A New Regulatory Framework for Federal Food Inspection: Discussion Document
Annex 4: Glossary of Terms

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This glossary of terminology is designed to standardize the language used and support consistent interpretation of terminology in the proposed regulatory framework under the SFCA.

Terminology Definition
Any person who applies for a licence, exemption or certificate.
CanadaGAP™ CanadaGAP™ is a food safety program for companies that produce, pack and store fruits and vegetables.
Certification (Certification) Written assurance from a competent authority that foods or preventive control systems conform to requirements.
Codex Codex Alimentarius or Codex Alimentarius Commission
Coming into force Coming into force or entry into force (also called enactment) refers to the process by which legislation, regulations, and other legal instruments come to have legal force and effect. For more information, please see this Department of Justice website: http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/dept-min/pub/legis/rm-mr/part4/cif_orders-decret.html
Contaminant (Contaminant ) Any biological, physical, chemical agents or other substances that are present in food and that compromise food safety or suitability.
Contamination (Contamination) The presence of any contaminant in food or food contact surfaces.
Control measure (Mesure de contrôle) Any action or activity that can be used to prevent1 or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level. (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System and Guidelines for Its Application, Annex to CAC/RCP 1-1969 (Rev.4 – 2003), FAO/CODEX)
Corrective action (Mesure corrective) The steps that a regulated party takes to address non-compliance, which can include controlling affected product, conducting root cause analysis and preventing recurrence.
Cross contamination (Contamination croisée) A situation that occurs when hazards that are carried by utensils, equipment, surfaces or food handlers are transferred from one food, ingredient or surface to another.
A person who is employed by a food operation or establishment.
Establishment (Établissement) Any place, including a conveyance, where a food commodity is manufactured, prepared, stored, packaged or labelled. (Safe Food for Canadians Act)
Export For the purposes of this paper, export is sending food commodities from Canada to another country.
Exporter (Exportateur) Any person who sells or trades food from Canada to another country.
Food Commodity (produit alimentaire) (a) Any food as defined in section 2 of the Food and Drugs Act ;
(b) Any animal or plant, or any of its parts, from which food referred to in paragraph (a) may be derived; or
(c) Anything prescribed to be a food commodity.
(Safe Food for Canadians Act)
Grade name (nom de catégorie) A prescribed name, mark or designation of a food commodity.
(Safe Food for Canadians Act)
Import For the purposes of this paper, import is bringing food commodities into Canada from another country.
Importer (Importateur) Any person in Canada who imports food commodities into Canada.
Ingredient (Ingrédient) An individual unit of food that is combined as an individual unit of food with one or more other individual units of food to form an integral unit of food that is sold as a prepackaged product. (Food and Drug Regulations)
Inspection mark
(sceau d'inspection)
A prescribed mark, stamp, seal, product legend, word or design or any combination of those things. (Safe Food for Canadians Act)
Inter-provincial For the purposes of this paper, inter-provincial means sending or conveying food commodities from one province or territory to another in Canada, crossing provincial or territorial boundaries.
Label (étiquette) "Label" includes a legend, word or mark that is or is to be applied or attached to or included in, or that accompanies or is to accompany, a food commodity or a package. (Safe Food for Canadians Act)
Monitoring (Suivi) The act of conducting a planned sequence of observations or measurements of control parameters to assess whether a control measure is under control. (Codex)
Oversight (Surveillance des parties réglementées) Inspection activities designed to determine whether a regulated party is complying with Acts and regulations administered or enforced by the CFIA.
An inner or outer receptacle or covering used or to be used in connection with a food commodity and includes a wrapper or confining band. (Safe Food for Canadians Act)
Pests (Organismes nuisibles/parasites) Any animal, plant, fish or insect of public health importance including, but not limited to, birds, rodents, roaches, flies and larvae that may carry pathogens that can contaminate foods.
Premises (Lieux) The lands, buildings and facilities where food is prepared.
Prepare (Conditionnement) In respect of a food commodity, includes to process, treat, preserve, handle, test, grade, code or slaughter it or to do any other activity in respect of it that is prescribed. (Safe Food for Canadians Act)
Preventive control plan (PCP) (Plan de contrôle préventif) A combination of control measures2 that, when taken as a whole, provide for a science-based approach to managing risks posed by hazards and contribute to achieving compliance to other regulatory requirements.
Primary producer (Producteur primaire) A person who cultivates, grows, produces, raises, picks or harvests agricultural products or fishery products and does not alter the nature of the raw product.
Ready-to-eat food (RTE) (aliment prêt-à-manger) a) do not require any further preparation or cooking before consumption, except perhaps washing/rinsing, thawing or warming for aesthetics or palatability
b) are in a form that is edible without additional preparation to achieve food safety
c) are ordinarily consumed in the same state as that in which they are sold
Regulated party (Partie réglementée) A person (including an individual, corporation, partnership or organization) carrying on business in Canada who is subject to the Acts and regulations administered by the CFIA.
Regulation-making authority "Any authority authorized to make regulations and, with reference to any particular regulation or proposed regulation, means the authority that made or proposes to make the regulation." (Excerpt from the Statutory Instruments Act)
Requirements (Exigences) The criteria set down in acts or regulations administered or enforced by the CFIA.
Review mechanism The enabling powers in legislation that will allow food producers to request the review of a CFIA decision on their product.
Risk (Risque) A function of the probability of an adverse health effect and the severity of that effect, consequential to a hazard(s) in food. (CODEX Procedural Manual, 20th Edition, FAO, 2011)
Risk-based inspection (Inspection fondée sur le risque) A method for using risk to prioritize and manage inspection efforts.
Sell Includes agree to sell, offer for sale, expose for sale or have in possession for sale – or distribute to one or more persons whether or not the distribution is made for consideration. (Safe Food for Canadians Act)
Surveillance (Surveillance) The collection, analysis and interpretation of food sampling and inspection information to establish baseline data or identify trends.
Verification (Vérification) The application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring, to determine whether the control measure is or has been operating as intended. (CODEX, Guidelines for validation of food safety control measures, CAC/GL 69-2008)
Violation (Infraction) Any contravention of the acts or regulations administered or enforced by the CFIA or any refusal or neglect to perform any duty imposed by or under the acts or regulations.

1. See "Preventive Control Program" definition.

2. See "Control measure" definition.

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