuberculosis-susceptible hoofstock from other herds of a lesser or unknown health status.
  • The premises on which the animals reside must not have been subject to any restriction or quarantine measure pertaining to animal diseases of concern for the importation of the species in question during the period of residency of the animals intended for export.

4. Animal Certification

4.1 The animals for export must have been resident on the premises of origin for the three years preceding export; or

the animals for export must have been born on the premises of origin; or

the animals for export have resided on the premises of origin since being legally imported from Canada; or

it must be documented that all animals in the herd of export, including animals for export, originated from a herd that meets the premises certification described above.

4.2 The animals for export and all other animals resident on the premises of origin must have been inspected by a veterinarian within the 10 days preceding the date of importation and found to be free from communicable disease. It must be true that the animals to be exported were, to the best of the knowledge and belief of a veterinarian, not exposed to any communicable disease within the 60 days preceding the inspection date.

5. Animal Identification

5.1 Captive non-domestic ruminants presented for import must be uniquely identified with permanent identification. Permanent identification may be a USDA metal ear tag in both ears or a nationally approved radio frequency identification (RFID) tag, bearing the 840 country code for the U.S. or a national- or state-approved uniquely numbered dangle tag. Permanent identification must have the capability to link animals to herd of origin and all herds of residence. The animals must also bear a "USA" tattoo in the right ear, unless identified by a RFID tag that contains the 840 country code for the U.S.

5.2 If not already part of permanent identification, ruminants presented for import must bear, in either ear, a numeric dangle tag that can be read at a distance. The dangle tag must correlate with all permanent identification for the animal, as well as with the animal description, which should detail species, breed if applicable, colour, sex, age, and any identifying marks, all of which must be recorded on the required health certificate.

6. Certification Statements Required to Appear on the Health (Zoosanitary) Certificate for the Import of Captive Non-Domestic Ruminants From the United States

6.1 The animals were born after January 1, 1999.

6.2 The animals are identified by a permanent identification system that is recognized by the USDA and are not under restriction for movement, slaughter, or destruction control. The tag number and tattoo information, where required, are included in the animal description.

6.3 The state of origin has not reported any case of tuberculosis in any captive hoofstock or wildlife during the three years prior to export.

6.4 The premises of origin has been in existence as an operation for the three years preceding the export of the animals.

6.5 During the preceding three years, there has been no clinical, serological, epidemiological, microbiological, or other evidence of brucellosis on the premises of origin.

6.6 During the preceding three years, there has been no clinical, epidemiological, or other evidence of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy on the premises of origin.

6.7 During the preceding three years, there has been no clinical, serological, epidemiological, microbiological, or other evidence of tuberculosis on the premises of origin.

6.8 The exporting herd does not contain animals sourced from any herd in which tuberculosis has been diagnosed.

6.9 The animals for export have been resident on the premises of origin for the three years preceding export; or

the animals for export have been born on the premises of origin; or

the animals for export have resided on the premises of origin since being legally imported from Canada; or

there is documentation to show that all animals in the herd of export, including animals for export, originated from a herd that meets the premises' certification described above.

6.10 There has been no evidence of communicable disease on the premises of origin for at least 60 days prior to export.

6.11 The herd of origin has had an established relationship with a veterinary practice or practitioner for three or more years.

6.12 During the three years preceding importation, there has been no contact with any tuberculosis-susceptible hoofstock from other herds of a lesser or unknown health status.

6.13 The animals for export have resided in the U.S. or Canada for at least 60 days immediately prior to export.

6.14 The animals were inspected by a veterinarian within the 10 days preceding the date of importation, the animals were found to be free from any communicable disease and, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the animals listed on this certificate were not exposed to any communicable disease within the 60 days preceding the date of inspection.

(The inspection date must appear on the certificate.)

6.15 The premises on which the animals reside has not been subject to any restriction or quarantine measure pertaining to animal diseases of concern for the importation of the species in question during the period of residency of the animals intended for export.

6.16 To the best of my knowledge and belief, the animals being presented for importation have not come into contact with any animals, products, or equipment of lesser or unknown health status during the period between the start of the required testing and export to Canada. No new animals have been added to the group intended for export, unless the new animals have the same sanitary guarantees, and there has been adequate separation from wildlife that may be a source of tuberculosis and brucellosis during the pre-export period. The exporter has been advised to maintain this status until the animals leave the U.S.

(The CFIA import permit number must also appear on the certificate.)

7. Post-Import Requirements

7.1 Border Procedures

Documentation for importation must be presented to a CFIA veterinary inspector at the first point of entry. The shipment of animals must be presented to a CFIA veterinary inspector designated under the Health of Animals Act at the first point of entry. There must be prior arrangements made to ensure the provision of inspection at the appropriate time.

Subsequent to presentation for inspection at the first port of entry, the animals described on this permit must proceed directly, and under licence, from the port of entry to the premises, previously approved by an inspector designated under the Health of Animals Act and indicated on this permit.

The containers, cages, or vehicles used to transport the imported animals must be sealed at the port of entry by an inspector designated under the Health of Animals Act in a manner to preclude opening. The shipment may then proceed under licence to the facility of treatment or quarantine. The seals must be removed under the supervision of an inspector designated under the Health of Animals Act.

7.2 Quarantine

The animals must be imported into Canada through a minimum-level quarantine facility, approved by the CFIA for that purpose. The import quarantine facility must have been previously approved for use as a minimum-security quarantine facility by a veterinary inspector designated under the Health of Animals Act. The facility evaluation shall include location, fencing, physical structure, lighting, water supply, waste disposal, vector and pest control, movement of people, security, and cleaning and disinfection protocols. A report that the facility has been approved must have been issued by the CFIA. No animal may be moved from their respective quarantine premises until duly discharged by an inspector who is designated under the Health of Animals Act.

To release the animals from the post-import quarantine into Canada, they must have negative results on all required tests, according to CFIA standards. Animals that obtain positive results may jeopardize the admissibility of the entire group of animals. Any animal ineligible for entry into Canada will be issued a notice to remove the animal from Canada.

On the approved quarantine premises of destination, the animals must be kept isolated from all Canadian livestock and wildlife for a period of time that is necessary to complete the tests required to meet the import conditions. The importer must contact the local CFIA office to arrange for a veterinarian to inspect and approve the premises where the animals will be isolated, and to make arrangements to meet any other post-entry requirements. The animals must not leave the premises of isolation until all post-entry requirements have been met to the CFIA's satisfaction. Upon completing the quarantine, the quarantine requirement will be lifted, and the animals will be released to the importer and/or owner.

The importer must maintain records of the dispersal or sales of all imported animals for a minimum of three years.

There is no special consideration for pregnant animals that do not test negative to the required tests performed in the post-import quarantine.

Post-Import Test Requirements

During post-import quarantine in Canada, the animals must be retested for brucellosis using FPA or other test approved by the CFIA. The test must be performed at least 42 days from the date of pre-export testing. Any non-negative animal will be retested using cELISA or other test approved by the CFIA, and if found to be negative, will be eligible for release into Canada. If the cELISA test or other test approved by the CFIA is positive, the animal will be ineligible for entry into Canada. The animal must be removed from the group, and the remainder of the shipment retested for brucellosis, using FPA or other test approved by the CFIA at least 42 days from the time the reactor animal was removed, with negative results. If further positive results are obtained, the entire group is ineligible for entry into Canada.

When applicable, during the post-import quarantine in Canada, the animals must be retested for bluetongue, with negative results. Bluetongue cELISA-positive animals in a group of animals under test in post-import quarantine require a PCR test as follow-up before any animals are released from quarantine. If the PCR test is negative, the entire shipment may be released from quarantine. However, a cELISA-positive animal that is also PCR positive must be removed from the group and is ineligible for release into Canada. The remaining cELISA-negative animals must be retested at least 28 days after removing a PCR-positive animal. All animals in the group that remain cELISA negative may be released from quarantine.

Animals being sampled should have both a serum sample and blood sample drawn at the same time and should be sent to the lab, requesting a PCR test if the cELISA test is positive.

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